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Full text of "Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology"

^■- 



DICTIONARY 

OP 

GREEK AND ROMAN 
BIOGRAPHY AND MYTHOLOGY. 

VOL. L 



London: \ 

Spottiswoodes and Shaw, 

New-street- Square. 



^'/J 




DICTIONARY 



GREEK AND ROMAN 



BIOGRAPHY AND MYTHOLOGY. 



EDITED BY 



WILLIAM SMITH, LL.D. 

EDITOR OP TUB " UKTIOKABT OF CREEK AMD ROMAN ANTtQUITIE^." 




ILLUSTRATED BY NUMEROUS ENG.iAVINGS ON WOOD. 

IN THREE VOLUMES 

VOL. L 
ABAEUS — DYSPONTEUS. 



LONDON: 
AYLOR, WALTON, AND MABERLY, LT»PER GOWER STREET. 

AND IVY LANE, PATERNOSTER ROAV : 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

M.DCCC.L. 



LIST OF WRITERS. 



I 



INITIALS. NAMES. 

A. A. Alexander Allen, Ph. D. 

C. T. A. CiiARLES Thomas Arnold, M. A. 

One of the Masters in Rugby School 

J. E. B. John Ernest Bode, M. A. 

Student of Christ Church, Oxford. 

Ch. A. B. Christian A. Brandis, 

Professor in the University of Bonn. 

E. H. B. Edward Herbert Bdnbl^t, M. A. 

Late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

A J. C. Albany James Christie, M. A. 

Late Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. 

A. H. C. Arthur Hugh Clough, M. A. 

Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. 

G.E.L. C George Edward Lynch Cotton, M. A. 

Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ; one of the Muters iu 
Rugby School. 

S. D. Samuel Davidson, LL.D. 

W. F. D. William Fishburn Donkin, M. A. 

Savilian Professor of Astronomy in the University of Oxford. 
"W. B. D. William Bodham Donne. 
T. D. Thomas Dyer. 

E. E. Edward Elder, M. A. 

Head Master of Durham School. 

J. T. G. John Thomas Graves, M.A., F.R.S. 

A. G. William Alexander Greenhill, M. D. 
Trinity College, Oxford. 

G. Algernon Grenfell, M,A. 

One of the Masters in Rugby School. 



Vi LIST OF WRITERS. 

INITIALS. MAMB*. 

W. M. G. William Maxvvkll Gunn, 

One of the Masters in the High School, Edinburgh. 

W. I. William Ibne, Ph. D. 

Of the University of Bonn. 

B. J. Benjamin Jowett, M. A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Baliol College, Oxford. 

H. G. L. IIeniiy George Liddell, M. A. 

Head Master of Westminster School. 

G. L. Georgb Long, M. A. 

Late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

J. M. M. John Morell Mackenzie, M. A. 

C. P. M. Charles Peter Mason, B. A. 

Fellow of University College, London. 

J. C. M. Joseph Calrow Means. 

IL II. M. Henry Hart Milman, M. A. 

Prebendary of St. Peter's, Westminster. 

A. de M. Augustus de Morgan. 

Professor of Mathematics in University College, London. 
W. P. William Plate, LL. D. 

C. E. P. Const antlne Estlin Prichard, B. A. 
Fellow of Baliol College, Oxford. 

W. R. Willlam Ramsat, M. A. 

Professor of Humanity in the University of Glasgow. 
L. S. Leonhard Schmitz, Ph. D., F. R. S. E. 

Rector of the High School of Edinburgh. 

P. S. Philip Smith, B.A. 

Of University College, London. 

A. P. S. Arthur Penryhn Stanley, !RL A. 

Fellow and Tutor of University College, Oxford. 
A. S. Adolph Stahr, 

Professor in the Gymnasium of Oldenburg. 

L. U. LuDWiG Urlichs, 

Professor in the University of Bonn. 

R. W. Robert Whiston, M. A. 

Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

The Articles which have no initials attached to them are written by the Editor. 



PREFACE. 



The present work has been conducted on the same principles, and is designed 
mainly for the use of the same persons, as the " Dictionary of Greek and Roman 
Antiquities." It has been long felt by most persons engaged in the study of 
Antiquity, that something better is required than we yet possess in the English 
language for illustrating the Biography, Literature, and Mythologj', of the 
Greek and Roman writers, and for enabling a diligent student to read them in 
the most profitable manner. The writings of modem continental philologists, as 
well as the works of some of our own scholars, have cleared up many of the 
difficulties connected with these subjects, and enabled us to attain to more correct 
knowledge and more comprehensive views than were formerly possessed. The 
articles in this Dictionary have been founded on a careful examination of the 
original sources ; the best modern authorities have been diligently consulted ; 
and no labour has been spared in order to bring up the subject to the present 
state of philological learning upon the continent as well as at home. 

A work, like the present, embracing the whole circle of ancient history and 
literature for upwards of two thousand years, would be the labour of at least 
one man's life, and could not in any case be written satisfactorily by a single 
individual, as no one man possesses the requisite knowledge of all the sub- 
jects of which it treats. The lives, for instance, of the ancient mathema* 
ticians, jurists, and physicians, require in the person who writes them a 
competent knowledge of mathematics, law, and medicine ; and the same remark 
applies, to a greater or less extent, to the history of philosophy, the arts, and 
numerous other subjects. The Editor of the present work has been fortunate iu 
obtaining the assistance of scholars, who had made certain departments of anti- 
quity their particular study, and he desires to take this opportunity of returning 
his best thanks to them for their valuable aid, by which he has been able to pro« 
duce a work which could not have been accomplished by any single person. 
The initials of each writer's name are given at the end of the articles he has 
written, and a list of the names of the contributors is prefixed to the work. 

The biographical articles in this work include the names of all persons of 
any importance which occur in the Greek and Roman writers, from the earliest 
times down to the extinction of the Western Empire in the year 47G of our era, 
and to the extinction of the Eastern Empire by the capture of Constantinople by 
the Turks in the year 1453. The lives of historical personages occurring in tlie 
history of the Byzantine empire are treated with comparative brevity, but accom- 



Mil ruLi'Aci:. 

panied by sufBcient references to ancient writers to enable the reader to obtain 
further information if ho wishes. It has not been thought advisable to omit the 
lives of such persons altogether, as has usually been done in classical dictiona- 
ries ; partly because there is no other period short of the one chosen at which a 
stop can conveniently be made ; and still more because the civil history of the 
Byzantine empire is more or less connected with the history of literature and 
science, and, down to the capture of Constantinople by the Turks, there was an 
interrupted series of Greek writers, the omission of whose lives and of ao 
account of their works would be a serious deficiency in any work which aspired to 
give a complete view of Greek literature. 

The relative length of the articles containing the lives of historical persons 
cannot be fixed, in a work like the present, simply by the importance of a man's 
life. It would be impossible to give within any reasonable compass a full and 
elaborate account of the lives of the great actors in Greek and Roman history ; 
nor is it necessary : for the lives of such persons are conspicuous parts of history 
and, as such, are given at length in historical works. On the contrary, a Dic- 
tionary of Greek and Roman Biography is peculiarly useful for the lives of 
those persons who do not occupy so prominent a position in history, since a know- 
ledge of their actions and character is oftentimes of great importance to a proper 
understanding of the ancient writers, and information respecting such persons 
cannot be obtained in any other quarter. Accordingly, such articles have had a 
space assigned to them in the work which might have been deemed dispropor- 
tionate if it were not for this consideration. Woodcuts of ancient coins are 
given, wherever they could be referred to any individual or family. The draw- 
ings have been made from originals in the British Museum, except in a few 
cases, where the authority for the drawing is stated in the article. 

More space, relatively, has been given to the Greek and Roman Writers than 
to any other articles, partly because we have no complete history of Greek and 
Roman Literature in the English language, and partly because the writings of 
modem German scholars contain on this subject more than on any other a store 
of valuable matter which has not yet found its way into English books, and has, 
hitherto, only partially and in a few instances, exercised any influence on our 
course of classical instruction. In these articles a full account of the Works, as 
well as of the Lives, of the Writers is given, and, likewise, a list of the best 
editions of the works, together with references to the principal modem works 
upon each subject. 

The lives of all Christian Writers, though usually omitted in similar publi- 
cations, have likewise been inserted in the present Work, since they constitute an 
important part of the history of Greek and Roman literature, and an account of 
their biography and writings can be attained at present only by consulting a con- 
siderable number of voluminous works. These articles are written rather from a 
literary than a theological point of view ; and accordingly the discussion of strictly 



PREFACE. IX 

theological topics, such as the subjects might easily have given rise to, has been 
carefully avoided. 

Care has been taken to separate the mythological articles from those of an his- 
torical nature, as a reference to any part of the booic will shew. As it is necessary 
to discriminate between the Greek and Italian Mythology, an account of the Greek 
divinities is given under their Greek names, and of the Italian divinities under their 
Latin names, a practice which is universally adopted by the continental writers, 
which has received the sanction of some of our own scholars, and is moreover of 
such importance in guarding against endless confusions and mistjikes as to reijuire 
no apology for its introduction into this work. In the treatment of the articles them- 
selves, the mystical school of interpreters has been avoided, and those principles 
followed which have been developed by Voss, Buttmann, Welcker, K. O. Miiller, 
Lobeck, and others. Less space, relatively, has been given to these articles than to 
any other portion of the work, as it has not been considered necessary to repeat all 
the fanciful speculations which abound in the later Greek writers and in modern 
books upon this subject. 

The lives of Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, have been treated at considerable 
length, and an account is given of all their works still extant, or of which there is 
any record in ancient writers. These articles, it is hoped, will be useful to the artist 
as well as to the scholar. 

Some difficulty has been experienced respecting the admission or rejection of cer- 
tain names, but the following is the general principle which has been adopted. The 
names of all persons are inserted, who are mentioned in more than one passage of an 
ancient writer : but where a name occurs in only a single passage, and nothing more 
is known of the person than that passage contains, that name is in general omitted. 
On the other hand, the names of such persons are inserted when they are intimately 
connected with some great historical event, or there are other persons of the same 
name with whom they might be confounded. 

When there are several persons of the same name, the articles have been arranged 
either in chronological or some alphabetical order. The latter plan has been usually 
adopted, where there are many persons of one name, as in the case of Al1':xahdeb, 
Antiocuds, and others, in which cases a chronological arrangement would stand in 
the way of ready reference to any particular individual whom the reader might be 
in seai'ch of. In the case of Roman names, the chronological order has, for obvious 
reasons, been always adopted, and they have been given under the cognomens, and 
not under the gentile names. There is, however, a separate article devoted to each 
gens, in which is inserted a list of all the cognomens of that gens. 

In a work written by several persons it is almost impossible to obtain exact uni- 
formity of reference to the ancient Writers, but this has been done as far as was 
possible. Wherever an author is referred to by page, the particular edition used 
by the writer is generally stated ; but of the writers enumerated below, the following 



X PREFACE. 

editiuns are always intended where no others are indicated : PUto, ed. H. 8li|llMmM» 
1578; Athcnacus, ed. Casaubon, Paris, 1597; the Moral ia of Plutarch, ed. Franco^ 
1620; Strabo, ed. Casaubon, Paris, 1620; Demosthenes, e<l. Keiskc, Lips. 1770; the 
other Attic Orators, ed. H. Stcphanus, Paris, 1575 ; the Latin Gramnuu-iani, ed. 
H. Putschius, Ilanov. 1605; Hippocrates, ed. Kiihn, Lips. 1825-7; Erotianot, ed. 
Franz, Lips. 1780; Dioscorides, ed. Sprengcl, Lips. 1829-30; Aretaeus, ed. Kiiha, 
Lips. 1828; Rufiu Ephesius, ed. Clinch, Lond. 1726; Soraniu, ed. Dietz, licgim. 
Pruss. 1838; Galen, ed. Kiihn, Lips. 1821-33; Oribasius, Aetius, Alexander Tral- 
lianus, Paulus Aegineta, Cclsus, ed. IL Stephanus, among the Mcdicae An is PrJn- 
cipes, Paris, 1567; Caelius Aurelianus, ed. Amman, Amstel. 4to. 1709. 

Names of Places and Nations are not included in the Work, as they will form the 
subject of the forthcoming " Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography." 

WILLIAM SMITH. 
London, October, 1844. 



LIST OF COINS ENGRAVED IN THE FIRST VOLUME. 



In the following list AV indicates that the coin is of gold, JR of silver, M of copper, IM first bronze 
Roman, '2JE second bronze Roman, 3JE third bronze Roman. The weight of all gold and silver coins 
is given, with the exception of the aurei and denarii, which are for the most part of nearly the same 
weight respectively. When a coin has been reduced or enlarged in the drawing, the diameter 9f the 
original coin is given in the last column, the numbers in which refer to the subjoined scale : those 
which have no numbers aihxed to them are of the same size in the drawing as the originalsb 






86 1 
90 2 
93 1 



94 
114 



116 



118 



119i 1 
122 1 

126 

128 1 

13211 
137|2 

155 1 

156 1 
180 2 
188 2 
18!) 2 
192 1 
194 2 





♦» 


196 


1 




2 


197 


2 


198 


I 




o 






199 


1 



Aemilianus 

Agrippa 

Agrippina I 

Agrippina II. ... 

Ahala 

Ahenobarbus .... 

Albinus 

Do 

Do 

Do. (Emperor.) 

Alexander Balas, king of 
Syria 

Alexander I., king of 
Epeirus 

Alexander II., king of 
Epeirus 

Alexander I., king of 
Macedonia .... 

Alexander II., king of 
Macedonia 

Alexander III. (the 
Great), king of Mace- 
donia 

Alexander (Roman em- 
peror) 

Alexander Zebina, king 
of Syria 

Allectus 

Amastris 

Amyntas, king of Mace- 
donia 

Amyntas, king of Galatia 

Annius 

Antigonus, king of Asia 

Antigonus Gouatas . . 

Antinous 

Antiochus, king of Com- 
magene 

Antiochus Hierax . . . 

Antiochus I., king of 
Syria 

Antiochus II 

Antiochus III 

Antiochus IV 

Antiochus V 

Antiochus VI 



2M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
IX 

M 

AV 

JR 

JR 

M 

JR 

2M 

JR 
AV 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
JR 
M 

S. 

M 

M 
JR 
JR 
JR 
JR 
JR 



2214 

240i 
442i 



254 

1434 

I6O4 



264 
61 



262J 

265 
253 
263 
249 
239 
2.50i 



199 



200 



210 1 
212 2 
216 1 
2 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 



217 
253 
257 
263 
278 
284 

285 

286 
287 
350 
354 

M 

355 

rt 

356 
360 
367 

M 

405 
412 
418 
420 
431 
435 
438 
443 
455 



456 2 

457 2 
458] 1 



Antiochus VII. . . 
Antiochus VIII. . . 
ADtiochui IX. ... 
Antiochus X. ... 
Antiochtu XI. . . . 
Antiochus XII. . . 
Antiochus XIII. . 

Antonia 

Antoninus Piua . . . 
M. Antonhn : . . . . 
C. AnUniM .... 
L. ABtanin . . . . . 
Julia Aquilia Seven . 

Arcsdius 

Archelaus , 

Aretai 

ArianthealV. . . . , 
AiunUhea V. . . . . 

Arianthet VI 

Ariarathes VII. . . , 
Ariobananes I. . . , 
Aiiobananes III. . . 

Arriiu 

Amoea III 

Ameea V 

Ameet VI 

AnaeesVII 

Anaces XIV 

Amces XXVIII. . . 

Aisinoe 

Do 

Atilius 

Attains 

Audoleon 

Augurinus 

Augustus 

Avitus 

Aurelianus 

Aurelius 

Balbinus 

Balbus, Acilius . . . 
Balbus, Antonius . . 
Balbus, Atius . . . . 
Balbus, Cornelius . . 
Balbus, Naevius . . . 
Balbus, Thoriiu . . . 





t «• 


i 


^4 


s 


1 3 


JR 


!25U 


JR 


i235 


JR 


•245 


JR 


2r2 


JR 


2504 


IB. 




IB. 




JR 




IJE 




IR 


185 


JR 




JR 




IM 




AV 




JR 


55 


JK. 




M 


61 


M 


664 


JR 


63 


JR 


63 


JR 


6O4 


JR 


60| 


JR 




JR 


514 


JR 


60 


M 


241 


M 


60 


XI 


143 


JR 


1844 


AV 


4254 


AV 




JR 




AV 




JR 


190 


M 




JR 




AV 




IJE, 




M 




JR 


- 


JR 




JE. 




M 




JR 




JR \ 





8| 
84 



XII 



LIST OF COINS. 





a 

B 

■ 



o 
2 


48*2 


492 


2 


£05 


•2 


5f2 




51G 


1 


^^ 


2 


£18 


1 


.-i.'jg 


•1 


555 


2 


556 


1 


557 


1 


5G1 


2 


563 


2 


565 


2 


602 


2 


603 


y 


604 


1 


610 


2 


613 


I 


n 


2 


617 


1 




2 


618 


1 


6-21 


1 


650 


2 


oh 


2 


665 


1 


« 


» 


n 


n 


" 


2 


672 


1 


675 


1 


748 





755 


1 


757 


2 


760 


2 


775 


1 


777 


1 


" 


2 


800 


1 


802 


2 


n 


» 



Uurenico 

Do 

Blasio 

Britannicus 

Hrocchus 

ISrutuB 

Buca 

Do 

Buruio 

Cuesur, Sex. Julius . . 
Cucsur, C. Julius . . . 

Do 

C. and L. Caesar . . . 

Caesius 

Caldus 

Calidius 

Caligula 

Capito, Fonteius . . . . 

Do. 

Capito, Marius 

Capitolinus, Petillius . 

Carausius 

Carinus 

Cari&ius 

Do 

Carvilius 

Carus 

Casca 

Cassander 

Cato 

Do 

Celsus 

Do 

Censorinus 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Cerco 

Cestius 

Cilo or Chilo , 

Cinna 

Cipius 

Clara, Didia 

Claudius 

Claudius (emperor). 1st 

coin 

Do. 2nd coin . 

Claudius II 

Cleopatra, wife of An- 

tiochus 

Cleopatra, queen of 

Egypt . ._ 

Cleopatra, wife of Juba 



M 
M 
M 
JE 
M 
M 
M 
M 
Ai 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
JR 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
2M 
IS. 
M 
M 
M 
M 
AV 
M 
]JE 
M 
M 
M 

M 

M 
M 

M 

M 
M 



107 
326 



199 



51 
50i 



«05 
807 
810 
8)9 
82H 
831 
837 



846 
848 
849 
850 
852 
858 
863 
868 

870 
871 
882 
891 
892 
895 
946 
949 
955 
956 
965 



967 



968 

996 
1004 
1014 
1033 
1037 

1061 

1062 

1063 

1064 

1071 

1086 

108 

1092 



Cloeliut 

Cluviiu 

Coclcs 

Commodus 

Constans 

Constantinua, the tynuit 

Constautinns I. (the 

Orwit) 

r 11 



t , 11 

Constantius III 

Coponius 

CJordus 

Coraificius 

Coioonius 

CotU 

Do 

Cotys 

Cnusipet 

Crauus 

Crispina 

Crispus 

Critonius 

Decentius 

Decius 

Deiotams 

Delmatius 

Demetrius I., king of 

Macedonia 

Demetrius II., king of 

Macedonia 

Demetrius I., king of 

Syria 

Demetrius 11^ king of 

Syria 

Demetrius III., king of 

Syria 

Diadumenianua .... 

Didius 

Diocletianus 

Dionysius, of Heracleia 
Dionysius II., of Syra- 
cuse 

Domitia 

Domitianus 

Domitilla 

Domna Julia 

Dossenus 

Drusus 

Drusus, Nero Claudius 

Durmius 

Do 

Do, 



M 

'2/K 
M 
AV 
AV 
AV 

AV 
M 
M 

m 

•AX. 
M 
AK 

AK 
AK 
At 

AV 
At 
At 
At 

AV 
At 

'IX. 

IX. 
M 

3AS. 

M 

S. 

At 

At 

Ai 
At 
At 
At 
At 

At 
At 
At 
At 
At 
At 
2.* 
At 
At 
At 
At 



A DICTIONARY 

or 

GREEK AND ROMAN BIOGRAPHY 

AND 

MYTHOLOGY. 



ABARIS. 

ABAKUS ('A€aios), a suniame of ApoUo de- 
rived from the town of Abae in Phociu, where the 
pod had a rich temple. (Hesvch. s. r. 'A€at ; Ilert)d. 
viii. 33 ; Pans. x. 35. § 1, &c.) 11^ S.] 

AlUMMON MAOISTKK. [I'oRi'nyRiL's.] 

AHANTl'ADKS {'Aeayrid^vt) 8ignihe« iu 
general a descendant of Abas, but is u&ed especi- 
allv to designate Perseus, the preat-grandson of 
Abas (Ov. Met. iv. tJ73, v. 138, -'36), and 
Acrisius, a son of Abas. (Ov. iMtl. iv. (J07.) A 
female descendant of Abas, as Daiiae and Atalante, 
was called Abantias. [Ij. S.] 

ABA'NTIAS. rABANTiAUK.s.] 

ABA'NTIDAS {'ASavrlSai), the son of Paseas, 
became tynmt of Siiyon after murdering Cleiiiias, 
the father of Aratus, a c. •26'4. Anitus, who was 
then only seven years old, imrrowly estajK-d death. 
Abantidijs was fond of literature, and was accus- 
tomed to attend the philosophical discussions of 
Deinias and Aristotle, the dialectician, iu the agora 
of Sicyon : on one of these occasions he was mur- 
dered by his enemies. He was succeeded in the 
tyrainiy by his father, who was put to death by 
Nicodes. ( Plut. A nit. 2. 3 ; Paus. ii. 8. § •_'.) " 

ABAHBA'UKA {'Aeof>€a^rj), a Naiad, who 
bore two sons, Aesepus and Pedasus, to Bucolion, 
the eldest but illegitimate son of the Trojan King 
Laomedon. (Hom. //. vi. 22, &.c.) Other writers 
do not mention this nymph, but Hesychius («. r.) 
mentions 'ASapSapiai or 'A€af>€a\cuai us the name 
of a class of nymphs. [L. S.] 

A'BARIS ('A^apis), son of Seuthes, was a 
Hyperborean priest of Apollo (Herod, iv. 36), and 
came from the country about the Caucasus (Ov, 
Alet. V. 8()) to Greece, while his own country wa« 
visited by a plague. He was endowed with the 
gift of prophecy, and by this as well as by his 
Scythian dress and simplicity and honesty he 
created great sensation in Cireece, and was held in 
high esteem. (Strab. vii. p. 301.) He travelled about 
in Greece, carrying with him an arrow as the 
symbol of Apollo, and gave oracles. Toland, in 
his History of the Druids, considers him to have 
been a Druid of the Hebrides, because the arrow 
formed a |iart of the costume of a Druid. His 
historj", which is entirely mythical, is relattni in 
various ways, and worked up with estraordiuary 



ABAS. 

particular* : he it aaid to have taken no eaithlj 
food (Herod, iv. 36), and to have ridden on hi* 
arrow, the gift of Apollo, through the air. (Lobeck, 
A<ffuujihamuii, p. 314.) He cured diseases by in- 
cantiitions (Plat. CkarmiJ. p. 158, a), delivered the 
world fmm a plague (Suidaa, ». r. 'ASapts), and 
built at Sparta a temple uf Kipri owrttpa. (Paus. 
iii. 13. § 2.) Suidas awd Kudmia ajtcribe to him 
•everal works, such a» incantations, Scythian 
OFocles, a poem on the marriage of the river 
Helini>. i-Miiatory formulas, the arrival of Apollo 
aiii "-rboreaus, and a prote work on the 

oi'i>. - Js. But such works, if they were 

really curieui in ancient times, wen no more 
genuine than his reputed conespondence with 
Phakris the tyrant. '!' '' of his apneoiftoce 
iu (ireece is stated i: -'^me fixing it in 

01. 3, others iu 01. , .lien again make 

him a con temporary' of Croesus. (Beutley, Or lie 
EyiU. uf I'luttaris, p. 34.) Lobeck places it about 
the year a c. 570, «. e, about OL 52. Respecting 
the perplexing traditions about Abaris see Klopfer, 
MythtJut/ucUeii }i"utitrr6iick, L p. 2 ; Zapf, LHnputa- 
tio kistorU-u de AUiride, Lips. 1 7U7 ; Larcher, o» 
Herod, vol. iii. p. 446. [L. S.] 

ABAS i^ASas). 1. A son of Metaneira, was 
changed by Demeter into a lizard, because he 
mocked the goddess when she had come on her 
wanderings into the house of her mother, and 
drank eagerly to quench her thirst. (Nicander, 
Tktriacti ; NataL Com. v. 14; Ov. Met. v. 
450.) Other traditions relate the same story 
of a boy, Ascalabus, and call his mother Misme. 
(Antonin. Lib. 23.) 

2. The twelfth King of Argos. He was the 
son of Lynceus and Hypermnestra, and grand- 
son of Danaus. He married Ocaleia, who bore 
him twin sons, Acrisius and Proetus. (.-^poUod. 
ii. 2. § 1 ; llygin. /cii. 170.) When he informed 
his lather of the death of Danaus, he was re- 
warded with the shield of his grandfather, 
which was sacred to Hera. He is described as 
a successful conqueror and as the founder of 
the town of Abae in Phocis (Paus. x. 35. § 1), 
and of the Pelasgic Argos in Thessaly. (Strab. 
ix. p. 431.) The fame of Lis warlike spirit was 
so great, that even after his death, when people 



2 MiELlAU. 

reToIteil, twiKj.i iii: hud subducil, um > ». i.- puL 
to iliglit Iiy tliu hinipli; act of nhuwiiig tlicrii lii» 
«hii'l(l. (Virg. Ai-n. iii. '2Wi ; StTv. ad Inc.) It wiu 
from thJH Abim that tiie kings of Argon were called 
by tiu: patrouyuiiu Abaiitiadit. [Aiiantiaukn.] 

IL.S.] 

ABAS C'A*a»). 1. A Greek •ophint and 
rlietorician about whow; life nothing iit known. 
Suidas (.v. V. 'A6os : conipare Kuiiocia, p. .51) 
ii8crii)e« to him IffropiKd dnofn.i'T^fiaTa and a work 
on rhetoric {rixfij ^tjto^wt)). \V'hat I'liotiun 
(Cod. 1!)(). p. 150, b. cd. IWkker) quotes from him, 
belongs probably to the former work. (Compare 
Walz, Ithclor. iirwc. vii. 1. p. 'lOW.) 

2. A writer of a work called Troica, from which 
ScrviuB {ad Aen. ix. 2(>4) luu preserved a frag- 
ment. [L. S.j 

ABASCANTUS {'MioKavroi), a physician of 
Lugdunum (Lyons), who probably lived in the 
second century after Christ. lie is (w-veral times 
mentioned by Cialen (/A; Comjum. Mrdicam. lecund. 
Locos, ix. 4. vol. xiii. p. '278), who has also preserved 
nn antidote invented by him against the bite of 
serpents. {De AtUid. ii. 12. vol. xiv. p. 177.) The 
name is to be met with in numerous I^tin in- 
scriptions in Urutifr's collection, five of which refer 
to a freednian of Augustus, who is supposed by 
Kiilin (Additam. ad Klrnch. Midic. Vel. a J. A. 
Fubriciu in " JiUtl. 6V." Ejihih.) to be the same 
person that is mentioned by Galen. This however 
is quite uncertain, as also whether napcocAjjrioj 
'ASdaKovOos in Galen (De Compos. Medicam. 
sec'ind. Locos, vii. 3. vol. xiii. p. 71) refers to the 
subject of this article. [W. A. G.] 

ABDOLO'NliMUS or ABDALO'NIMUS, a 
gardener, but of royal descent, was made king of 
Sidon by Alexander the Great. (Curt. iv. 1 ; Just, 
xi. 10.) He is called Ballonymus by Diodonis. 
(xvii. 4G.) 

ABDE'RUS {"AeSvpos), a son of Hermes, or 
according to others of Thromius the Locrian. ( Apol- 
lod. ii. 5. § 8; Strab.vii.p. 331.) He wasafavourite 
of Heracles, and was torn to pieces by the mares 
of Diomedes, which Heracles had given him to 
pursue the Bistones. Heracles is said to hate 
built the town of Abdera to honour him. Accord- 
ing to Hygiuus, (Faf). 30,) Abderus was a servant 
of Diomedes, the king of the Thracian Bistones, 
and was killed by Heracles together with his 
master and his four men-devouring horses. (Com- 
pare Philostrat. Heroic. 3. § 1 ; 19. %^) [L. S.] 

ABDI AS ('A§Sias), the pretended author of an 
A pocryphal book, entitled Tlie History of t/ie Ajxj- 
stolical contest. This work claims to have been written 
in Hebrew, to have been translated into Greek by 
Eutropius, and thence into Latin by Julius Afri- 
canus. It was however originally written in Latin, 
about A. D. 910. It is printed in Fabricius, 
Codex Apocrrfphiis Naci Test. p. 402. 8vo. Hamb. 
1703. Abdias was called too the first Bishop of 
Babylon. [A. J. C] 

ABE'LLIO, is the name of a divinity found in 
inscriptions which were discovered at Comminges 
in France. (Gruter, Inscr. p. 37, 4 ; J. Scaliger, 
Lectiones Ausonianae, i. 9.) Ti\i\.\.maxm{Mythologus, 
i. p. 167, &c.) considers Abellio to be the same 
name as Apollo, who in Crete and elsewhere was 
called 'ASikios, and by the Italians and some Do- 
rians Apello (Fest. s. f. Apellinem; Eustath. ad 
II. ii, 99), and that the deity is the same as the 
Gallic Apollo mentioned by Caesar {Dell. Gall. yi. 



ABISAKPa. 

i;-;, a„u , "■•'■-" '•-• -TV 

tioned by 1 n 

(viii. 3; <■ . ' . !.« 

root of the word he li.-t:i>)(tilw-* tiir h|Mititti ^A«, 

I.e. the sun (llesych. t. v.), wimh uppt-ur* in tiui 
Syriiic and Chalduic Belu* or BaaL [L. B.J 

ABK'ltCIlJS, ST. ('Atipxioi), the MippoMd 

successor of St. I'apiua in th- ■■■ • ' < I'-ispolia, 

flourihhed A, D. 1.50. Then- u» kim, 

1. An Kjiittle to tJte Kmpernr .1/ /mm, of 

which liaronius speaks as exumi, but be d4>M 
not produce it ; oud, 2. A UooJc of UiteifAim 
(filSAot iiiaffKoXiai) addretaed to hisCtergy ; thia 
tfw is lost. Si-e Jllustr. EecUt, Orimt. .Smpl. 
Vitae, a 1'. HuUoi.r. Duac. 163fi. [A. J. C. J 

A'BGAUUS, A'CBARCS, or AU'GABIS 
{*Aifapoi,''AKtaipos, A6^a{)o%), a name coiniiioi) 
to many rulers of F^essa, the capital of the di»trict 
of Osrhoene in Mesopotamia. It teems to ba>e 
been a title and not a proper name. (Procopi. 
Itell. I'trt. ii. 12.) For the history of these kings 
see Bayer, ''Hi»toria (Jsrho«ua et Edessena ex 
nummis illustrata," Petrop. 1734. Of the«» th* 
most important are : 

1. The ally of the Romans under Pompey, who 
treacherously drew Crassus iuto an unfavoimUe 
position before his defeat. He is calltsd AuoMiU 
by Dion Cassius (xl. 20), Acbarus tbe pbjlucb 
of the Arabians in the Parthian history Mcribed 
to Appian (p. 34. Schw.), and AriamiKi by Pla> 
tarch. (CVcij.. 21.) 

2. Tbe contemponry of Christ. See the follow 
ing article. 

3. The chicfi who resisted '^'-' ' °. —'•im 

Claudius wished to place on t - : 

he is called a king of the A _ . uia 

{Ann. xii. 12. 14), but was probably aii Usrhoetiian. 

4. The contemporary of Trajan, who sent pre- 
sents to that emperor when be invaded the east, 
and subserjuently waited upon him and became hi* 
aUy. (Dion Cass. IxviiL 18. 21.) 

5. Tbe contemporary of Caracalla, who acted 
cnielly towards his nation, and was deposed by 
Caracalla. (Dion Cass, ixxvii. 12.) 

A'BGARUS, Toparch of Edessa, supposed by 
Eusebius to have been the author of a letter 
written to our Saviour, which he found in a church 
at Edessa and translated from the Syriac The 
letter is believed to be spurious. It is given by 
Eusebius. {Hist. Ecd. I 13.) [A. J. C] 

A'BIA ('Agj'a), tbe nurse of Hyllus, a son of 
Heracles. She built a temple of Heracles at Ira 
in Messenb, for which the Heraclid Cresphontet 
afterwards honoured her in various other ways, 
and also by changing the name of the town of Ira 
into Abia. (Pans. iv. 30. § 1.) [h. S.J 

ABELOX, ABELUX or ABILYX ('AeiAi;|), 
a noble Spaniard, originally a friend of Carthage, 
betrayed the Spanish hostages at Saguntum, who 
were in the power of the Carthaginians, to the 
Roman generals, the two Scipios, after deceiving 
Bostar, the Carthaginian commander. (Li v. xxii. 
22 ; Polvb. iiL 98, <kc.) 

ABI'S'ARES or ABI'SSARES ('AguTopT^j), 
called Embisarus ('Eju^icapos) by Diodorus (xviL 
90), an Indian king bej-ond the river Hydaspes, 
whose territory lay in the mountains, sent emljas- 
sies to Alexander the Great both before and after 
the conquest of Poms, although inclined to espouse 
the side of the latter. Alexander not only allowed 
him to retain his kingdom, but increased it, and 



ABItOCOMAS. 
on hi» death appointed his son as his successor. 
(Arrian, Aiuib. v. 8. 20. 29 ; Curt. viii. 12. 13. 14. 
ix. 1. X. 1.) 

ABl'STAMENES was appointed governor of 
Cappadocia by Alexander the Great. (Curt. iii. 4.) 
He is called Sabictas by Arrian. (Anu/j. ii. 4.) 
Gronovius conjectures that instead oi Abixiamene 
Cajipadociae praeposito, we ought to read Abida 
maynae Caj^piulrxnae, Sfc. 

ABITIA'NUS ('A€n^iav6s), the author of a 
Greek treatise De Uriiiii inserted in the second 
volume of Ideler's Phygici et Medici Craeci Mi- 
tiores, Berol. 8vo. 1842, with the title lltpl Ovpwc 
Upay/jiaTtla 'Af>i<T7ri roO 2o<f)<tfTdToi» wapd fitv 
'Iv^ois 'KWt) 'E/UTTj/t roil liva. iJToi 'AAArj vloS roO 
Ztva, irapd Si 'lTaKo7% 'AGirttcwov. He is the bame 
person as the celebrated Arabic physician Ariceiiua, 
whose real name was Aba \lli Ibit S'lnd, A. H. 
370 or 375—428 (a. d. 980 or 985—1037), and 
from whose great work Ketdb al-Kduun /i U-TM, 
Liber Canunis Medicinae, tlds treatise is proliably 
tninsliited. [W, A. G.] 

ABLA'BIUS {'Ae\detof). 1. A jihysician on 
whose death there is an epigram by Theosebia in 
tlie Greek Anthology (vii. 559), in wiiich he is 
considered as inferior only to Hippocrates and 
Galen. With respect to his date, it is only 
known that he must have lived after Galen, 
that is, some time later than the second century 
after Christ. [W. A. G.] 

2. The illustrious ('IXAoiJffTpioj), the author of an 
epigram in the Greek Anthology (ix. 7<>2) ** on 
the quoit of Asclepiiules." Nothing more is known 
of him, unleks he be the same per*»>n as Ablabius, 
the Novatian bishop of Nicaea, who was a discijile 
of the rhetorician Troilus, and himsell' eminent 
in the same profession, and w!:- '■- -' ■" ■' •■ M- 
norius and Theodosius 11., at i 
and the beginning of the fifth n 
(SiKjrates, IJuil. Eec. vii. 12.) 1.1'. 6>.J 

ABLA'VIUS. 1. Prefect of the city, the mi- 
nister and favourite of Constantine the Great, was 
murdered after the death of the latter. (Zosiums 
ii. 40.) He was consul a. d. 331. There is an 
epigram extiint attributed to him, in which the 
reigns of Nero and Constiintiue are com]>ared. 
(Anth.Lat. n. 2G1, ed. Meyer.) 

2. A lioman historian, whose age i* unknown, 
wrote a history of the Cioths, which is some- 
times quoted by Jonutndes as his authority. 
{De Jitb. Cetic. iv. 14. 23.) 

ABllADA'TAS {'ASpaSdroi), a king of Susa 
and an ally of the Assyrians against Cyrus. His 
wife Pautheia was taken on the conquest of the 
Assyrian cmup, while he was absent on a mission 
to the Biiclrians. In consequence of the honora- 
ble treatment which his wife received from Cyrus, 
he joined the latter with his forces. He fell in 
battle, while fighting against the Egyptians. In- 
consolable at her loss, Pantheia put an end to her 
own life, and her example was followed by her 
three eunuchs. Cyrus had a high mound raised in 
their honom" : on a pillar on the top were inscribtsl 
the names of Abnidatas and Panthei;i in tlie Syriac 
characters ; and three columns below bore the in- 
scription irK7firToux«^*'> i'l honour of the eunuchs. 
(Xeu. Vyr. v. 1. § 3, vi. 1. § 31, &e. 4. § 2, &.C. vu. 
3. § 2, &c.; Lucian. I may. 20.) 

ABRETTE'N US ('ASp«Trij»oi), a surname of 
Zeus in Mysia. (Strab. xii. p. 574.) [L. S.] 

ABRO'COMAS ('A&po»c(J/(oj), one of the satraps 



ABSYRTUS. S 

of Artaxerxes Mnemon, was sent with an array of 
300,000 men to oppose Cjtus on his march into 
upper Asia. On the arrival of Cyrus at Tarsus, 
Abrocomas was said to be on the Euphrates ; and at 
Issus four hundred heavy-armed Greeks, who had 
deserted Abrocomas, joined Cyrus. Abrocomas did 
not defend the Syrian passes, as was expected, but 
marched to join the king. He burnt some boats to 
prevent Cyrus from crossing the Kv'— ••" '"t did 
not arrive in time for the battle i : X^eiu 

Anab. i. 3. § 20, 4. § 3, 5, 18, 7-5 . crat. 

and Suidas, i. r.) 

ABUO'COMES CASpoifo^itjj) ai^d his brother 
Hyperanthes (Trcfatii'dirt), tlie sons of Danus by 
Phratagune, the dauffater of Artanei, were slain at 

Tl: • ■ ' ■ •■'■■'■ -•'■-■■■,• oyer the body of Leo- 

ni', 

^ {^ASftm ot'Atpmif). 1. 
Sou uf the Attic untiur Lycurgus. (Plut ViL dec 
(/rat. p. 843.) 

2. The sou of Callias, of the deme of Bate in 
Attica, wrote on the festivals and nerificea of th« 
Greeks. (Steph. Bys. *. r. Bonj.) He alto wrote a 
work wff)l ■woftuvvftjuv, which is frequently referred 
to by Stephanus Byt. (*.r. 'A70*rj,''Apyoi,A.c)and 
other writers. 

3. A grammarian, a Phrygian or Rhodian, a papil 
of Try phon, and originaUy a aiarflk taught at Hon* 
under the fifst Gmmii. (Siddaa, a. «. "Ktpmv.) 

4. A rieh peraon at Aigaa, froa whom the pro- 
verb "A tp mm t filot, which waa ^piwd to extiava- 
gant perMHiB, ia said to have been derived. (Sui- 
das, *. V.) 

ABKO'NIUS SILO, a Latin Poet, who lived 
in the hater part of the AugoMan age, was a pi^ 
of PorciuB lAtro. His son waa alaa a poet, biit 
,i.-..iM<t...i himself by writing plays for pantoBimea. 

:. p. 21. Bip.) 

1 I. HUS ('A^fimi^uxoty, the son of 
L>su.ii:<i, <ui Athenian, waa atatiotwd at Thennopy* 
be with a veaael to «wimHnicali> b a tween Iinnnidaa 

and the fleet at ArtNUaiaa. Ho waa anhaa- 
quenily sent as imihasilBr ta 8paita with Th»- 
mistocles and Aristeides reapectii^ the fottificationa 
of Athens after the Persiau war. (Herod, viii. 21 ; 
Thuc. i. 91.) 

ABKO'T.\ (*A§p«MTi), the daughter of On- 
chestus, the Boeotian, and the wife of Nisus, king 
of Haoariik On her death Niaua «'«™»««'"*H all 
the MrganiB woawn to w«ar a gaiBMUt of the 
same kiaAw Abrota had worn, which was called 
aphubruma (d(^£^-/ia), and was still in use in the 
time of Plutarch. ( Vt«ie«/. Oraec: p. 295,a.) 

ABRU'TONUM ('ASporwo^y, a Thracian 
harlot, who according to some accounts was the 
mother I :' "' les. There is an epigram pre- 

served I - fact. (Plut. TheiH. 1 ; Athen. 

xiii. p. y, ., -, an, V. H. xiL 43.) Plutarch 

also refers to her m his 'EpwrtKoi (p. 753, d.); and 
Luciau speaks of a harlot of the same name {^Dial. 
Meretr. 1). 

ABRU'POLIS, an ally of the Romans, who 
attacked the dominions of Perseus, and laid them 
waste as tar as Amphipolis, but was afterwards 
driven out of his kingdom by Perkeus. (Li v. 
xlii. 13. 30. 41.) 

ABSEUS. [GlGANTKS.] 

ABSIMARUS. [TiBKuu's AshiMARis.] 
ABSYRTUS or APSYRTUS CAv^u^os), a 
son of Aeetes, king of Colchis, and brother of 
Medeia. His mother is stated differently: Hvgi- 

b2 



4 ACACALLIS. 

nvH (Fa/i. 13) rnlld hrr Ipxia, Apollodorun (i. 9. 
g'J.'l) Idyiii, Aj)<)ll(>iiiuH (iii. '241) AHtcrodriii, and 
otliciH llccntc, Nf'acra, or I'lurylytc. (Scliol. ad 
Ajidlliiii. I. r.) W'lii-n Modciii tied with .IiiHon, 
hIic took her l)i'otlier AbsyrtiiH witli licr, and wlien 
%\w wiw nearly overtaken liy her fulher, ithe mur- 
dered her brother, cut hi* l)ody in piece* and 
Hlrewed them on the road, that her father mi((ht 
thiiH be detiiined by jKiithcriiif; the limbii of hii) 
child. Tomi, the phice where thin horror wan 
committed, w;w believed to have derived it* name 
from rinvw, "■ cut." (Apollod. i. 'J. §'J4 ; Ov. 'frut. 
iii. 9 ; compare Apollon. iv. 3'M\, &c. 4()0, &c.) 
According to another tradition AbsyrtUH was not 
tfiken by Medeiii, but was sent out by his father 
in ])urKuit of lier. lie overtook her in Corcyra, 
where she had been kindly received by king 
AlcinouR, who rcfusc^d to surrender her to Absyrtus. 
When he overtook her a wcond time in the island 
of Minerva, he was slain by Jason. (Ilygin. J'ah. 
23.) A tnidition followed by Facuvius (Cic. ilt-nal. 
dear. iii. 19), Justin (xlii. 3), and Diodorus (iv. 
45), called the son of Acetes, who was murdered 
by Medeia, Aegialeus. [L. S.] 

AlJULl'TES ('A/SouX/ttjs), the satrap of Susi- 
ana, surrendered Susa to Alexander, when the 
latter approached the city. Tiic satrapy wa« re- 
stored to him by Alexander, but he and hii kon 
Oxyathrcs were afterwards executed by Alexander 
for the crimes they had committed in the govern- 
ment of the sjitrapy. (Curt. v. 2 ; Arrian, AnaL. 
iii. lb', vii. 4 ; Diod. xvii. G.5.) 

AIJU'llIA GENS, plebeian. On the coins of 
this gens we find the cognomen Gkm., which is 
perhaps an abbreviation of Geminus. The coins 
have no heads of persons on them. 

1. C AuuRiiis was one of the ambassadors sent 
to Masinissa and the Carthaginians, B. c. 171. 
(Liv. xlii. 35.) 

2. M. Aburius, tribune of the plebs, B. c. 187, 
opposed M. Fulvius the proconsul in his petition 
for a triumph, but withdrew his opposition chiefly 
through the influence of his colleague Ti. Gracchus. 
(Liv. xxxix. 4. 5.) He was praetor peregriuus, 
B. c. 176. (Liv. xli. 18. 19.) 

ABURNUS VALENS. [Valkns.] 
ABYDE'NUS {'AfivSnvSs), a Greek historian, 
who wrote a history of Assyria {^AaavpiOKd). 
The time at which he lived is uncertain, but we 
know that he made use of the works of Megas- 
thencs and Berosus ; and Cyrillus (adv. Julian, pp. 
8, 9) states, that he wrote in the Ionic dialect. 
Several fragments of his work are preserved by 
Eusebius, Cyrillus and Syncellus: it was particu- 
larly valuable for chronology. An important frag- 
ment, which clears up some difficulties in Assyrian 
history, has been discovered in the Armenian 
translation of the Chronicon of Eusebius. The 
fragments of his history have been published by 
Scaliger, " De Emendatione Temporum," and 
Richter, " Berosi Chaldaeorum Historiae," &c., 
Lips. 1825. 

ACACALLIS {'AkokoWIs), daughter of Minos, 
by whom, according to a Cretan tradition, Hermes 
begot Cydon ; while according to a tradition of the 
Tegeatans, Cydon was a son of Tegeates, and im- 
migrated to Crete from Tegea. (Paus. viii. 53. §2.) 
Apollo begot by her a son Miletus, whom, for fear 
of her father, Acacallis exposed in a forest, where 
■wolves watched and suckled the child, until he 
was found by shepherds who brought him up. 



ACAC1U8. 

(Antonin. I/ib. 30.) Other »nn» of h«r and 
Ai)ollo are Aniphithcmiii and (ianun**. (Apollon. 
iv. 1490, ki:) ApollMloruii (iii. 1. | 2) calU tbi* 
daiigliter of Miiiod Acallc ('AksIaAij), but doe« not 
mention Miletui a» her son. Acooillit wm in 
Crete a common name for a narctMus. (AtheiL 
XV. p. ««1 ; Hcsych. i. r.) [ L. S.J 

ACA'ClUS('A»r<UK»f),a rhetorician, of C«e»ar«i 
in I'alcHtine, lived under the emperor Julian, and 
was a friend of Libaniui. (Suida>, i. r. 'AxiMtot, 
AiSdfios: KunapiuH, A cadi I'it.) Many of th« 
letters of JJbanus arc {iddreitaed to him. [li. J.] 

2. A Syrian by birth, lived in a mnnaiJlity 
nrar Antioch, and, for hi* active deCmee of Um 
Church against Ariiinism, was made Bishop of 
Berrhoea, A. D. 378, by St. Eusebius of SaiBOtata. 
While a priest, he (with Paul, another pric»t) wrote 
to St. Epiph.-uiiuN a letter, in contequence of which 
the latter composed hiH I'anarium (a. U. 374-'J). 
This letter is prefixed to the work. In a. i>. 377- 
8, he was sent to Rome to confute Apollinarit be< 
fore Pope St. Damasus. He was preitent at the 
(Jccumenical Council of Constantinople a. n. 381, 
and on the death of St. Meletius UK>k part in 
KL-ivian's ordination to the See of Antioch, by 
whom he was afterwards sent to the Pope in order 
to heal the schism between the churches of the West 
and Antioch. Afterwards, he took part in the 
persecution against St Chrysostom (Socmtea, 
Jlitt. Ecd. vi. 18), and again compromised 
himself by oidaining as successor to Flariaa, 
Porphyrius, a man unworthy of the episcopate. 
He defended the heretic Nestorius against St. 
Cyril, though not himself present at the Coon- 
cil of Ephckus. At a great age, he laboured to re- 
concile St. Cyril and the Eastern Bishops at a 
Synod held at Berrhoea, a. d. 432. He died a. D. 
437, at the age of 116 years. Three of his lettera 
remain in the original Greek, one to St Cyril, 
(extant in the Collection of Councils by Mansi, 
voL iv. p. 1056,) and two to Alexander, Bishop 
of Hierapolis. {Ibid, pp.819, 830, c.41. 65. § 129, 
143.) 

3. The One-eyed (6 Viov6<p6aXfios), the pupil 
and successor in the See of Caesarea of Eusebius 
A. D. 340, whose life he wrote. (Socrates, /litt, 
Ecd. ii. 4.) He was able, learned, and unscru- 
pulous. At first a Semi-Arian like his master, 
he founded afterwards the Homoean party and 
was condemned by the Serai-Arians at Selencia, 
A. D. 359. (Socrates, Hid. Eccl. ii. 39. 40; 
Sozomen, Hist. Eccl. iv. 22. 23.) He subse- 
quently became the associate of Aetius [AJixius], 
the author of the Anomoeon, then deserted him 
at the command of Constantius, and, under the 
Catholic Jovian, subscribed the Homoousion or 
Creed of Nicaea. He died a. d. 366. He wrote 
seventeen Books on Eccledastes and six of Miicei- 
lanies. (St. Jerome, Vir. III. 98.) St. Epipha- 
nius has preserved a firagment of his work ayaintt 
Marcellus (c. Haer. 72), and nothing else of his 
is extant, though Sozomen speaks of many valu- 
able works written by him. {Hist. Ecd. iii. 2.) 

4. Bishop of Constantinople, succeeded Gen- 
nadius a. d. 471, after being at the head of 
the Orphan Asylum of that city. He distinguish- 
ed himself by defending the Council of Chalcedon 
against the emperor Basiliscus, who favoured the 
Monophj'site heresy. Through his exertions Zeno, 
from whom Basiliscus had usurped the empire, was 
restored (a. d. 477), but the Monophysites mean- 



AC A MAS. 

while had gained so much strength that it was 
deemed advisable to issue a formula, couciliatory 
from its indefinitencss, called the llenoticon, a. d. 
482. Acacias was led into other concessions, 
which drew upon him, on the accusation of John 
Talaiii, against whom he supported the claims of 
Peter Mongus to the See of Alexandria, the 
anathema of Pope Felix II. a. d. 484. Peter 
Mongus had gained Acacius's support by profess- 
ing assent to the canons of Chalcedon, though at 
heart a Monophysite. Acacius refused to give up 
Peter Mongus, but retained his see till his death, 
A. D. 488. There remain two letters of his, one 
to Pope Simplicius, in Latin (see ConcUiurum Nova 
Cullectio a Matm, vol. vii. p. 982), the other to 
Peter FuUo, Archbishop of Antioch, in the original 
Creek. {Ibid. p. 1121.) 

5. Reiuler at (a. d. 390), then the Bishop of 
Melitene (a. d. 431). He wrote a. d. 431, 
against Nestoriua. His zeal led him to use 
expressions, apparently savouring of the contrary 
heresy, which, for a time, prejudiced the em- 
peror Theodosius II. against St. Cyril. He was 
present at the Oecumenical Council of Ephesus 
A. 1). 431, and constantly mainUiined its authority. 
There remain of his productions a Homily (in 
Greek) delivered at the Council, (see Chuciliurum 
Nora Collectio a Manin, vol. v. p. 181,) and a lettor 
written after it to St. Cyril, which we have in a 
Latin translation. (/W</. pp. 8()0, 998.) [-\. J. C] 

ACACK'SIUS ('Aitcuosffioi), a surname of 
Hermes (Callim. I/i/m. in Dian. 143), for which 
Homer (II. xvi. 185 ; Od. xxiv. 10) uses the 
fonii dfca/cTjTa (dfccucTjrTjy). Some writers derive it 
from the Arcadian town of Acacesium, in which 
he was believed to have been brought up by king 
Acacus; others from koxJ;, and assign to it the 
me^tning : the god who cannot be hurt, or who doe* 
not hurt. The siune attribute is also given to 
Prometheus (Hes. Ttwoy. (514), whence it may be 
inferred that its meaning is that of benefactor or 
deliverer from evil. (Compare Spanh. ad Cullim. 
I. c; Spitzner, ad II. xvi. 18o.) [L. S.] 

AC.A.CE'TKS. [.\(ACEsu's.] 

A'CACUS ('A»faicos),a son of Lycaon and king 
of Acacesium in Arcadiii, of which he was believed 
to be the founder. (Paus. viii. 3. § 1 ; Steph. Byx. 
t. V. 'Kkojc/ictiov.) f L. S.] 

ACADE'MUS ('AKa57i;uos), an Attic hero, who, 
when Castor and Polydeuces invailed Attica to 
liberate their sister Helen, betrayed to them that 
she was kept concealed at .\phidiute. For this 
reason the Tyndarids always showed him much 
gnititudc, and whenever the Lacedaemonians in- 
vaded Attica, they always spared the hmd belong- 
ing to Acaderaus which Liy on the Cephissus, six 
stivdia from Athens. (Plut. Tlu-s. 32 ; l)iog. Laert. 
iii. 1. § 9.) This piece of Umd was subsequently 
adorned with plane and olive plantations (Plut. 
Cim. 13), and was called Academia from its 
original owner. [L. S.] 

ACALLE. [AcACALLis.] 

A'CAMAS {'\k6.ijm%). I. A son of Thesens 
and Phaedra, and brother of Demophoon. (Diod. 
iv. (J2.) Previous to the expedition of the Greeks 
against Troy, he and Diomedes were sent to de- 
mand the surrender of Helen (this message Homer 
ascribes to MeneLius and Odysseus, //. xi. 139, 
&c.), but during his stay at Troy he won the 
affection of Laodice, daughter of Priam (Parthen. 
Nic. Erot. 16), and begot by her a son, Munitus, 



ACASTUS. 5 

who was brought up by Aethra, the grandmother of 
Acamas. (SchoL ad Lycopiir. 499, &.e.) Virgil 
{Aen. ii. 2G2) mentions him among the Greeks 
concealed in the wooden horse at the taking of 
Troy. On his return home he was detained in 
Thrace by his love for Phyllis ; but after leaving 
Thrace and arriving in the island of Cyprus, he 
was killed by a fall from his horse upon his own 
sword. (SchoL ad Lycophr. I. c.) The promontory 
of Acamas in Cyprus, the town of Acamentium in 
Phrygia, and the Attic tribe Acamantis, derived 
their names from him. (Steph. Bya. $. v. 'AKOfid^- 
Ttof ; Paus. L 5. § 2.) He was painted in the 
Lesche at Delphi by Polygnotus, and there was also 
a statue of him at DelpbL (Paus. x. 26. § J, x. 
10. § 1.) 

2. A son of Antenor and Theano, was one 
of the bravest Trojans. (Horn //. ii. 823, xiL 
100.) He avenged the death of his brother, who 
had been killed by Ajax, by slaying Proinachus 
the Boeotian. (//. xiv. 476.) He himself was 
slain by Meriones. (//. xvi. 342.) 

3. A son of Eussorus, was one of the leaders 
of the Thracians in the Trojan war (Horn. //. ii. 
844, r. 462), and was slain by the Tebmoniaii 
Ajax. (It.vi. 8.) [I^ S.1 

ACANTHUS ("Ajcareos), the Lacedaemonian, 
waa victor in the VmitKos and the S6\txot in the 
Olynpie pwri ia OL 15, (n. c. 72U,) and accord- 
ing to aooM aeeMinta was the first who ran naked 
in these games. (Paus. t. 8. § 3 ; Dionys. vii. 72 ; 
African, apmd Etueb. p. 143.) Other accounts 
ascribe this to Orsippus the Me^garisn. [Oftau>- 
rv%.^ Thucydides says that the iaeedanMMUMM 
wtn the first who contanded aiked ia pmn— tin 
games. (L 6.) 

ACARNAN {^k»wfi<4m\ en* of die ^Ngraea, 
was a son of Alcaaaoii and Calinhoe, and brother 
of AmphotenuL Their father waa raordered by 
Phegeua, when thej wen jet verr jroong, and 
Calinhoe uayed to Zens to make Iter sons grow 
quickly, that they might be able to avenge the 
death of thdr fauer. The pcaTer waa gaated, 
and Acamaa with his hnther slew Phegevs, hia 
wife, aitd his two sons. The inhabitants of 
Psophis, where the sons had been slain, pursued 
the murderers as &r as Tegea, where however they 
were received and rescued. At the request of 
.\chelous they carried the nerkhwe and peplus of 
llarmouia to Delphi, and from theoee they went 
to Epims, where Acaniaa fMuided the state called 
after him Acaraania. ( ApoUod. iii. 7. § 5 — 7 ; Ov. 
Met. ix. 413, &c; Thucyd. u. 102; Strab. i. 
p. 462.) [L.S.] 

AC.\STUS CAjtourroj), a son of Pelias, king o 
lolcus, and of Anaxibia, or as others call her, Phi- 
lomache. He was (me of the Argonaut8(.\pollod. 
L 9. § 10; Apollon. Rhod.i. 224, &c.), and also took 
port in the Calydonian hunt.(0 v. Met. viii. 305,&c.) 
After the return of the Argonauts his sisters were 
seduced by Medeia to cut their fiither in pieces 
and boil them ; and Acastus, when he heard this, 
buried his father, drove lason and Medeia, and 
according to Pausauias (ra. 11) his sisters also, 
from lolcus, and instituted funeral games in honour 
of his father. (Hygin. Fab. 24 and 273 ; Apollod. 
i. 9. § 27, &c.: Paus. iiL 18. § 9, vl 20. § 9, t. 17. 
§ 4 ; Ov. Mit. sL 409, &c.) During these games it 
happened that Astydamia, the wife of Acastus, 
who is also called Hippolyte, fell in love with 
Peleus, whom Acastus had purified from the mur- 



6 



ACCA LAURKNTIA. 



«lnr of FCiirytion. Wlion I'clcim n-'fiined to liotcn 
to luM- addrcssei), ulic iiccUMCil him to lier huKhaiid 
of" hiiviiij,' !Uti-iii|)te(l to (li«lioiiour her. (Apollod. 
iii. 1 3. S "J, (Sif. ; I'iiid. Ncm. iv. DO, !S.c.) AaiMtun, 
however, did not tiiki; iiiiinc-diato revciij^o for the; 
iillcjfcd crime, but after he and I'eleUH had been 
chasing on mount I'elion, and the latter hud fallen 
asleep, AcastiiH took his sword from him, and left 
him alone and exposed, so that I'eleus was nearly 
destroyed by the (Jentaiirs. Ihit he was sjived by 
Cheiron or Hernu^s, returned to Acastus, and killed 
him tof^cther with his wife. (Apollod. I.e.; Schol. 
lul AjHillon. Ithod. i. 2"24.) The death of Acitstus 
is not mentioned by Apollodorus, but accordiii)^ to 
him Peleus in conjunction with lason and the 
Dioscuri merely concjuer and destroy lolcus. 
(Apollod. iii. lU. §7.) '[L.S,] 

AC15AIIUS. [AnciARUS.] 

ACCA LAUllH'NTIA or LARE'NTIA, a 
mythical woman who occurs in the stories in early 
Roman history. Macmbius {Sat. i. 10), with 
whom IMutiirch {Quacst. Jtoin. 35; Jiomul. '>) 
agrees in the main |>oints, relates the following; 
tradition about her. In the reign of Ancus Martius 
a servant (acUitium) of the tcn)])le of Hercules in- 
vited during the holidays the god to a game of 
dice, promising that if he should lose the gome, he 
wonid treat the god with a repast and a beautiful 
woman. When the god hiid con(|Ucred the servant, 
the latter shut up Acca Laurentia, then the most 
beautiful and most notorious woman, together witli 
a well stored table in the temple of Hercules, who, 
when she left the siinctuary, advised her to try to 
gain the affection of the first wealthy man she 
should meet. She succeeded in making Carutius, 
an Etniscan, or as Plutarch calls him, Tarrutius 
love and marry her. After his death she inherited 
liis large property, which, when she herself died, 
she left to the Roman people. Ancus, in gratitude 
for this, allowed her to be buried in the Velabrum, 
and instituted an annual festival, the Ijorcntalia, 
at which sacrifices were offered to the Lares. 
(Comp. Varr. Linq. Lat. v. p. 85, cd. Dip.) Ac- 
cording to others (Macer, apud Alacrob. I.e.; Ov. 
Fast. iii. 55, &c. ; Plin. //. N. xviii. 2), Acca 
Laurentia was the wife of the shepherd Faustulus 
and the nurse of Romulus and Remus after they 
had been tiikcn from the she- wolf. Plutarch in- 
deed states, that this Laurentia was altogether a 
different being from the one occurring in the reign 
of Ancus ; but other writers, such as Macer, relate 
their stories as belonging to the same being. 
(Comp. Gell. vi. 7.) According to Massurius Sabinus 
in Gellius {I. c.) she was the mother of twelve 
sons, and when one of them died, Romulus stept 
into his place, and adopted in conjunction with 
the remaining eleven the name of fratres arvales. 
(Comp. Plin. I. c.) According to other accounts 
again she was not the wife of Faustulus, but a 
prostitute who from her mode of life was called 
lupa by the shepherds, and who left the property 
she gained in that way to the Roman people. 
(Valer. Ant. ap. Gell. I. c; lA\j, i. 4.) What- 
ever may be thought of the contradictory state- 
ments respecting Acca Laurentia, thus much seems 
clear, that she was of Etruscan origin, and con- 
nected with the worship of the Lares, from which 
her name Ltirentia itself seems to be derived. 
This appears further from tlie number of her sons, 
which answers to that of the twelve country Lares, 
and from the circumstance that the day sacred to 



ACKUDAS. 

her woi followed by one Mum^l to the Vmtm, 
(Macrob. .S'u/. /. c. ; comfKire Miilh-r, J-^ruilmr, U. 
p. 103, iic. i liartung, iJus Helujtun der Humer, iL 
p. 144, Alc.) [L..S.J 

L. A'CCIUS or ATIIUS, an emriy iX»- 
man tragic poet and the Mjn of a fraedowat mu 
Ixjrn according to Jerome li. v. 170, and wa* fiftj 
ycari younger than Pacuviun. He lived to a gnat 
age ; Cicero, when a young man, frequently eoD* 
versed with him. {Ural. '2ii.) Hi* tiiif(ediM wen 
chiefly imitjited from the (ireelu, etpscklly ftws 
Aeschylus, but he uIko wrote loiius on Roman nb> 
jects {I'raetejrlata) ; one of which, entitled Bnitiu, 
was ]irol>ably in honour of hi* patron 1>. Itrutiu. 
(Cic. de Ley. ii.'21, yro Arch. 11.) We {mjmcm only 
fragments of his tragedies, of which the most im* 

portant have been preiifrved by Ci' ' iffi- 

cieiit remains \» justify the terms oi in 

which he is R{x>ken of by the a:. rs. 

He is piirticularly praincd for the nUetigtii aiid 
vigour of his langwige and the sublimity of hi* 
thoughts. (Cic. jtro I'lanc. 24, pro Sent, hi], Sx. ; 
llor. /.//. ii. 1. 5(; ; (juintiL x. 1. | 07 ; fJcll. xiii. 
2.) Besides these trugcdie<t. '"• -•I-" '^-roic A»- 
nidi's in verse, containing the i me, like 

those of Knnius; and three [ , " Libri 

Hiduscalion,'''' which seems to liavu \nxu a history 
of pfHJtry, " Libri Pragmaticon " and " Parerga": 
of the two lutti^r no fragments are preaerred. The 
fntgments of his tragedies hare been eolUscted by 
Stephanus in " Frag. ret. Poet Lat." Paris, 
15ti4 ; Maittaire, " Opera et Frag. vet. Poet. 
Lat." Lond. 1713; and Hothe, " Poet. Sccnici 
Latin.," voL v. Lips. 1834: and the fnigmenta of 
the DidascalLi by Madvig, '* I)e L. Attii Dido*- 
caliis Comment." Hafniac, 1831. 

T. A'CCIUS, a native of i'isaurum in Umbria 
and a Roman knight, was the accuser of A. Cluen- 
tius, whom Cicero defended B. c 66. He was a 
pupil of Heimagoras, and is praised bj Cicero for 
accuracy and fluency. {Brut. 23, pro QuenL '2Z, 
31, 57.) 

ACCO, a chief of thn '■' ■■ '' '. who in- 
duced his countrymen t' -ar, B.C 
53. On the conclusion ' ds put to 
death by Caesar. {Bell. Gad. vL 4, 44.) 

ACCOLEIA GENS is known to us only by 
coins and inscriptions. On a denarius we have the 
name P. Accoleius Lariscolus, and in two inscrip- 
tions a P. Accoleius Euhemenis, and a L. Accoleius 
Abascantus. 

ACE'RATUS('AjoJpoToj 7pafi/toTwt(^j),aGreek 
grammarian, and the author of an epigram on 
Hector in the Greek Anthology. (viL 138.) No- 
thing is known of his life. [P. S.] 

ACERBAS, a Tyrian priest of Hercules, who 
married Elissa, the daughter of king Mutgo, and 
sister of Pygmalion. He was possessed of consi- 
derable wealth, which, knowing the avarice of 
Pygmalion, who had succeeded his father, he con- 
cealed in the earth. But Pygmalion, who heard 
of these hidden treasures, had Acerbas murdered, 
in hopes that through his sister he might obtain 
possession of them. But the prudence of Elissa 
saved the treasures, and she emigrated from Phoe- 
nicia. (Justin, xviii. 4.) In this account Acerbas 
is the same person as Sichaeus, and Elissa the same 
as Dido in Virgil. {Aen. i. 343, 348, &c.) The 
names in Justin are undoubtedly more correct than 
in Virgil ; for Servius {ad Aen. L 343) remarks, 
that Virgil here, as in other cases, changed a fo- 



ACESTES. 

reign name into one more convenient to him, and 
that the real name of Sichaeus was Sicharbas, 
which seems to be identical with Acerbas. [Dido ; 
PVGMAMON.] [L. S.] 

ACERHO'NIA, a friend of Agrippina, the 
mother of Nero, was drowned in B. c, 59, when an 
unsuccessful attempt was made at the same time to 
drown Agrippina. (Tac. Ann. xiv. 4 ; Dion Cass, 
ki. 13.) 

CN. ACERRO'NIUS PROCULTJS, consul 
A. D. 37, the year in which Tiljerius died (Tac. 
Ann. vi. 45 ; Suet Tib. 73), was perhaps a de- 
scendant of the Cn. Acerronius, whom Cicero 
mentions in his oration fur TuUius, B.C. 71, as a 
vir ojjiimug. (](>,&£.) 

ACKRSE'COMKS ('AKfpfff/crf/nTjs), a surname 
of Apollo expressive of his beautiful hair which 
was never cut or shorn. (Horn. //. xx. 39 ; Pind. 
PyUi. iii. 26.) [L. S.] 

ACESANDER (^AK4aavipot) wrote a history 
of Cyrene. (Schol. ud Apo/I. iv. 15(J1, 1750 ; ail 
I'ind. Pyih. iv. init. 57.) Plutarch {St/mp. v. 2. 
§ H) speaks of a work of his respecting Libya ("■«pl 
AtfiuTjj), which may probably be the same work as 
the history of Cyrene. The time at which he lired 
is unknown. 

A'CESAS (*A(c«(ras), a native of Salamis in 
Cyprus, famed for his skill in weaving cloth with 
variegated piitterns {polymitariun). He and his Mm 
Helicon, who distinguished himself in the tame 
art are mentioned by Athenaeus. (iL p. 48, b.) 
Zenobius speaks of both artists, but says that 
Acesas (or, as he calls him Aceseus, 'hKtatvs) was 
a native of Patara, and Helicon of Carystua. He 
tells us also that they were the first who made a 
peplus for Athena Polias. When they lived, we 
arc not informed ; but it must have been before 
the time of Euripides and Phito, who mention this 
peplus. (Eur. llev. 468; Plat. Euthyphr. % 6.) A 
specimen of the workmanship of these two artists 
was preserved in the temple at Delphi, bearing an 
inscription to the efl'ect, that Pallas had imparted 
marvellous skill to their hands. [C. P. M.] 

ACE'SI.\S('AK«(rtoj), an ancient (ireek physi- 
cian, whose age and country are both unknown. 
It is ascertiiined however that he lived at least 
four hundred years before Christ, as the proverb 
'KKfoias Idaaro, Acesuis cured Aim, is quoted on 
the authority of Aristophanes. This saying (by 
which only Acesias is known to us,) was used 
when any person's disease became worse instead of 
better under medical treatment, and is mentioned 
by Suidus (s. r. 'AKtaias), Zenobius {^Proverb. 
Cent. i. § 52), Diogenianus {Frvrtfrb. ii. 3), Mi- 
chael Apostolius {I'roverb. ii. 23), and Plutiirch 
(Proverb, quibus Aleauiidr. usi sunt, § 98). See 
also Proverb, e Cod. IhxU. § 82, in (iaisford's 
Paroemiityntphi Graeei, 8vo. Oxon. 1836. It is 
possible that an author bearing this name, and 
mentioned by Athenaeus (xii. p. 516, c.) as having 
written a treatise on the Art of Cooking (o'^aprv- 
Tifco), may be one and the same person, but of this 
we have no certain information. (J. J. Baier, 
Aday. Medic. Cent. 4to. Lips. 1718.) [W. A. G.] 
ACE'SIUS ('AKtVioj), a surname of Apollo, 
under which he was worshipped in Elis, where he 
had a splendid temple in the agora. This sur- 
name, which has the same meaning as OKtarup 
and oAfJiKaicos, characterised the god as the 
averter of evil. (Pans. vi. 24. § 5.) [L. S.] 
ACESTES {'AKfffrrjs), a son of the Sicilian 



ACESTORIDES. 7 

river-god Crimisus and of a Trojan woman of. the 
name of Egesta or Segesta (V'irg. Aen. L 195, 550, 
v. 36, 711, &c.), who according to Serviu's was 
sent by her father Hippotes or Ipsostratus to Sicily, 
that she might not be devoured by the monsters, 
which infested the territory of Troy, and which 
had been sent into the land, because the Trojans 
had refused to reward Poseidon and Apollo for 
having built the walls of their city. When Egesta 
arrived in Sicily, the river-god Crimisus in the 
form of a bear or a dog begot by her a son Acestes, 
who was afterwards regarded as the hero who had 
founded the town of Segesta. (Comp. SchoL ad 
Lycophr. 951, 963.) Thr - ' ■ f Acestes in 

Dionysius (i. 52), who c;i -tus (Afyti- 

Toi), is different, for accor.: ^ ; the grand- 

father of Aegestus quarrelled with Laomedoii, who 
slew him and gave his daughters to some mer- 
chants to convey them to a distant land. A noble 
Trojan however embarked with them, and married 
one of them in Sicily, where she suhsequently gave 
birth to a son, Aegettoi. During the war agaiaal 
Troy Aegestus obtained petmiasion from Priam to 
return and take part in the contest, and afterwards 
returned to Sicily, where Aeneas on his arriral 
was hospitably rec«^ived by him and Elymus, and 
built fur them the towns of Aegesta and Elyme. 
The account of Diouysius seems to be "otKifig hut 
a rationalistic interpretation of the genuine legund. 
As to the inconsistencies in Virgil's "^^wift of 
Acestes, see Hevne, Excurt. 1, o« At». t. [L. S.) 
ACESTODO'KUS ('AKtrrHstpoi), a Greek 
historical writer, who is cited by Plutarch ( Tketm. 
13), and whose work contained, as it appears, an 
aceouBt of the battle of Sakmia aoMWC ether thinga. 
The tiaie aft which he lived b ■nniewB. Ste- 
phanna U. «. Hfyikn wiKu) apeaka of an Aeeate- 
donis el Megalopotia, who wrote a work on citiaa 
{wtfA voA^wr), but whether this is the tame aa the 
ail t>d writer is not clear. 

; ('Aic«<rr«y>). A surname of Apollo 
Willi 11 iiuuix-urrises him aa the god of the hetiling 
art, or in gcaenl as the srerter of evil, like oKiauti. 
(Eurip. Amdrom. 901.) [L. S.] 

ACESTOR {'Aitiorwfi), snmamed Sacaa (2»- 
mu), on account of his foreign origin, was a tnigie 
poet at Athena, and a eontemporary of Aristo- 
phanes. He seens to have been either of Thracian 
or Mysian origin. (.\ristopL Are*, 31 ; Schol. 
ad loc. ; Vetpae, 121'-! ; S<.hoL ad lac. ; Phot, and 
Suid- s. r. idicas : Welcker, Vie Griech. Tnufod. 
p. 1032.) [R. W.'] 

ACESTOR ('AxsffTwp), a sculptor mentioned 
by Pausanias (vL 17. § 2) as having executed a 
statue of Alexibius, a native of Heraea in Arcadia, 
wl: ' ' ■ 1 a victory in the pentathlon at the 
( > He was bum at Cnoasna, or at 

aiis vised his profession there for some 

time. (Paus. X. 15. § 4.) He had a son named 
Amphion, who was also a sculptor, and had 
studied under Ptolichus of Corcyra (Paus. vL 3. 
§ 2) ; so that Acestor must have been a contempo- 
rary of the latter, who Hourished about 01. 82. 
(a c. 452.) [C. P. M.J 

ACESTO'RIDES {^AjctaropiZi\s), a Corinthian, 
was made supreme commander by the Syracusans 
in B. c. 3 1 7, and banished Agathocles from the city. 
(Diod. xix. 5.) 

ACESTO'RIDES wrote four books of mythical 
stories relating to every city (ruir Kocri -woKlv 
HxSiKuv). In these he gave many n-al historical 



8 ACIIAEUS. 

accounts, an well as those wliitli wore mort'Iy 
mythical, hut h<r cntitlt'd them ftuHiKd to tiMiid 
ciiluiiiiiy and to indicate the ph-atiant iiutiin- of 1\h- 
work. It waH compiled from Coiion, Apollodoru», 
I'rotiigoiiiH and ollieru. {I'lwt. JJill. coi\. UiU ; 
Tzetz. ('hit. vii. 144.) 

AL'IIAKA ('Axoi'a), a Bumame of Demetcr by 
wliicli tihe WU8 worhhipp)ed at AthenH hy the (Je- 
phynieanH wlio had eniignited thither from Itoeotiu. 
(Herod, v. (>1 ; i'hit. h. H Onir. p. .'{ril, ii.) 

2. A surname of Minerva worHhip|)cd at Lu- 
ceria in Apulia where the donariu and the amis of 
Diomedeii were prewrved in her temple. (Arittut. 
Minth. Narrat. 117.) [L.S.J 

ACHAKUS ('AxcMiJi), according to nearly all 
tniditionx a son of XutiiiiH and CreuMi, and conne- 
quently a brother of Ion and gnuidHon of Ilellen. 
The Achaeans regarded him as the author of their 
race, and derived from him their own name as well 
as that of Achai.i, which was formerly called 
Aegialus. When his uncle Aeolus in TheMoly, 
whence he himself had come to I'eloponnesus, died, 
he went thither and made himself master of 
Phthiotis, which now also received from him the 
name of Achaia. (I'aus. rii. 1. §2; Strab. viii. 
p. 383 ; Apollod. i. 7. § 3.) Servius {ail Aen. i. 242) 
alone cidls Achaeus a son of Jupiter and Pithia, 
which is probably miswritten fur Phthia. [L. S,J 

ACll Alius ('Axa«<^j), son of Andronmchus, 
whose sister I^aodice married Seleucus Callinicus, 
the father of Antiochus the Great. Achocus 
himself married Laodice, the daughter of Mithri- 
dates, king of Pontus. (Polyb. iv. ol. § 4, viii. 
22. § 11.) lie accompanied Seleucus Ceraunus, the 
son of Callinicus, in his expedition across mount 
Taunis against Att^ilus, and after the assassination 
of Seleucus revenged his death ; and though he 
might easily have assumed tRe royal power, he re- 
mained faithful to the family of Seleucus. Anti- 
ochus tlie Great, the successor of Seleucus, ap- 
pointed him to the command of all Asia on this 
side of mount Ttaurus, a. c. 223. Achaeus re- 
covered for the Syrian empire all the districts 
which Attains had gained ; but having been fidsely 
accused by Hermeias, the minister of Antiochus, 
of intending to revolt, he did so in self-defence, 
assumed the title cf king, and nded over the whole 
of Asia on this side of the Taurus. As long as 
Antiochus was engaged in the war with Ptolemy, 
he could not march against Achaeus ; but after a 
peace had been concluded with Ptolemy, he crossed 
the Taurus, united his forces with Attalus, de- 
prived Achaeus in one campaign of all his do- 
minions and took Sardis with the exception of 
the citadel. Achaeus after sustaining a siege of 
two years in the citadel at last fell into the hands 
of Antiochus B. c. 214, through the treachery of 
Bolis, who had been employed by Sosibius, the 
minister of Ptolemy, to deliver him from his 
danger, but betrayed him to Antiochus, who 
ordered him to be put to death immediately. (Polyb. 
iv. 2. § 6, iv. 48, V. 40. § 7, 42, 57, vii. 15—18, 
viii. 17—23.) 

ACHAEUS ('Axa«{j) of Eretria in Euboea, a 
tragic poet, was bom b. c. 484, the year in which 
Aeschylus gained his first victory, and four years 
before the birth of Euripides. In b. c. 477, he 
contended with Sophocles and Euripides, and 
thougli he subsequently brought out many dramas, 
according to some as many as thirty or forty, he 
nevertheless only gained the prize once. The 



ACHELOU.v 

fnigmcntfi of Achaeu» contain II. i: ' . iii\t)io- 
lii;.'y, ami hit cxprfHuionii wri' ' I'U and 

olincuic. (.Vlheii. X. p. 4.'il. I . ) - -.ityrical 

drama he must have p<> ' tiu-rit, 

for in this department m;; thought 

him inferior only to Aeschylus. (Diuj(. Laer. ii. 
133.) The titles of seven of bis satyrical dianiM 
and of tvn of his tr ' •" kitonrB. TIm 

extant fragmento ^<.-«a eolbctod. 

and edited by Urli' ' Suidas, c tk) 

This Achaeus should i with » 

later tragic writer of th' < was a 

native of Syracusf-. According to ,^uidas and 
Phiivorinus be wrote t4-n, according to Eudocui 
fourteen tragedies. (Uriichs, lljvl.) [It. W.J 

ACHAE^AIENES {'AxcufUrnt). 1. The an- 
cestor of the Persian kings, wno founded the 
family of the Achaeinenidae ('Axoi^ffiScu ;, which 
was tlie noblest family of the Pasorgadac, the 
noblest of the Persian tribes. Achaemeoee is MJd 
to hare been brought up by an CMie. Aceordim 
to a gnjealof" ■"•■••• i- Xerxes, the following was 
the order •'■ t: Achaemenes, Tei'spea, 

Cambyses, ( , ^'S Ariaramnes, Ananies, 

Hystospes, Lhuius, Xerxes. (Herod, i. 125, vii. 1 1 ; 
Aelian, J lift. Anitiu xiL 21.) The original scat of 
this ^nily was Achaemenia in Persis. (Steph. i.v. 
' Ax'uiiavia.) The Roman poets use the adjective 
Acluiemeniu* in the lenie of Persian. (Hor. C<irm. 
iii. 1. 44, xiii. 8 ; Or. Ar. Am, L 226, Met. ir. 
212.) 

2. The son of Darius I. was appointed by his 
brother Xerxes governor of Egj'pt, h. <:. 484. He 
commanded the Egyptian fleet '. ' ' .f 

Xerxes against Greece, and ^ '! 

prudentadviceof Demaratus. W .. .. . i 

under Inarus the Libyan in b. c. 4tiii. s 

was sent to subdue it, but was defeut> A 

in battle by Inarus. (Herod. ilL 12, vii. 7, 1'/, 
23C ; Diod. xi. 74.) 

ACHAEME'MDES or ACHEME'NIDES, a 
son of Adamastus of Ithaca, and a companion of 
Ulysses who left him behind in Sicily, when he 
fled from the Cyclops. Here he was found by 
Aeneas who took him with him. (Virg. Aen. iiL 
613, &c. ; Ov. Ex Pont. ii. 2. 25.) [L. S.J 

ACHA'ICUS,asumameofL.Mt>iMH-H. 

ACHA'ICUS ('Ax<»*»«Jj). a philosopher, who 
wTote a work on Ethics. His time is unknown. 
(Diog. Laert. vu 99 ; Theodor. Graee. affed. cur. 
viii. p. 919, ed. Schulze; Clem. Alex. Utrom. ir. 
p. 496, d.) 

ACHELO'IS. 1. A surname of the Sirens, 
the daughters of Achelous and a muse. (Ov. 
Md. V. 552, xiv. 87 ; Apollod. i. 7. § 10.) 

2. A general name for water-nymphs, as in 
Columella (x. 263), where the companions of the 
Pegasids are called Acheloides. [L. S.J 

ACHELO'US ('Ax<A.¥os), the god of the river 
Achelous which was the greatest, and according to 
tradition, the most ancient among the rivers of 
Greece. He with 3000 brother-rivers is described 
as a son of Oceanus and Thetys (Hes. Theog. 340), 
or of Oceanus and Gaea, or lastly of Helios and 
Gaea. (Natal. Com. vii. 2.) The origin of the 
river Achelous is thus described by Servius {ad 
Virg. Georg. i. 9; Aen. viii. 300): When Ache- 
lous on one occasion had lost his daughters, the 
Sirens, and in his grief invoked his mother Gaea, 
she received him to her bosom, and on the spot 
where she received him, she caused the river bear- 



ACHERON. 

irig his name to gush forth. Other accounts about 
the origin of the river and its name are given by 
Htephanus of Byzantium, Strabo (x. p. 4.50), and 
Plutarch. {De Flum. •22.) Achelous the god was 
a competitor with Heracles in the suit for 
Dei'aneim, and fought with him for the bride. 
Achelous was conquered in the contest, but as he 
possessed the power of assuming various forms, he 
metamorphosed himself first into a serpent and 
then into a bull. But in this form too he was con- 
quered by Heracles, and deprived of one of his 
horns, which however he recovered by giving up 
the horn of Amalthea. (Ov. J\/e<.ix.8,&c.; Apollod. 
i. 8. § 1, ii. 7. § 5.) Sophocles (Trachin. 9, &c.) 
makes DeVaneira relate these occurrences in a some- 
what dirterent manner. According to Ovid {Mel. 
ix. 87), the Naiads changed the horn which 
Heracles took fnmi Achelous into the horn of 
plenty. When Theseus returned home from the 
Calydonian ch.ise he was invited and hospitably 
received by Achelous, who related to him in what 
manner he had created the islands called Echinades. 
(Ov. Afet. viii. 547, &c.) The numerous wives 
and descendants of Achelous are spoken of in 
separate articles. Strabo (x. p. 458) proposes a 
very ingenious interpretation of the legends about 
Achelous, all of which according to him arose from 
the nature of the river itself. It resembled a bull's 
voice in the noise of the water ; its windings and 
its reaches gave rise to the story about his forming 
himself into a serpent and aljout his honss ; the 
formation of ishmds at the mouth of the river re- 
quires no explanation. His conquest by Heracles 
lastly refers to the embankments by which Heracles 
confined the river to its bed and thus gained hirge 
tracts of land for cultivation, which are expressed 
by the horn of plenty. (Compare N'oss, M^tkoloy. 
Jirie/e, Ixxii.) Others derive the legends about 
Achelous from Egypt, and describe him as a second 
Nilus. But however this may be, he was from 
the earliest times considered to be a great divinity 
throughout CJreece (Horn. //. xxi. 194), and was 
invoked in prayers, sacrifices, on taking oaths, &c. 
(Ephorus up. Macrub. v. 18), and the Dodoneiin 
Zeus usually added to each oracle he gave, the 
conunand to otfer sacrifices to Achelous. ( Ephonis, 
/. f.) This wide extent of the worship of Achelous 
also accounts for his being regarded as the repre- 
sentative of sweet water in general, that is, as the 
source of all nourishment. ( Virg. Oeory. i. 9, with 
the note of Voss.) The contest of Achelous with 
Heracles was represented on the throne of Amyclae 
(Fans. iii. 18. § 9), and in the treasury of the 
Megiirians at Olympia there was a statue of him 
made by Dontas of cedar- wood and gold. (Pans, 
vi. 19. § 9.) On several coins of Acamania the 
god is represented as a bull with the head of an 
old man. (Conip. Philostr. Imaq. n. 4.) [L. S.J 
ACHEME'NIDES. [Achakmkmdks.] 
ACIIEHON i^Kxifivv). In ancient geography 
there occur several rivers of this name, all of which 
were, at least at one time, believed to be connected 
with the lower world. The river first looked upon 
in this light was the Acheron in Thesprotiiv, in 
Epirus, a country which appeared to the earliest 
Greeks as the end of the world in the west, and 
the locality of the river led them to the belief that 
it was the entrance into the lower world. When 
subsequently Epirus and the countries beyond the 
sea became better known, the Acheron or the en- 
trance to the lower world was transferred to other 



ACHILLES. 



9 



more distant parts, and at last the Acheron wa» 
placed in the lower world itself. Thus we find iu 
the Homeric poems (CW. x. 513 ; comp. Pans. i. 17. 
§ 5) the Acheron described as a river of Hades, into 
which the Pyriphlegeton and Cocytus are said to 
flow. Virgil {Aen. vi. 297, with the note of Ser- 
vius) describes it as the principal river of Tartirus 
from which the Styx and Cocytus sprang. Ac- 
cording to later traditions, Acheron had been a sou 
of Helios and Gaea or Demeter, and was changed 
into the river bearing his name in the lower world, 
because he had refreshed the Titans with drink 
during their contest with Zeus. They further 
state that Am ' ' .> a son of Acheron and 

Orphne or G( il. Com. iiL I.) In lata 

writers the l, ju is used in a general 

sense to designate the whole of the lower world. 
(V'ii;g. Aen. vjL 31*2 ; Cic. pout rtdit. m Senai. 10 ; 
C. Nepos, DioHf 10.) The Etruscans too were 
acquainted with the worship of Acheron (Acheruns) 
from very early times, aa we niut infer from their 
Acheruntici libri, which amaac vuiMU other things 
treated on the deification of tM wals, and on the 
sacrifices (Acheruiitia «u<-ru) by which this was to 
be etfected. (Muller, Ktrutker, ii. 27, &c.) The 
description of the Acheron and the lower world ia 
general in Plato's Phaedo (p. 112) i* rery pecu- 
liar, and not very easy to undentuuL [L. S.] 

ACHEUU'SIA ('Ax'poiM'^ ^/«*^, or 'Kx*pov- 
<jU\ a name given by the ancients to s»*v.i-.l i .L.., 
or swamps, which, like the various i 
name of Acheron, were at some time . 

be connected tcith the lower world, until at Uai the 
Acheru&ia came to be considered to be m the lower 
world itself. The lake to which this belief seems to 
have been first attached was the Acherusia iu The*- 
protia, through which the river Acheron flowed. 
(Thuc. L 4(> ; Strab. vii. p. 324.) Other Likes or 
swamps of the same name, and believed to be in con- 
nexion with the lower world, were near Hennione 
in Argolis (Paus. ii. 35. § 7), near Heraclea in Bi- 
thynia (Xen. AmJt. vi. 2. § 2; Diod. xiv. 31), be- 
tween Cumae and cape Misenum iu Campania 
(Plin. //. A', iii. 5; Strab. v. p. 243), and lastly 
in Egypt, near Memphis. (Diod. i. 9(>.) [L. S.] 
ACHILLAS ('Ax«^Aaj), one of the guardians 
of the ^jptian king Ptolemy Dionysus, and 
oommaiider of the troops, when Pompey fled 
to Egypt, B. c. 48. He is called by Caesar a maa 
of extraordinary daring, and it was he and L. 
Septimius who killed Pompev. (Caes. B. C. iii. 
104; Li v. EpU. 104 ; Dion Cass. xlii. 4.) He 
subsequently joined the eunuch Pothinus in re- 
sisting Caesar, and having had the command of the 
whole army entrusted to him by Pothinus, he 
marched against Alexandria with 20,000 foot and 
2000 horse. Caesar, who was at Alexandria, had 
not sufficient forces to oppose him, and sent am- 
bassadors to treat with him, but these Achillas 
murdered to remove all hopes of reconciliation. 
He then marched into Alexandria and obtained 
possession of the greatest part of the city. Mean- 
while, however, Arsinoe, the younger sister of 
Ptolemy, escaped fh>m Caesar and joined Achillas ; 
but dissensions breaking out between them, she 
had Achillas put to death by Ganymedes a eunuch, 
B. c. 47, to whom she then entrusted th - command 
of the forces. (Caes. B. C. iiL 108— 1 1 :> ; B. Akx. 
4; Dion Cass. xliL 36 — 10; Lucan. x. 519 — 
523.) 

ACHILLES ('Ax«AA«;i). In the legends about 



10 



ACHILLKS. 



Achilles, aH about all the h«rot'» of the Trojan war, 
the lldiiicric traditioim Rhoiild be carefully kept 
apart from the vanous aihlition* and cnihelliHli- 
iiieiitH with which the gaps of the ancient story 
have been tilled up by later poet* and mythogra- 
phers, not indeed by fabrications of their own, but 
by adopting those sui)plementiiry detaila, by which 
oral tra<liti<)ii in the course of centuries had va- 
riously altered and developed the original kernel 
of the stor}*, or those account! which were peculiar 
only to certiiin Iwalities, 

Homeric stori/. Achilles was the son of Peleus, 
king of the Mymiidones in Phthiotis, in Thessjily, 
and of the Nereid Thetis. (Horn, Jl. xx. 20(J, &c.) 
From his father's name he is often called nTjAffS???, 
IlTjAiji'ciSTjf, or nr]\€l(M)v (Horn. //. xviii. 'MC>; i. 
1 ; i. 197; Virg. Acn. ii. '2(>',i), and from that of 
his grandfather Aeacus, ho derived his name Aea- 
cides (AiaKi'STjr, //. ii. RfjO ; Virg. Aen. i. 91)). 
He was educated from his tender childhood by 
Phoenix, who Uiught him eloquence and the art* 
of war, and acconi]>aniod him to the Trojan war, 
and to whom the hero always shewed great at- 
tachment, (ix. 41t.5, &c.; 43!t, &.c.) In the heal- 
ing art he was instnicted by Cheiron, the centaur, 
(xi. >!3'2.) His mother Thetis foretold him that 
his fate was cither to gain glory and die early, or 
to live a long but inglorious life. (ix. 410,&c.) 
The hero chose thf lattefj(> and took part in the 
Trojan war, fiom which-'fie knew that he was not 
to return. In fifty ships, or according to later 
traditions, in sixty (Hygin. Fal. 97), he led his 
hosts of Mymiidones, Hellenes, and Achacans 
against Troy. (ii. 681, &c., xvi. 168.) Here the 
swift-footed Achilles was the great bulwark of the 
Greeks, and the worthy favourite of Athena and 
Henv. (i. 195, 208.) Previous to his dispute with 
Agamemnon, he ravaged the country around Troy, 
and destroyed twelve towns on the coast and ele- 
ven in the interior of the country, (ix. 3*28, &c.) 
When Agamemnon was obliged to give up Chry- 
seis to her father, he threatened to take away 
Briseis from Achilles, who surrendered her on the 
persuasion of Athena, but at the same time refused 
to take any further part in the war, and shut him- 
self up in his tent. Zeus, on the entreaty of The- 
tis, promised that victory should be on the side of 
the Trojans, until the Achaeans should have ho- 
noured her son. (i. 26, to the end.) The affairs of 
the Greeks declined in consequence, and they were 
at last pressed so hard, that Agamemnon advised 
them to take to flight, (ix. 17, &c.) But other 
chiefs opposed this counsel, and an embassy was 
sent to Achilles, offering him rich presents and the 
restoration of Briseis (ix. 119, &c.) ; but in vain. 
At last, however, he was persuaded by Patroclus, 
his dearest friend, to allow him to make use of his 
men, his horses, and his armour, (xvi. 49, &c.) 
Patroclus was slain, and when this news reached 
Achilles, he was seized with unspeakable griet 
Thetis consoled him, and promised new arms, 
■which were to be made bj' Hephaestus, and Iris 
appeared to rouse him from his lamentations, and 
exhorted him to rescue the body of Patroclus. 
(xviii. 166, &c.) Achilles now rose, and his 
thundering voice alone put the Trojans to flight. 
When his new armour was brought to him, 
he reconciled himself to Agamemnon, and hur- 
ried to the field of battle, disdaining to take 
any drink or food until the death of his friend 
should be avenged, (xix. 155, &c.) He wound- 



ACHILLE8. 

ed and ilew nunilx-r* of Trojan* {xx. xx\.), and 
at length met Hector, whom he chsMHl thriM 
around the wall* of the city. He then tWw Uai, 
tied his Imdy to hi* chariot, and dnfgbi kia 
to the ohipM of the (Jrceki. (xxii.) Aft«r tliu, h« 
burnt the body of Putroclui, together with twelve 
young aiptive Trojan*, who were Mchficed to sp- 
peaM! the «pirit of liii friend ; and lubiequeiitljr 
gave up the )>ody of Hector to Priiun, who oubm 
in person to l>eg for it. (xxiii. xxiv.) AchillM 
himself fell in the Ijattle at the Scaean gate, ^ 
Troy was taken. His death itself doee not > 
in the Iliad, but it is alluded to in a few 
(xxii. 3.'j8, &c., xxi. 278, &c.) It is exprettly 
mentioned in the Odyssey (xxir. 36, &c.), when 
it is said that his fall — his conqueror is not mcD* 
tioned — was lamenterl 1 ' jil men, that hi« 

remains together with ' ;roclus were bu- 

ried in a golden un» u ■• •'-'•d given a* 

a present to Thetis, a; in a pUoa 

on the coast of the 1 i a mound 

was raistrd over them. AchUks >• tiic principal 
liero of the Iliad, and the poet dwells upon the 
delineation of his char.i ' ' ' ' ir»- 

tion, feelings in which ay- 

pathise with him. A :;i'.-«t 

and bravest of all the (ireeks ; he is affectionate 
towards his mother and his friends, fomiidaMe in 
battles, which are his delight ; open-hearted and 
without fear, and at the same time susceptible to 
the :. ' " f home. His greatest 

pari V I his sense of honour i* 

hurt, i revenge and anger, bot 

withal submits obediently to the will of the gods. 
Later iraditumf. These chiefly consist in ac- 
counts which fill up the history of his youth and 
death. His mother wishing to make her son im- 
mortal, is said to have cone. ' ' • ■ ' ' ' t in 
fire, in order to destroy th. ad 

inherited from his father, ani] ... ted 

him with ambrosia. But Peleus < to- 

vered his child in the fire, and cri.- rror. 

Thetis left her son and fled, and Pclc-uit entruiited 
him to Cheiron, who educated and instructed him 
in the arts of riding, hunting, and playing the 
phorminx, and also changed his original name, 
Ligyron, t. e. the "whining," into Achilles. (Pind. 
Nem. iii. 51, &c.; Orph. Art^m. 395 ; Apollon. 
Rhod. iv. 813 ; Stat. Achd. j.*269, &c. ; Apollod- 
iii. 13. § 6, &c.) Cheiron fed his pupil with the 
hearts of lions and the marrow of bears. Accord- 
ing to other accounts, Thetis endeavoured to make 
Achilles immortal by dipping him in the river 
Styx, and succeeded with the exception of the an- 
kles, by which she held him (Fulgent. MytkoL iiL 
7 ; Stat. Achill. i. 269), while others again state 
that she put him in boiling water to test his im- 
mortality, and that he was found immortal except 
at the ankles. From his sixth year he fought with 
lions and bears, and caught stags without dogs or 
nets. The muse Calliope gave him the power of 
singing to cheer his friends at banquets. (Philostr. 
Her. xix. 2.) When he had reached the age of 
nine, 'Calchas declared that Troy could not be 
taken without his aid, and Thetis knowing that 
this war would be fatal to him, disguised him as a 
maiden, and introduced him among the daughters 
of Lycomedes of Scyros, where he was called by 
the name of Pj'rrha on account of his golden locks. 
But his real character did not remain concealed 
long, for one of his companions, Deidameia, became 



ACHILLES. 

mother of a son, Pyrrhus or Neoptolernus, by nim- 
The Greeks at, last discovered his plate of conceal- 
ment, and an embassy was sent to Lycomedes, 
who, though he denied the presence of Achilles, 
yet allowed the messengers to search his palace. 
Odysseus discovered the young hero by a strata- 
gem, and Achilles immediately promised his assist- 
ance to the Greeks. ( ApoUod. /. c. ; Ilygin. /oA. 
96; Stat. Achil. ii. 200.) A different account of 
his stay in Scyros is given by Plutarch (7V«w. 35) 
and Philostratus. {Her. xix. 3.) 

Respecting his conduct towards Iphigeneia at 
Aulis, see Agamemnon, Iphigeneia. 

During the war against Troy, Achilles slew 
Penthesileia, an Amazon, but was deeply moved 
when he discovered her Ixsiuty ; and when Ther- 
sites ridiculed him for his tenderness of heart, 
Achilles killed the scoffer by a blow with the fist. 
(Q. Smyrn. i. 6(J9, &c. ; Paus. v. 11. §2; corop. 
Soph. PhiliH-t. 445 ; Lycoph. Cus. 999 ; Tzetzes, 
Pmthom. 199.) He also f<iiight with Memnon and 
Troilus. (Q. Smyrn. ii. 480, &c.; Hygin. Fub. 112; 
Virg, Aen. i. 474, &c.) The accounts of his death 
differ very much, though all agree in stating that 
he did not fall by human hands, or at least not 
without the interference of the god Apollo. Ac- 
cording to some traditions, he was killed by Apollo 
himself (Soph. I'hiluct. 334 ; Q. Smyrn. iii. 0'2 ; 
Hor. Carm, iv. 6. 3, &c.), as he had been fore- 
told. (Horn. //, xxi. 2"8.) According to Hyginus 
{Fuh. 107), Apollo assumed the appearance of 
Paris iu killing him, while others say that Apollo 
merely directed the weapon of Paris against Achil- 
les, and thus caused his death, as had been sug- 
gested by tlie dyhig Hector. (Virg. Aen. vi. 57; 
Ov. Met. xii, ()01, &c.; Hom. //. xxii. 35«, &c.) 
Dictys Cretensis (iii. 29) relates his death thus : 
Achilles loved Polyxena, a daughter of Priam, and 
tempted by the promise that he should receive her 
as his wife, if he would join the Trojans, he weat 
without arms into tlie temple of Apt)llo at Thym- 
bnv, and was assassinated there by Paris. (Comp. 
Philostr. Iler. xix. 1 1 ; Hygin. FaL 107 and 110; 
Dares Phryg. 34 ; Q. Sinym. iii . 50 ; Tiets. ad 
Lyvophr. 307.) His body was rescued by Ody»- 
seus and Ajax the Telamonian ; his anuour was 
promised by Thetis to the bravest among the 
Greeks which gave rise to a contest between the 
two heri>es who had rescued his body. [Ajax.] 

After his death, Achilles became one of the 
judges in the lower world, and dwelled in the is- 
lands of the blessed, where he was united with 
Medeia or Iphigeneia. The fabulous island of Leuce 
in the Euxine was especiiiUy sacred to him, and 
was called Acliillea, because, according to some re- 
ports, it contained his body. (Mehi, iL 7; SchoL 
ud Find. Nem. iv. 49 ; Paus. iii. 1 9. § 11 . ) Achilles 
was worshipped as one of the nation.-il heroes of 
Greece. The Thessidians, at the command of the 
oracle of Dodoiui, offered annual sacrifices to him 
in Troas. (Philostr. Her. xis. 14.) In the ancient 
gymnasium at Olympia there was a cenotaph, at 
which certain solemnities were performed before 
the Olympic games commenced. (Paus. vi. 23. 
§ 2.) Sanctuaries of Achilles existed on the 
road from Araidia to Sparta (Paus. iii. 20. § 8), on 
cape Sigeum in Troas (Strab. xi. p. 494), and other 
places. The events of his life were frequently re- 
presented iu ancient works of art, (Uottiger, Va- 
^wtem'dhle, iii. p. 1 44, &c.; Museum Clement, i. 52, 
V. 1 7 ; Villa Bo:^. i. 9 ; Mus. Nap. ii. 59.) [ L. S.] 



ACHILLES TATIUS. 



11 



ACHILLES ('Axi^AtiJj), a son of Lyson of 
Athens, who was believed to have first introduced 
in his native city the mode of sending persons 
into exile by ostracism. (Ptolem. Heph. vL p. 333.) 
Several other and more credible accounts, how- 
ever, ascribe this institution with more probability 
to other persons. [L. S.] 

ACHILLES TATIUS ('AxiAAei)! Tarwj), or 
as Suidas and Eudocia call him Achilles Statius, 
an Alexandrine rhetorician, who was formerly be- 
lieved to have lived in the second or third century 
of our aera. But as it is a wt-l! ' ' ;, 

which is also acknowledged by Pi. 
imitated Heliodorus of Emesa, ''■■ " 1 

after this writer, and therefo: > 

the latter half of the fifth or : le 

sixth century of our aera. Suidaa aiates iliat he 
was originally a Pasfan, and that subsequently he 



was converted to ( ' 
SMertion, aa fiur a~ 

the ro<>r'"'". i-' 

work ' 

tian t. 

prove i'l'uiu it that h. 

romance is a history 

two lovers, Cleitophon ana !.•■ 



The truth of this 
itius, the author of 
>i supported by the 
no marks of Chris- 
nut tj- ilitHcult to 
This 
;res of 
. .i.|i'. It ix-ars the 



title Tci KOTci Atuir^«-in}f koi K-Ktirtxpima, and 
consists of eight books. Nutuithstaiiding all its 
defects, it is one of the best love-stories of the 
Greeks. Cleitophon is represented in it relating to 
a friend the whole course of the events from b^ 
ginning to end, a plan which render* the story 
ntlier tediaiu, and make* the nanBtar ^^lear 
aflaelel and iiiii{Md. Adiillea, like liia pradeeoator 
Heliadaraa, ^{■«i«V»«l hanng raeottne to what is 
marrdlooa aad imprahahle is itaeU, but the aecu- 
maktkm of adTcntnrea and of physical as well as 
monl difflrattiea, which ' 'lave to over- 

eeoM, befaie thejr ai« h . , is too great 

«Dd ffiodan tlM rterj imprubauie, mougfa their ar- 
mBaiMa* aad aweeiaiaii an ■kiifiilijr managed b j 
the aatker. NaaBerous parts of the work however 
are written without taste and judgment, and do 
not appear connected with the story by any inter- 
nal necessity. Betides these, the work has a 
great numy digreasionft, «4iich, although interest- 
ing in themselres aad containing curious infor- 
mation, interrupt and inpede the progress of the 
narrative. The work is tuO of imitations of other 
writers &»m the time of Plato to that of Achilles 
himself, and while he thus trusts to his books and 
his learning, he appears ignorant of human nature 
and the al&irs of real life. The laws of decency 
; ' 'v are not always paid due regard to, a 

I is even noticed by Photius. The 

-: -..-■ work, on which the author sif!iis tn 

have bestowed his principal care, is th" 
rhetorical : there is a perpetual striving ai i 
gance and beauty, after images, puns, and uiiii- 
theses. These things, however, were just what 
the age of Achilles required, and that his novel 
was much read, is attested by the number of 
MSS. still extant 

A part of it was first printed in a Latin trans- 
lation by Annibal della Croce (Crucejus), Ley- 
den, 1 544 ; a complete translation appeared at 
Basel in 1554. The first edition of the Greek 
original appeared at Heidelberg, 1601, 8vo., print- 
ed together with similar works of Lon^rus and 
Parthenius. An edition, with a voluminous though 
rather careless commentary, was published by Sal- 



12 



ACIIMET. 



manlui, liPydcn, 1G40, 8vo. 'J'Ik; \)ont and mont rft- 1 
cent edition in by Fr. JacdbK, Lei|»/.i>(, lit"21, in 
2 voIh. Itvc). 'J"lu! iirht voluiiur contiiiuH the prole- ] 
gonuMiii, the t<'xt and tlie Latin tninHlation l)y 
CrncejiiK, and the Kecond the t<innncnliiry. 'I'here 
is an Kn^liKh tranMlation of the work, by A. II. 
(Anthony HodjreH), Oxford, KJSft, Hvo. 

Siiidait aKcribeH to tliiH Mime Aciiiiles TntiiiK, a 
work on tlic sphere {irtpl a((>alpas), a fnij,'ment of 
which profeHhing to be an introduction to the 
Piiminomena of AmtuH (E4(Ta7<«ry>) tis ra 'Apirou 
<paiv6fi.fva) in still exUint. Bnt uh this work iH 
referred to by FinnicuH (Afal/ics. iv. 10), who 
lived earlier than the time we have aitgigncd to 
Achilles, the author of the work on the Sphere 
must have lived before the time of the writer of 
the romance. The work itself h of no particular 
value. It is j)rinted in Petavius, Urann/oifia, 
Paris, IC.'iO, and Amsterdam, 170.'5, fol. Suidas 
also mentions a work of Achilles Tatius on Ety- 
mology, and another entitled Miscellaneous iliv 
tories ; as both are lost, it is ini[)ossible to deter- 
mine which Acliilles was their author. [L. S.] 

ACIIILLEUS assumed the title of empt^ror 
under Diocletian and reigned over Kgypt for some 
time. He was at length taken by IJiocletiiin after 
a siege of eight months in Alexandria, and put 
to death, A. u. 2!)G. (Eutrop. ix. 14, 15 ; Aurel. 
Vict, de Cues. 3.9.) 

ACIII'LLIDES, a patronjrmic, formed from 
Achilles, and given to his son Pyrrhus. (Ov. 
Jleroid. viii. .3.) [L. S.] 

ACHl'ROE ('Axip<^i7), or according to Apollo- 
dorus (ii. 1. § 4) Anchinoe, which is periiaps a mis- 
take for Anchiroi*, was a daughter of Nilus, and 
the wife of Belus, by whom she became the mother 
of Aegyptus and Dauaus. According to the scho- 
liast on Lycophron (583 and 1161), Arcs liegot 
by her a son, Sithon, and iwcording to Hegesippus 
{ap. Staph. Byz. s. v. riaWTJi'Tj), also two daugh- 
ters, Pallenaea and Rhoetea, from whom two 
towns derived their names. [L. S.] 

ACHLYS ('AxA.us), according to some ancient 
cosmogonies, the eternal night, and the first 
created being which existed even before Chaos. 
According to Hesiod, she was the personification 
of misery and sadness, and as such she was repre- 
sented on the shield of Heracles {Scut. Here. 264, 
&c.): pale, emaciated, and weeping, with chatter- 
ing teeth, swollen knees, long nails on her fingers, 
bloody cheeks, and her shoulders thickly covered 
with dust. [L. S.] 

ACHMET, son of Seirim ('AxM*''' ^'^os 'Zftpein), 
the author of a work on the Interpretation of 
Dreams, 'OvetpoKpiriKci, is probably the same per- 
son as Abu Bekr Mohammed Ben Sirin, whose 
work on the same subject is still extant in Arabic 
in the Royal Library at Paris, {Catal. Cod. Ma- 
ntiscr, Biblioth. Reg. Paris, vol. i. p. 230, cod. 
Mccx.,) and who was bom a. h. 33, (a. d. 653-4,) 
and died a. h. 1 10. (a. d. 728-9.) (See Nicoll and 
Pusey, Catal. Cod. Manuscr. Arab. Biblioth. Bodl. 
p. 516.) This conjecture will seem the more pro- 
bable when it is recollected that the two names 
Ahmed or Aclimet and Mohammed, however unlike 
each other they may appear in English, consist in 
Arabic of four letters each, and differ only in the 
first. There must, however, be some difference 
between Achmet's work, in the form in which we 
liave it, and that of Ibn Sirin, as the writer of the 
fonner (or the translator) appears from internal evi- 



AC I DIN US. 

dencc to have b<«n certainly a Christian, (e. 3, 
150, &c.) It exist* only in <irw;k, or rather (if 
the above conjecture an \i> it* author be correct) 
it has only Ix-cn jiubliiilicd in that lan((ua^. It 
consists of three hundred and four < li:it.t».rk. .-iml 
profe»»<*s to l)e derived from what luf ;i 

on the *amc subject by the Indian*, I' - ^1 

Kgyptmns. It wan transhit'-d out of (in:«'li, into 
Latin about tiie year ll<i((, by lieo Tuicut, of 
which work two H[«*ciim'ns are t/i be found in 
Casp. Barthii Ailrermrui. (xxxi. 14, «-d. Fraiic«»f. 
1624, foil.) It was first published at Frankfort, 
1577, 8vo., in a Latin translation, made by I^un- 
clavius, from a very imfx-rfett (ireek manutcript, 
with the title ^ Apomasari* Apotelesmata, »ire 
de Significatis et Eventi* Insomnionim, ex liido- 
rum, Persarum, Aegyptiorumfjue Uinciplina." T\i» 
word AjxtiiiniKtrei is a corruption of the naae flf 
the famous Albumasar, or Abu MaMiar, and Lran- 
clavius afterward* acknowledged hi* mistake in 
attributing the work to him. It was published in 
(ireek and I^tin by Rigaltius, and appended to 
hi* edition of the Oneirucrilica of Art4fmidoru*, 
Lutet. Paris. 160.3, 4to., and some () reck varioua 
reiulings are inserted l>y Jac. I)c Ithoer in hit 
Otiuin iMvenlrieiue, p. 338, &.C. Davt-ntr. 1762, 
8vo. It has alao been translated into Italian, 
French, and German. [W. A. d.] 

ACHO'LIUS held the office of MwjifUr Ad- 
miisujfium in the reign of Valerian. ( b. <:. '2y.i— 
260.) One of his works was entitled Acta, and 
contained an account of the history of Aurelian. 
It was in nine books at least. (Vopisc. Aurel. 12.) 
He also wrote the life of Alexander Severus. 
(Umprid. Alex. Sev. 14. 48. 68.) 

ACHOLOE. [Harpyiak.] 

ACICHO'RIU.S {^ KKixdputt) was one of the 
leaders of the Gauls, who invaded Thrace and 
Macedonia in B. c. 280. He and Brennas com- 
manded the division that marched into Paeonia. 
In the following year, B. c. 279, he accompanied 
Brennus in his invasion of Greece. (Paus. x. 19. 
§ 4, 5, 22. § 5, 23. § 1, kc.) Some writers suppose 
that Brennus and Acichorius are the same persons, 
the former being only a title and the latter the 
real name. (Schmidt, " De fontibus veterum auc- 
torum in enarrandis expeditionibus a Gallis in 
Macedoniam susceptis," BeroL 1834.) 

ACIDA'LIA, a surname of Venus (Virg. Aen. 
i. 720), which according to Serrius was derived 
from the well Acidalius near Orchomenos, in which 
Venus used to bathe with the Graces ; others con- 
nect the name with the Greek axiSci, i. «. cares or 
troubles. [L. .S.] 

ACIDI'NUS, a family-name of the Manlia 
gens. Cicero speaks of the Acidini as among the 
first men of a former age, {De leg. agr. ii. 24.) 

1. L. Manlil's Acidinus, praetor urbanus in 
B. c. 210, was sent by the senate into Sicily to 
bring back the consul Valerius to Rome to hold 
the elections. (Liv. xxvi. 23, xxvii. 4.) InB. c. 
207 he was vrith the troops stationed at Namia to 
oppose Hasdrubal, and was the first to send to 
Rome intelligence of the defeat of the latter. (Liv. 
xxvii. 50.) In b. c. 206 he and L. Cornelius 
Lentulus had the province of Spain entrusted to 
them with proconsular power. In the following 
year he conquered the Ausetani and Ilergetes, 
who had rebelled against the Romans in conse- 
quence of the absence of Scipio. He did not re- 
turn to Rome till b. c. 199, but was prevented by 



ACIS. 
the tribune P. Porcius Laeca from entering the 
city in an ovation, which the senate had granted 
him. (Liv. xxviii. 38, xxix. 1 — 3, 13, xxxii. 7.) 
2. L. Manlius AciDiNus Fulvianus, origin- 
ally belonged to the Fulvia gens, but was adopted 
into the Maiilia gens, probably by the above-men- 
tioned Acidinus. (Veil. Pat. ii. b.) He was 
praetor B. c. 188, and had the province of Hispania 
Citerior allotted to him, where he remained till 
B. c. 186. In the latter year he defeated the 
Celtiberi, and had it not been for the arrival of his 
successor would liave reduced the whole people to 
subjection. He applied for a triumph in conse- 
quence, but obtained only an ovation. (Liv.xxxviii. 
35, xxxix. 21, 29.) In B. c. 183 he wiis one of 
the ambassadors sent into Gallia Transalpina, and 
was also appointed one of the triumvirs for found- 
ing the Latin colony of Aquileia, which was how- 
ever not founded till B. c. 181. (Liv. xxxix. 54, 
55, xl. 34.) He was consul b. c. 179, (Liv. xL 
43,) with his own brother, Q. Kulvius Flaccus, 
which is the only instance of two brothers hold- 
ing the consulship at the same time. (Fatt. 
Capitol.; Veil. Pat. iL 8.) At the election of 
Acidinus, M. Scipio declared him to be virum 
bonum, e(fret/iumfjue civem. (Cic. de Or. ii. 64.) 

3. L. Manlius (Acidinus), who was quaestor 
in B. c. 168 (Liv. xlv. 13), is probably one of the 
two Manlii Acidini, who are mentioned two years 
before as illustrious youths, and of whom one was 
the son of M. Manlius, the other of L. Manlius. 
(Liv. xlii. 49.) The hitter is proljably the same 
as the quaestor, and the son of No. 2. 

4. Acidinus, a young man who was going to 
pursue his studies at Athens at the same time as 
young Cicero, b. c. 45. (Cic. ud Att. xii. 32.) He 
is perhaps the same Acidinus who sent intelligence 
to Cicero respecting the death of Maroeliusw (Cic 
ad Fain. iv. 12.) 

ACI'LIA GENS. The family-names of this 
gens are Aviola, Balbus, and (Jlabrio, of which 
the last two were undoubtedly plebeian, as mem- 
bers of these families were frequently tribunes of 
the plebs, 

ACILIA'NUS, MINU'CIUS,afriend of Pliny 
the younger, was bom at Brixia (Brescia), and 
was the son of Minucius Macrinus, who was en- 
rolled by Vespiwian among those of praetorian 
rank. Acilianus was successively quaestor, tri- 
bune, and praetor, and at his death left Pliny nart 
of his proj)ertv. (Plin. Kp. i. 14, ii. 16.) 

ACINDV'NUS, GUEGO'RIUS (TpriyipiOi 
'hKiv^vvos), a Gi°eek Monk, a. o. 1341, distin- 
guished in the controversy with the Hesychast or 
Quietist Monks of Mount Athos. He supported 
and succeeded Barhtam in his opposition tu their 
notion that the light which appeared on the Mount 
of the Transfiguration was uncretiied. The em- 
peror, John Cantacuzenus, took piirt (a. d. 1347) 
with Palamas, the leader of the Quietists, and ob- 
tained the condemnation of Atindynus by several 
councils at Constantinople, at one especially in 
A. D. 1351. Remains of Acindynus are, De 
Essentia ei Oj)tratione Dki aJitrsus imperitiam 
Greyorii Palamae, 4"'"- in " Variorum Pontilicum 
ad Petnim Gnapheum Eutychianum EpistoL" p. 77, 
Gretser. 4 to. Ingolst. 1616, and CarmeH laiidn- 
cum de llaercsibus Palanuw, " Graeciae Ortho- 
doxae Scriptores,'' by Leo. Allatius, p. 755, vol i. 
4to. Rom. 1652. [A. J. C.j 

ACIS (''Axis), according to Orid (^Met. xiii. 



ACONTIUS. 



13 



750, &c.) a son of Faunus and Sjinaethis. He 
was beloved by the nymph Galatea, and Polyphe- 
mus the Cyclop, jealous of him, crushed him under 
a huge rock. His blood gushing forth from under 
the rock was changed by the nymph into the 
river Acis or Acinius at the foot of mount Aetna. 
This story does not occur any where else, and is 
perhaps no more than a happy fiction suggested by 
the manner in which the little river springs forth 
from under a rock. [L. S.] 

ACME'NES ('Aif^n"**)* • wmame of certain 
nymphs worshipped at Elis, where a sacred enclo- 
sure contained their altar, together with those ol 
other gods. (Pans. v. 15. § 4.) [L. S.] 

ACMU'NIDES, one of the three Cyclopes (Uv. 
Fa$t, ir. 288), is the san>e as Pyracmon in Virgil 
{Aen. viiL 425), and M Aig«a in most other ac- 
counts of the Cvck^tM. [L. S.] 

ACOLTES ('A«o(tv)» according to Ovid {.\fti. 
iii. 582, &c.) the ion of m poor fisherman in 
Maeonia, who served as {ulot in a ship. After 
landing at the island of Naxoa, some of the sailors 
brought with them on board a beautiful sleeping 
boy, whom they had found in the island and whom 
they wished to take with them ; but Acoetes, who 
recognised in the boy the god Bacchus, dissuaded 
them from it, but in vain. ^Vhen the ship had 
reached the open sea, the boy awoke, and desired 
to be cairried back to Naxos. The sailors promised 
to do so, but did not keep tlteir word. Hereupon 
the god showed himself to them in his own majesty : 
vines began to twine round the vessel, tigers ap- 
peared, and the sailon, seiaad with andncM, jomp- 
•d into the aaa and periahad. Aeoetaa akaie waa 
saved and conveyed back Ut Nazoe, where he waa 
initiated in the Bacchic mysteries and became a 
priest of the god. Hjgious {Fait. 134), whose 
story Ml the whole i^ireea with that of Ovid, and 
all the other whten who mention this adventure 
of Baoehmi, call the crew of the ship Tyrrheniui 
piratea, end derive dM aaae of the Tyrrluniaa lea 
from them. (Compi. Horn. Hymm. i» Ikie«k .• Apol- 
lod. ui. 5. § 3 ; Seneca, Oed. 449.) 

ACOMINATUS. [Nicktas.] 

ACONTES or ACONTIUS ('KKomut or 
'Atcovrios), a son of Lycaon, from whom the town 
of Acontium in Arcadia derived its name. (Apol- 
lod. iii. 8. g 1 ; Steph. Bye. *. r. 'AKOimot'.) [ L. S.] 

ACO'NTIUS ('Ajt<{rTU)i), a beautiful youth of 
the island of Ceoa. On one occasion he came to 
Delos to celebrate the annual festival of Diana, 
and fell in love with Cydippe, the daughter of a 
noble Athenian. When he saw her sitting in the 
temple attending to the sacritice she was offering, 
he threw before her an apple upon which he had 
writtt'ii the words "I swear by the sanctuary of 
Diana to marry Acontius." The nurse took up 
the apple and handed it to Cydippe, who read 
aloud what was written upon it, and then threw 
the apple away. But the goddess had heard her 
vow, as Acontius had wished. After the festival 
was over, he went home, distracted by his love, 
but he waited for the result of what had happened 
and took no further steps. After some time, when 
Cydippe 's 6ither was about to give her in marriage 
to another man, she was taken ill just before the 
nuptial solemnities were to begin, and this accident 
was repeated three times. Acontius, informed of 
the occurrence, hastened to Athens, and the Del- 
phic oracle, which was consulted by the maiden's 
father, declared that Diana by the repeated illness 



14 



ACRATOPHORUS. 



meant to puni»h C'ydippe for her perjury. The 
inuiduii then cx|>luiiic<l the whole ufliiir tu her mo- 
ther, and the CithiT waH at hiHt induced to give hin 
daiigliter to AcontiuH. Thin story iit related by 
Ovid {llcroid. 20, 'Jl ; conip. Trut. iii, 10. TA) 
and AristacnetiiH (Kjiinl. x. 10), and i.s also alluded 
to in sevend fragineiitH of ancient poots, eHUfcially 
of Calliinachus, who wrote a poem with the title 
CydipjK'. The same story with some nioditications 
iH related by Antoninus Liberalis (A/ciawi. 1) of an 
Athenian ilcnnocrates and Ctesylla. (Comp. Ctk- 
8VJ./.A and Huttmann, Mi/thdixj. ii. p. 115.) [L.S.J 

A'COUIS ('Awopii), king of Kgypt, entered in- 
to alliance with Kvagoras, king of Cypnis, against 
their common enemy Artaxcrxes, king of Persia, 
alMmt B. c. 3U5, and assisted Kvagoras with ships 
and money. On the conclusion of the war with 
Kvagoras, ii. c. '.Viil, the Persians directed their 
forces against Kgypt, Acoris collected a large 
anny to oppose them, and engaged luony Oreek 
mercenaries, of whom he appointed Chabria* gene- 
ral. C'habrias, however, was recalled by the Athe- 
nians on the comjdaint of Phfiniabazus, who was 
aj)pointed by Artaxerxes to conduct the war. 
When the Persian army entered Kgypt, which 
was not till b. c. 373, Acoris was already dead. 
(Uiod. XV. 2-4, 8, 9, 29, 41, 42; Theopom. op. 
J'ltot. cod. 17(J.) SyncelluB (p. 76, a. p. 257, a.) 
assigns thirteen years to his reign. 

ACUAKA {'AKpaia). 1. A daughter of the 
river-god Asterion near Mycenae, who together 
with her sisters ICuboea and Prosymna acted as 
nurses to llera. A hill Acraea opposite the temple 
of Hem near Mycenae derived its name from her. 
(Pans. ii. 17. § 2.) 

2. Acmca atid Acraeus are also attributes given 
to various goddesses and gods whose temples were 
situated upon hills, such as Zeus, lleni. Aphrodite, 
Pallas, Artemis, and others. (Paus. i. 1. § 3, ii. 24. 
§ 1; Apollod. i. 9. § 28 ; Vitruv. i. 7 ; Spauheim, 
ad Callim. Jli/iiin in Jov. 82.) [L. S.] 

ACRAKPilKUS {'AKpoKpfvs), a son of Apollo, 
to whom the foundation of the Boeotian town of 
Acraephia was ascribed. Apollo, who was wor- 
shipped in that place, derived from it the surname 
of Acraephius or Acniephiaeus. (Steph. Byz. s. v. 
'AjcpaKpia; Paus. ix. 23. § 3, 40. § 2.) [h. S.J 

ACRAGAS {'AKpdyas), a son of Zeus and the 
Oceaiiid Asterope, to whom the foundation of 
the town of Acragas (Agrigentum) in Sicily was 
ascribed. (Steph. Byz. ». v. 'AKpayavrts.) [L. S.J 

ACRAGAS, an engraver, or chaser in silver, 
spoken of by Pliny. (xxxiiL 12. § 55.) It is not 
known either when or where he was bom. Pliny 
says that Acragas, Boethus and Mys were con- 
sidered but little inferior to ilentor, an artist of 
great note in the same profession ; and that works 
of all three were in existence in his day, preserved 
in ditferent temples in the island of Rhodes. 
Those of Acragas, who was especially famed for 
his representations of hunting scenes on cups, 
were in the temple of Bacchus at Rhodes, and con- 
sisted of cups with figures of Bacchae and Centaurs 
graved on them. If the language of Pliny justifies 
us in inferring that the three artists whom he 
classes together lived at the same time, that would 
6x the age of Acragas in the latter part of the fifth 
century b. c, as Mys was a contemporary of 
Phidias. [C. P. M.J 

ACRATO'PHORUS CAKparocpopos), a sur- 
name of Dionysus, by which he was designated as [ 



ACRON. 

the giver of unmixed wine, and workhipocd a' 
Phigaleia in Arcadia, (i'aua. viii. 39. I 4.) (L. .S.] 

ACRATO'P(/l'KS('A«f^To»JT»jf), the drinkef 
of unmixed wine, wa« a hero wur»hi|7pf<l in Mu' 
nychm in Attica, (i'olcmo, aj>. Alhen. ii. p. 39.) 
According to i'uuitaniua (i. 2. )} 4), vAto ctuia him 
simply Acnitux, he wa« one of the divin« compa- 
nion* of DionysuK, who wa« workhiii]K-d iu Attica. 
Pausanias saw his image at Athen* in the huUM 
of Polytion, where it wa» fixed in the wall. [I^. 8.] 

A'CRATUS, a frcedman of Nero, who waa k«nt 
by Nero A. u. G4, into Aula and Achaia tu pluiulef 
the temples and take away the kUtue* of th<.- giAt. 
(Tac. .^»n. XV. 45, xvi. 23; comp. Uiou Cuiyii. 
Ulutd. p. <i44, cd. ileiske.) 

ACICKjN, a Locrian, was a Pythagorean philo- 
sopher. (Cic. de Fin. v. 29.) He is mcnttoMd bjr 
Valerius .Maximus (viii. 7, ext. 3, fjrom thia pM- 
sage of Cicero) under the name of Ariim, whico ia 
a false reading, instead uf Aarion. 

ACRISlONElS, a patronymic of Danae, daugh- 
ter of Acrisiuk. (Virg. Aea, viL 4lO.) Homer 
(//. xiv. 319) uses the form 'AHpufuiyr). [L. S.J 

ACRISIONI.\lJES, a patronymic of Perseus, 
gmndson of Acrisius. (Ov. iUe/. t. 70.) [L. S.J 

ACRl'SIL'S ('AKpi(7tos), a*ou of Abas, king <k 
Argos and of Ooaleia. He was grandson of Lyn- 
ceus and great-giandaon of Danaus. His twin- 
brother was Proetus, with whom he is said to haro 
quarrelled even in the womb of his mother. When 
Abas died and Acrisius had grown i:; ' " d 

Proetus from hi* inheritance; b.t. jy 

his father-in-law lobates, the Lyc..i„, i ; re- 
turned, and Acrisius was compelled to share his 
kingdom with his brother by giving up to him 
Tirj-ns, while he retained Argos for bimselfL An 
oracle had declared that Dauae, the daughter of 
Acrisius, would give birth to a son, who would 
kill his grandfather. For this reason he kept 
Danae shut up in a subterraneous apartment, or in 
a brazen tower. But here she became mother of 
Perseus, notwithstanding the precautions of her 
father, according to some accounts by her uncle 
Proetus, and according to others by Zeus, who 
visited her in the form of a shower of gold. Acri- 
sius ordered mother and child to be exposed 
on the wide sea in a chest ; but the chest tiaated 
towards the island of Seriphus, where both were 
rescued by Dictys, the brother of king Polydectea. 
(ApoUod. iL 2. § 1, 4. § 1 ; Paus. ii. 16. § 2, 25. § 6, 
iii. 13. § 6; Hygin. Fab. 63.) As to the manner in 
which the oracle was subsequently fulfilled in the 
case of Acrisius, see Perse f.s. According to the 
Scholiast on Euripides (Orest. 1087), Acrisius 
was the founder of the Delphic amphictyony. 
Strabo (ix. p. 420) believes that this amphictyony 
existed before the time of Acrisius, and that he 
was only the first who regulated the atfairs of the 
ampbictyons, fixed the towns which were to take 
part in the council, gave to each its vote, and set- 
tled the jurisdiction of the amphictyons. (Comp. 
Libanius, Oral. voL iiL 472, ed. Reiske.) [L. S.J 

ACRON, a king of the Caenineuses, whom 
Romulus himself slew in battle. He dedicated 
the arms of Acron to Jupiter Feretrius as SjmJUi 
Opima. (iee Did. of A)ii. p. 893.) Livy men- 
tions the circumstance without giving the name of 
the king. (Plut. Horn. 16; Serv. ad. Virg. Aen.yL 
860; Liv. L 10.) 

ACRON (^Axpav), an eminent physician of 
Agrigentum, the son of Xenon. His exact date 



ACROPOLITA. 

is not known ; but, as he is mentioned as being 
contemporary with Empedotles, who died about 
the beginning of the Peloponnesian war, he must 
have lived in the fifth century before Clirist. From 
Sicily he went to Athens, and there opened a 
philosophical school (i<TO(piaTfvfi'). It is said 
that he was in that city during the great phigue 
(b. c. 430), and that large fires for the purpose of 
purifying the air were kindled in the streets by 
his direction, which proved of great service to 
several of the sick. (Plut, /Je /*. et Osir. 80 ; 
Oribas. Synops. vi. 24, p. 97 ; Ai-tius, t£trab. 
ii. senn. i. 94, p. i^S ; Paul Aegin. ii. 35, 
p. 40G.) It should however be borne in mind 
that there is no mention of this in Thucy- 
dides (ii. 49, &c.), and, if it is true that Em- 
pedocles or Siraonides (who died B. c. 467) wrote 
the epitaph on Acron, it may be doubted 
whether he was in Athens at the time of the 
plague. Upon his return to Agrigentum lie was 
anxious to erect a fiunily tomb, and applied to 
the senate for a spot of ground for that purpose on 
accouut of his eminence as a physician. Empe- 
docles however resisted this application as being 
contrary to the principle of equality, and proposed 
to inscribe on his tomb the following sarcastic 
epitaph {ro>9aaTiK6v), which it is quite impos^ble 
to translate so as to preserve the parouomaaia of 
the original : 
"AKpoy irrTpov ''AKpwv' 'AKpayayrtyw warpis itcpau 

Kpvurti Kprj/ivdi inpos warplSos dxpordrris. 
The second line was sduiftiiues read thus : 
'AKpordrrii Kopvipijs rvpiSos iicpos icot«x«. 
Some persons attributed the whole epigram to 
Simonides. (Suid. «. v. 'AKpwy ; Eudoc I'iuiar^ 
ap. Villoison, Anevd. Or. i. 49; Diog. Liiert. 
viii. 65.) The sect of the Kmpirici, in order to 
boast of a greater antiquity than the Dogmatici 
(founded by Thessilus, the son, and Pulybus, the 
bon-in-law of Hippocrates, about B. c. 400), claimed 
Acron as their founder (Pseudo-Gal. Itttrvd. 4. 
vol. xiv. p. 683), though they did not really exist 
before the third century b. c. [Philinis ; Skra- 
PiON'.] PUny fidls into this anachronism. (//. N. 

xxix. 4.) None of Acron's works a- ,nt, 

though he wrote si-venil in the 1' on 

Medical and Physical subjects, of \\ ;I>?8 

are preserved by Suidas and Eudocia. L^^ • A. U.] 
ACRON, HELE'NIUS, a Roman grammarian, 
probably of the fifth century a. d., but whose pre- 
cise date is not known. He wrote notes on Ho- 
race, and also, according to some critics, the scholia 
wliich we have on Persius. The fragments which 
remain of the work on Horace, though much muti- 
hited, are valuable, as contiiining the remarks of 
the older commentators, Q. Teremius Scaurus and 
others. They were published first by A. Zarotti, 
Milan, 1474, and ag:iin in 1486, and have often 
been published since in ditlerent editions ; perhaps 
the best is that by Geo. Fabricius, in his ed. of 
Horace, liasel, 1535, Leipzig, 1571. A writer of 
the same name, probably the same man, wrote a 
commentary on Terence, which is lost, but which 
is referred to by the grainmariiin Charisius. [A. A.] 
ACRUPOLI'TA, GEORGIUS (rfwpyios 
'A(cpiroAiTTjs), the son of the great logotheta Con- 
stantinus Acropolitji the elder, belonged to a noble 
Byzantine family which stood m rebtionship to 
the imperial fiunily of the Ducas. (Acropolita, 97.) 
He was bom at Constantinople in PiilO {lb. 39), 



ACROPOLITA. 



15 



Nicaca, the residence of the Greek emperor John 
Vatatzes Ducas. There he continued and finished 
his studies under Theodoras Exapterigus and Ni- 
cephorus Blemmida. {lb. 32.) The emperor em- 
] ' • ' '■' ■■ afterwards in diplomatic atfairs, and 
.(■wed himself a very discreet and 
> ator. In 1255 he commanded the 

Nicaean army in the war between Michael, des- 
pot of Epirus, and the emperor Theodore 1 1, the 
son and successor of John. But he wdi made pri- 
soner, and was oiJy delivered in 1260 by the me- 
diation of Michael Palaeologus. Pr.-vi..M.i,- t,, 
this he had been appointed great log' •. 
by John or by Theodore, whom he ha i 

in logic. Meanwhile, Michael Palaeulugua was 
proclaimed empemr of Nicai-a in 1260, and in 1261 



the history > 
greatest dipL 
function of ai: 
king of the 1 ', 



itlrmd of a new Li.' 
Clemens IV. to n-i. 
Churches ; and neg 
ried on during the ; 
Gregory X. John X a i 



uistantiuople, and 

int ; and from this 

'-come* known iu 

ire as one of the 

. . ing discharged the 

liii; court of Conataiitine, 

' retired for tome years 

istniction of 

vas UMatm- 

.-..-.L Mkhad, 

. propoied to pope 

ek and the Latin 

.<.-d which were car- 

I jpet, Clemens IV. 

.Mcuiaus III. and Martin 



IV. and the happj reaolt of which waa alntoat en- 
tirely owing to the skill of Acropolita. As eariy aa 
1273 Acropolita »a • Gregory X. and 

iu 1274, at the Cou; ', he confirmed by 

an oath iu the emperur't rmine that that coufea>sion 
of £uth which had been prariooily sent to Con- 
stantinopie by the pope had heea adopted hj the 
Gradkai The veuiMi of tha tw« chnichea was 
aftennids broken aK, but not throHgfa the fiudt of 
Acropolita. In 1282 Acropolita was once more 
sent to Bulgaria, and shortly after his retvuu he 
d. iionth of Deoember of tkeMUwyear, 

i:. .-ar. 

Acropouut a the anthor of lereral worlcs : the 
moet impartiBt ef which is a history of the Byzan- 
tine empire, aader the title XpoyiKOf us if avvo^n 
riy iy icrripoii, that is, from the taking of Con- 
stantinople by the Latins iu 1204, down to the 
year 1261, when Micliael Palaeologus delivered the 
city from the foreign yoke. The MS. of this work 

was found in the tbr-' ' ' ■ ' ' ' ■"' '/.enus 

at rnni»Miri«a|i>, a: > Eu- 

rope. (Fahiiciua, BtO . j The 

first edition of this work, wiiii a Laiiu trauslation 
and notes, was published by Theodorus Douza, 
Lugd. Batav. 1614, 8vo.; but a more critical one by 
Leo Allatius, who used a Vatican MS. and divided 
the text into chapters. It has the title Tfap^iou 
Tov 'AKp<fwo\irov rov fieydXou \oyo0fTOv xpo«'"n) 
inryypdfi], Oeor(/ii AcropolUae, mayni L/M^tUelue, 
Hiitoria, &.C. Paris, 1651. foL This edition is re- 
printed in the " Corpiu Byiantinorum Scriptonun," 
Venice, 1729, vol. xiL This chronicle contains 
one of the most remarkable periods of Byzantine 
historj', but it is so short that it seems to be cnly 
an abridgment of another work of the same author, 
which is lost. Acropolita perhaps composed it with 
the V ie w of giving it as a compendium to those young 
men whose scientific education he superintended, 
but accompanied his father in liis sixteenth year to [ after his return from his first embassy to Bulgaria. • 



16 



ACTAEON. 



The history of Michael Faliieolofpu by Pachymcrei 
limy be corittidcrcd iih a continuation of the woric of 
Acropolita. Hcsides tliin wori<, Acropoiita wrote 
Bcvenil onitionH, which h(' (h'livcrcd in his capacity 
iiH j(rcat loj^otheta, and aH director of tlie ne^ociationx 
with the iK)pe ; but thcuc orationi have not iK-en 
j)ubli.shpd. Fal)riciu» (vol. vii. p. 471 ) «i>eak» of a 
MS. whicl) lias the title n«^l ruv dir6 Krlfffut 
k6(t^ov Iroiv Ka\ Ttpi rwv fiaai\*vaatnuv fi^XP' 
d\(iifffus KoivaTayrivovTrSAtwi. (ieorf^iuB, or (Jre- 
goriuHCyjiriuH, who has written a iihort encomium of 
Acropolita, calln him the I'lato and the Aristotle of 
his time. 'J'his "encomium" is printed with a Im- 
tin translation at the head of the edition of Acro- 
polita by Th. Douza: it contjiins useful infomuition 
concerning Acropolita, althoiiph it is full of aduht- 
tion. Further infonnation is conUiined in Acropo- 
lita's history, especially in the latter j)art of it, and 
in I'achymcres, iv. '20, vi. 2(j, 34, scq. [W. P.] 

ACIIOHKITKS CAKpuptlrrii), a surname of 
Dionysus, under wliich he was worshipped at 
Sicyon, and which is synonymous with Kriphius, 
iind(!r wliich name he was worshipjied at Meta- 
pontum in southem Italy, (bteph. IJyz. #. v. 
'AKpo)pt(a.) [L. S.] 

ACRO'TATUS ('AKp6rarot). 1. The wn of 
Cleomcnes II. king of Sparta, incurred the displea- 
sure of a large party at Sparta by opposing the de- 
cree, which was to release from infamy all who had 
iled from the battle, in which Antiimter defeated 
Agis, II. c. Xi\. lie was thus glad to accept the 
offer of the Agrigentincs, when they sent to Sparta 
for assistance in B.C. 314 against Agnthocles of 
Syrjicuse. He first sailed to Italy, and obtained 
assistance from Tarcntum ; but on liis arrival at 
Agrigentum he acted with such cruelty and tyranny 
that the inhabitants rose against him, and com- 
jK'lled him to le.ive the city. He returned to 
Sparta, and died before the death of his father, 
which was in b. c. 309. He left a son, Areus, who 
succeeded Cleomenes. (Diod. xv. 70, 71 ; Paus. i. 
)3. § 3, iii. 6. § 1, 2 ; Plut. Agis, 3.) 

2. The grandson of the preceding, and the son 
of Areus I. king of SjKirta. lie had unlawful in- 
tercourse with Chelidonis, the young wife of Cleo- 
nymus, who was the uncle of his father Areus ; 
and it was this, together with the disappointment 
of not obtaining the throne, which led Cleonymus 
to invite Pj-rrhus to Sparta, b. c. 272. Areus was 
then absent in Crete, and the safety of Sparta was 
mainly owing to the valour of Acrotatus. He suc- 
ceeded his father in B. c. 265, but was killed in 
the same year in battle against Aristodemus, the 
tyrant of Megalopolis. Pausanias, in speaking of 
his death, calls him the son of Cleonymus. but he 
has mistaken him for his grandiather, spoken of 
above. (Plut. Pi/rrh. 26-28; A i/is,S; Paus. iii. G.§ 3, 
viii. 27. § 8, 30. § 3.) Areus and Acrotatus are ac- 
cused by Phylarchus (ap. Athen. iv. p. 142, b.) of 
having corrupted the simplicity of Spartan man- 
ners. 

ACTAEA ('A»cTa(a), a daughter of Nereus and 
Doris. (Hom. II. xviii. 41 ; Apollod. i. 2. § 7; 
Hygin. Fab. p. 7, ed. Staveren.) [L. S.] 

ACTAEON ('A/cTo/wi/). ]. Son of Aristaeus 
and Autonoe, a daughter of Cadmus. He was 
trained in the art of hunting bj' the centaur Chei- 
ron, and was afterwards torn to pieces by his own 
50 hounds on mount Cithaeron. The names of 
these hounds are given by Ovid (^Met. iii. 206, &c.) 
and Hyginus. {Fab. 181 ;' comp. Stat. Tlieb. ii. 203.) 



ACTISANES. 
The cauM of tbia mdatttaut \% difTemitly kUt^d : 
according to koUM accoont* it was becauM hi b«d 
boen Artfuiit while abe wu Lathing in the vale of 
(iargaphia, on the diicovcry of which the god- 
deN» clianged him into a atag, in which foan he 
wai toni to piecea by hia own doga. (Ov. Met, 
iii. 155, 6lc.; Hygin. Fab. 181; CalUm. k. *• 
I'allad. 110.) Othera relate tJiat he provoked tb« 
anger of the gnddeaa by hia lioa»ting that he ex- 
celled her in hunting, or by hia uaing fur a feaat 
the game which waa dcitiniHi aa a aacritice to her. 
(Kurip. JUtcch. 320; Diod. iv. »1.) A third ac- 
count itated tliat he waa killed by hia doga at the 
command of Zeua, becauae he aued for the hand of 
Semcle. (Acuailaua, ap. ApoUud. iii. 4. S 4.) Pno- 
aaniaa (ix. 2. g 3) aaw near Orchumcnoa the rock on 
which Actaeon uaed to reat when he waa fatigued 
by hunting, and from which he had aecn Artemia 
in the Ijath ; but he ia of opinion that the whole 
atory aroao from the circuniatance that Actaeon 
waa dcatroyed by hia doga in a natural fit of tnad- 
ncaa. Palaephatua («. r. Adaeon) givea an abaurd 
and trivial exphination of iu According to tbe 
Orchomenian tradition the rock of Actaeon waa 
haunted by hia apcctrc, and the oracle of Delphi 
commanded the Orchomeniant to bury the mnaim 
of the hero, which they might liappcn to find, and 
fix an iron image of him u[j<in the rock. Tbia 
image atill existed in the time of Paiiaeniae (Lb 
38. § 4), and the Orchomeniaiu oflend aaaul M- 
crificct to Actaeon in that place. The manaer in 
which Actaeon and hia mother were painted by 
Polygnotua in the I^ache of Delphi, ia deacribed 
by Pausaniaa. (x. 30. § 2 ; comp. Miillcr, Orckom, 
p. 348, &c,) 

2. A son of Melisaua, and grandson of Abron, 
who had fled from Argos to Corinth for fear of the 
tyrant Pheidon. Archiaa, a Corinthian, enamour- 
ed with the beauty of Actaeon, endeavoured to 
carry him off; but in the struggle which cnaued 
between Melisaua and Archias Actaeon waa killed. 
Melissus brought hia complainta forward at tbe 
Isthmian games, and praying to the goda for re- 
venge, he threw himaelf from a rock. Hereupon 
Corinth was visited by a plague and drought, 
and the oracle ordered the Corinthians to propi- 
tiate Poseidon, and avenge the death of Actaeon. 
Upon this hint Archias emigrated to Sicily, where 
he founded the town of Syracuse. (Plut. Amat. 
Narr. p. 772 ; comp. Paua. v. 7. § 2 ; Thucvd. vL 
3 ; Strab. viii. p. 380.^ [L.'S.] 

ACTAEUS ('A/cToios). A «on of Erisichthon, 
and according to Pausaniaa (L 2. § 5), the 
earliest king of Attica. He had three daughtera, 
Agraulos, Herse, and Pandrosus, and was succeed- 
ed by Cecrops, who married Agraulos. Accord- 
ing to ApoUodonis (iii. 14. 1.) on the other hand, 
Cecrops was the first king of Attica. [L. S.] 

ACTE, the concubine of Nero, was a freed- 
woman, and originally a slave purchased from 
Asia Minor. Nero loved her far more than hia 
wife Octavia, and at one time thought of marrj'ing 
her; whence he pretended that she was descended 
from king Attalus. She survived Nero. (Tac. 
Ann. xiii. 12, 46, xiv. 2 ; Suet. Ner. 28, 50 ; Dion 
Cass. bcL 7.) 

ACTIACUS, a surname of Apollo, derived 
from Actium, one of the principal places of his 
worship. (OwAIet.xm. 715; Strab. x. p. 451; 
compare Burmann, ad Propert. p. 434.) [L. S.] 

ACTI'SANES ('AjcTiirdrijj), a king of Ethiopia, 



ACTUARIUS. 
who conquered Egypt and j;ovemed it with justice, 
lie founded the city of Rhinocolura on the con- 
fines of Egypt and Syria, and wag succeeded by 
Mendes, an Egyptian. Uiodorus says that Acti- 
sanes conquered Egypt in the reign of Amasis, for 
which we ought perhaps to read Ammosis. At all 
events, Amasis, the contemporary of Cyrus, cannot 
be meant. ( IJiod. i. CO ; Strab. xvi. p. 739.) 

ACTIUS. [Attii;s.] 

ACT(JH ('AKTCtfp). 1. A son of Deion and 
Diomede, the daughter of Xuthus. lie was thus 
a brotlier of Asteropeia, Aenetus, Phylacus, and 
Cephalus, and husband of Aeginii, father of Me- 
noetius, and grandfather of Patroclus. (ApoUod. 
i. 9. § 4, I«, iii. 10. § 8 ; Find. 01. ix. 75 ; Horn, 
//. xi. 785, xvi, 14.) 

2. A son of Phorbas and Hyrmine, and husband 
of Molione. lie was thus a brother of Augeaa, 
and father of Eurvtus- and Cteatus. (ApoUod. ii. 
7. § -2 ; Paus. v. 1. g «, viii. 14. § 6.) 

3. A companion of Aeneas ( Virg. Aen. ix. 500), 
who is probably the same who in another passage 
(xii. 94) is called an Aurancan, and of whose con- 
quered lance Turnus made a boast. This story 
seems to have given rise to the proverbial saying 
" Actons spolium" (Juv. ii. 100), for any poor 
spoil ill general. [L. S.] 

ACT(rKlDES or ACTO'RION {'KKropinrn or 
'A/oTopiwc), are patronymic forms of Actor, and are 
consequent!}' given to descendants of an Actor, 
Rucli an Patroclus (Ov. Met. xiii 373 j 'fruU. i. 9. 
•29), Erithus (Ov. Met. v. 79 ; compare viii. 308, 
371), Eurytus, and Cteatus. (Horn. 7/. ii. (J"21, 
xiii. 185, xi. 750, xxiii. 638.) [L.S.] 

M. ACTO'UIUS NASO, seems to liave writ- 
ten a life of Julius Caesar, or a history of his 
times, which is quoted by Suetonius. (Jul. 9, 5'2.) 
The time at which he lived is uncertain, but from 
the way in which he is referred- to by Suetonius, 
he would almost sociu to have beeu a coutemporary 
of Caesar. 

ACTUA'IIIUS {' \KTo\Mpioi\, the suruame by 
which an ancient Greek physician, whose real 
name was Joiinnes, is conunonly known. His 
father's name was Zachariiis ; he himself practised 
at Constantinople, and, as it appears, with some 
degree of credit, as he was honoured with the title 
of Actuarius, a dignity frequently conferred at that 
court upon physicians. ( l>ut. u/A «/. p. tJ 1 1 , b. ) \'ery 
little is known of the events of his life, and 
his date is rather uncertain, as some persons reckon 
him to have lived in the eleventh i 1 

others bring him down as low as the 

the fourteenth. He probably lived i ...^ ...c 

end of the thirteenth century, as one of his works 
is dediciited to his tutor, Joseph Uacendytea, who 
lived in the reign of Andronicus 11. Palaeolt^s, 
A. D. 1281 — 1328. One of his school-fellows is 
siipposeil to have been Apocauchus, whom he de- 
scribes (though without luuuing him) as gi^ng 
upon an embassy to the north. {Do Meth. Med. 
Praef. in i. ii. pp. 139, 1(59.) 

One of his works is entitled, T\.tp\ 'Evfpyfiuy koI 
Tladdv Toii "VvxtxoO Hvfu/xaTos, wol t»>i icot' aori 
AiatTTjs — " Uc Actionibus et Atlectibus Spiritus 
Aiiimalis, ejusque Nutrilione." This is a psycho- 
logical and physiological work in two books, in 
which all his reasoning, says Freind, seems to be 
founded upon the principles laid down by Aristo- 
tle, Galen, and others, with relation to the same 
subject. The style of this tract is by no means 



ACTUARIUS. 



17 



impure, and ha* a great mixture of the old Attic 
in it, which is very rarely to be met with in the 
later Greek writers. A tolerably full abstnict of 
it is given by Barchusen, //ijrf. Medic. Dial. 1 4. p. 
338, &c. It was first published, Venet. 1547, 8vo. 
in a Latin translation by Jul. Alexandrinus de 
Neustain. The first edition of the original was 
published. Par. 1557, 8vo. edited, without notes 
or preface, by Jac. GoupyL A second Greek edi- 
tion appeared in 1774, 8vo. Lips., under the care 
of J. F. Fischer. Ideler has also inserted it in the 
first volume of his l'kj/$ici et Medici O'raeci Mi- 
tiores, Berol. 8vo. 1841 ; aitd the first part of J. S. 
Bemardi lidii^uiae Medico- Criticae^ ed. Gruuer, 
Jenae, 1795, 8vo. containt tome Greek Scholia 
on the work. 

Another of his extant works is entitled, B«^ 
fiVTiKti Mfdoios, " I)e Methodo Medendi," in six 
books, which have hitherto appeared complete only 
in a Liitin transUlim, tkoitfii DieU had, Mon hi* 
death, collected BMUMriala lor a Greek edition of 
this and his other works. (See bis preCue to Galen 
De Dissect. Miae.) In these books, says Freind, 
though be cbietly follows Galen, and very often 
Aetius and Paulus Aegineta without naming him, 
yet he makes use of whatever he finds to his pur- 
pose both in the old and modem writers, as well 
barbarians as Greeks ; and indeed we find in him 
several things that are not to be met with else- 
where. The work was written extempore, and 
designed for the use of Apocauchus during his 
embiuBjr to the north. (Praef. i. p. 139.) A Latin 
tnuuiatioo U this wark by Com. H. Mathisius, 
was fint pahiidhad Venet. 1554, 4tu. The first 
four booka appear HMMlame* to have been con- 
sidered to forai a eoiBpiete work, of whkh the 
first and leoood bare been ioierted by Ideler in 
the teoood Tolome of bis Phjft. M Med. (,'r. .\/m. 
Berol 1842, under the title Tl*pl Atay¥«i<r*mt 
n admr, ** De Morbonira Dignotiooe," and froia whicb 
the Greek extracts in H. Stepbena^ Dittiomarimm 
Medicum, Par. 15ti4, 8vo. are probably taken. 
The fifth and sixth books have also been taken for 
a separate work, and were published by them- 
selves. Par. 153», ttva and UauL 1540, 8vo. m 
a Latiu tranalation by J. Ruelliiu, with the title 

•• De Medicamentorain ♦" .-..iit;..,,^." ^^^ extract 

from this work is ius<-i I's coUectiou of 

writers De Febnttu&, \ , lol. 

His other extant wurk i^ n*^ Ovfmv, *^ De 
Urinis,"in seven liook». He has treated of this sub- 
ject verj- i' ' ' . . and, though he goe« 
upon the j is Protospatharius had 
marked ou;, ,. . ..^ ,,.., ^...^^d a great deal of origi- 
nal matter. It is the most complete and systematic 
work on the subject that remains from antiquity, 
so much so that, till the chemical improvements of 
the last hundred years, be had left hardly anything 
new to be said by the modems, many of whom, 
says Freind, transcribed it almost word for word. 
This work was first published in a Latiu transla- 
tion by Ambrose Leo, which appeared in 1519, 
Venet. 4to., and has been several times reprinted; 
the Greek origiiml has been published for the first 
time in the second volume of Ideler's work quoted 
above. Two Latin editions of his collected 
works are said by Choulant {Hundbuch der liii- 
cberkunde fur die Aeltere MedL-iii, Leipzig, 1841), 
to have been published in the same year, 1550", 
one at Paris, and the other at Lyons, both in 8vo. 
His three works are also inserted in the Medieat 

c 



IB 



ADA. 



jirtii PrineipfM of H. Stephen*, Par. 1.5C7, f«l. 
(Frcind's libit, of J'hi/nic; Spreiigi;!, //int. de la 
Mill. ; Hiiller, /tiilioth. Medic, /'ract. ; 1 Larch uiien, 
//iKt. Mtdic.) [W. A. O.) 

AdWljVA) occur* a» a numnme of C. Furiuit 
who was quaoHtor of L. Scipio, and woa con- 
ilenincd of pcciihitiis. (I^iv. xxxviii. .5.'».) Acu- 
k'o, howcv<!r, Koeins not to liave hcen a n-ffular fa- 
inily-nanic of the Fiiria ((ens, hut only a sunuune 
given to this j)erson, of which a limilar example 
occurs in the followinjf article. 

C. ACUIi?>0, a Roman knight, who married 
the sister of Ilelvia, the mother of Cicero. He 
was surjtaHHcd by no one in his day in his know- 
K'dfie of the Hoiiian law, and {KjRsoHsed gn-at 
aciitcncss of mind, but was not diiitinguikhed for 
other attainments. He was a friend of L. Licinius 
Crassus, and was defended by liim upon one oc- 
casion. The son of Aculeo was C. Visellius Varro ; 
whence it would appear that Aculeo wa« only a 
surname given to the fatiier from his acutenesa, and 
that his full name was C. Viwllius Varro Aculeo. 
(Cic. dc Or. i. 43, ii. 1, (;.5 ; /irul. 7«.) 

ACU'MENUS (^ \KovfjL*v6s), a physician of 
Athens, who lived in the tifth century iK'fore Chnst, 
and is mentioned as the friend and companion 
of Socrates. (I'lut. /'haedr. init. ; Xen. Memor. 
iii. 13. § 2.) He was the father of Kryximachus, 
who was also a physiciafi, and who is introduced 
as one of the speakers in Plato's Symposium. (Plat. 
Protag. p. 315, c. ; Symp. p. I/O', c.) He is also 
mentioned in the collection of letters first published 
by Leo Allatius, Paris, lt)37, 4to. with the title 
Kpisl. Socraiis et Socraticorum, and again by Orel- 
lius. Lips. 1815. 8vo. ep. 14. p. 31. [W. A. G.] 

ACUSILA'US {'AKov(ri\eu)s), of Argos, one of 
the earlier Greek logographers (/)«•/. of Aid. p. 575, 
a.), who probably lived in the latter half of the 
Bixth century b. c. He is called the son of Cabras 
or Scabnis, and is reckoned by some among the 
Seven Wise Men. Suidas (s. r.) says, that he 
wrote Genealogies from bronze tiiblets, which his 
father was said to have dug up in his own house. 
Three books of his Genealogies are quoted, which 
were for the most part only a translation of Hesiod 
into prose. (Clem. Strom, vi. p. 629, a.) Like most 
of the other logographers, he wTote in the Ionic 
dialect. Plato is the earliest writer by whom he 
is mentioned. (5[yw/). p. 178, b.) The works which 
bore the name of Acusilaus in a later age, were 
spurious, '(s. V. 'EKaraios MiAriffioy, 'loToprjffat, 
'2,vyypd(l>u.) The fragments of Acusilaiis have 
been published by Sturtz, Gerae, 1787 ; 2nd ed. 
Lips. 1824 ; and in the " Museum Criticura," L 
p. 216, &c. Camb. 1826. 

M. ACU'TIUS, tribune of the plebs b. c. 401, 
was elected by the other tribunes (by co-optation) 
in violation of the Trebonia lex. (Li v. v. 10 ; 
Diet, of Ant. p. 566, a.) 

ADA ("ASa), the daughter of Hecatomnus, king 
of Caria, and sister of Mausolus, Artemisia, 
Idrieus, and Pixodarus. She was married to her 
brother Idrieus, who succeeded Artemisia in B. c. 
351 and died b. c. 344. On the death of her 
husband she succeeded to the throne of Caria, but 
was expelled by her brother Pixodarus in b. c. 340 ; 
and on the death of the latter in B. c. 335 his son- 
in-law Orontobates received the satrapy of Caria 
from the Persian king. When Alexander entered 
Caria in b. c. 334, Ada, who was in possession of 
the fortress of Alinda, surrendered this pLice to 



ADFIMA.NTU9. 

him and b<^ged leave to adopt him m her •on. 
After taking HnlicaniaukU*, AlesandfT conunitlrd 
the government of Caria to hi-r. (ArriAh, Amdi. 
i. 23; Diod. xvi. 42, 74 ; Strab. xiv. pp. (>5«, (>&7 ; 
IMut. Al4!t. 10.) 

ADAKUS, or ADDAEU8 {'AUSoior'fMmli), 
a (ireek epigmminrtifi poet, m mUit* Moit fn- 
bably of llaMdook. Th« cpithat Wm i IA wi k 
appended to hit name Won the third epicMB 
in the Vat MS. (Anlk Or. vi. 228); aiuTlk* 
subjects of the second, eighth, ninth, and teath 
epigrams agree with this account of hi* origin. 
He lived in the time of Alexander the Great, to 
whoiM- death he alludes. {Anih. (ir. viL 240.) 
The fifth epignim (AnI/i. iir. vii. 3U5) i« inicrikM 
'ASSoiuu MiTuATji'aiuu, and there waa a MityUdiMWI 
of this name, who wrote two proae wrokt fl*^ 
'AyaAfAartnroiuy and Tlipl Aia04tr*ttt. (Athcn. 
xiii. p. 6UG. A, xi. p. 471, v^) The time when h« 
lived cannot be hxed with certainty. Keialut, 
though on insufiicient ground*, believe* tkeae two 
to be the *ame per»on. (AulL Grutc. vi. 22il, 
258, vii. .51,238, 240, 30.j, x. 20 ; Bninck, Anal, 
ii. p. 224 ; Jacob*, xiiL p. 831.) [C. P. M.] 

ADAMANTEIA. | Amaltheia,] 

ADAMA'NTIUS ('ASo^idi^iai), an anctent 
physician, bearing the title of /atront/thiata {iarpmi^ 
\6ytty aotptoTijs, Socrate*, //i*L EocU*. riL 13), 
for the meaning of which *ee Ikct. cf Aid, 
p. 507. Little i* known of hi* penonal hiatorjr, 
except that he waa by birth a Jew, and that 
he wa* one of thote who fled from Alexandria, 
at the time of the ezpdaion of the Jew* from that 
city by the Patnuth St Cyril, a. d. 4 1 5. He went 
to Constaatinopie, wm persuaded to embrace Chris- 
tianity, apparently by Atticu* the Patriarch of that 
city, and then returned to Alexandria. (Socrate*, 
/. c.) He i* the author of a Greek treatiite on 
physiognomy, ^vciayyufiovtKA, in two book*, which 
is still extant, and which is botiowed in a great 
measure (as he himself confeMea, L Pruoem. p. 
314, ed. Franz.) horn Polemo'* work on the lame 
subject. It i* dedicated to Con*tantiua, who ia 
supposed by Fabriciua {liiUiuth. Graeca, toL iL p. 
171, xiiL 34, ed. vet) to be the person who mar- 
ried Placidia, the daughter of Theodo*iu» the 
Great, and who reigned for seven months in con- 
junction with the Emperor Honorius. It wa* first 
published in Greek at Paris, 1540, Svo., then in 
Greek and Latin at Basle, 1544, 8vo., and after- 
wards in Greek, together with Aelian, Polemo and 
some other writers, at Rome, 1545, 4to. ; the last 
and best edition is that by J. G. Franzius, who ha* 
inserted it in his collection of the Scriplortt Phyti- 
ognomiae Vetera, Gr. et Lat., Altenb. 1780, 8vo. 
Another of his works, Tltpl 'Aytfiav, IM Ventit, is 
quoted by the Scholiast to Hesiod, and an extract 
from it is given by Aetius (tetrab. L serm. 3, c. 
163) ; it is said to be still in existence in manu- 
script in the Royal Library at Paris. Several of 
his medical prescriptions are preserved by Oriba- 
sius and Aetius. [W. A. G.] 

ADEIMANTUS {'Aidimm-os). 1. The son of 
Ocytus, the Corinthian commander in the invasion 
of Greece by Xerxes. Before the battle of Arte- 
misium he threatened to sail away, but was bribed 
by Themistocles to remain. He opposed Themis- 
tocles with great insolence in the council which 
the commanders held before the battle of Salamis. 
According to the Athenians he took to fliaht at 
the very commencement of the battle, but this 



ADMETE. 

was denied by the Corinthians and the other 
Greeks. (Herod, viil. 5, 56, 61, 94 ; Plut. Them. 
11.) 

2. The son of Leucolophides, an Athenian, was 
one of the commanders with Alcibiades in the ex- 
pedition against Andros, B. c. 407. (Xen. Hell. i. 
4. § 21.) He was again appointed one of the Athe- 
nian genenils after the battle of Arginusae, b. c. 
406, and continued in office till the battle of Aegos- 
potami, B. c. 405, where he was one of the com- 
manders, and was taken prisoner. He was the 
only one of the Athenian prisoners who was not 
put to death, because he had opposed the decree 
for cutting oiT the right hands of the Lacedaemo- 
nians who might be taken in the battle. He was 
accused by many of treachery in this battle, and 
was afterwards impeached by Conon. (Xen. UM. i. 
7. § 1, ii. 1. § 30-32; Paus.iv. 17.§2, x.9. §5; Dem. 
de fals. leg. p. 401. ; Lys. c. Ale. pp. 143,21.) 
Aristophanes speaks of Adeimantus in the " Frogs " 
(1513), wliich was acted in the year of the battle, 
as one whose death was wished for ; and he also 
calls him, apparently out of jest, the son of Leuco- 
loplius, that is, "White Crest." In the "Prota- 
goras" of Plato, Adeimantus is also spoken of as 
present on that occasion (p. 315, e.). 

3. The brother of Plato, who is frequently men- 
tioned by the hitter. {Apol. Socr. p. 34, a., de 
Rep. ii. p. 367, e. p. 548, d. e.) 

ADGANDE'STRIUS, a chief of the Catti, 
offered to kill .\rnunius if the Romans would send 
him poison for the purpose ; but Tiberius declined 
the offer. (Tac. Ann. ii, 88.) 

ADHEUBAL ('AT^pgos). 1. A Carthaginian 
commander in the first Punic war, who was placed 
over Drepana, and completely defeated the Roman 
consul P. Claudius in a seafight off Drepana, B. c, 
249. (Polyb. i. 49—52; Diod Ed. xxiv.) 

2. A Carthaginian commander under Mago in 
the second Punic war, who was defeated in a sea- 
fight off Carteia, in Spain, by C. Laelius in B.C. 
206. (Liv, xxviii. 30.) 

3. The son of Micipsa, and grandson of Masi- 
nissa, had the kingdom of Numidia left to him by 
his father in conjunction with his brother Hiempsiil 
and Jugurtha, b. e. 118. After the murder of his 
brother by Jugurtha, AdherbiU fled to Home and 
was restored to his share of the kingdom by the 
Romans in B.C. 117- But Adherbal was again 
stripped of his dominions by Jugurtha and be- 
sieged in Cirta, where he was treacherously killed 
by Jugurtha in b. c. 112, although he had placed 
himself under the protection of the Romans. 
(Sail. Juy. 5, 13, 14, 24, 25, 26; Ldv, Ep. 63; 
l)iod. Eiv. xxxiv. p. 605. ed. Wess.) 

ADIA'TORIX ('A5»oTdp<{), son of a tetrarch 
in Galatia, belonged to Antony's party, and killed 
all the Romans in Heracleia shortly before the 
battle of Aclium. After this battle he was led as 
prisoner in the triumph of Augustus, and put to 
death with his younger son. His elder son, 
Dyteutus, was subsequently made priest of the 
celebrated goddess in Comana. (Strab. xiL pp. 543, 
558, 559 ; Cic. ad Fam. ii. 12.) 

ADME'TE ('A5Mr)Tij). 1. A daugter of Oceanus 
and Thetys (Hesiod. Theot/. 349), whom Hyginus 
in the preface to his fables calls Admeto and a 
diiughter of Pontus and Thalassa. 

2. A daughter of Eurystheus and Antimache or 
Admete. Heracles was obliged by her father to 
fetch for her the girdle of Ares, which was worn 



ADMETUS. 



19 



by Hippolyte, queen of the Amazons. (Apollod. ii. 
5. § 9.) According to Tzetzes (ad Lycophr. 1327), 
she accompanied Heracles on this expedition. 
There was a tradition ( Athen. xv. p. 447), according 
to which Admete was originally a priestess of Hera 
at Argos, but fled with the image of the goddess 
to Samos. Pirates were engaged by the Argives 
to fetch the image back, but the enterprise did not 
succeed, for the ship when laden with the image 
could not be made to move. The men then took 
the image back to the coast of Samos and sailed 
away. When the Samians found it, the}' tied it 
to a tree, but Admete purified it and restored it to 
the temple of Samoa. In commemoration of this 
event the Samians celebnted an annual festival 
called Tonea. This story seems to be an invention 
of the Aigives, by which they intended to prove 
that the worship of Hera in their place was older 
than in Samos. [L. S.J 

ADME'TUS Cxafi'TOf), a son of Phem, the 
founder and king of Pherae in Thessaly, and of 
Periclvmene orClymene. (.\poilod. L 8. §2,9.§ 14.) 
He took part in the Calydonian chase and tlie ex- 
pedition of the Argonauts. (Apollod. L 9, § 16; Hy- 
gin. FiA. 14. 173.) When he had succeeded his 
father as king of PhenM, ha sued far tlw hand of 
Alcettis, the daughter •! PeliM, who pnmiMd hm 
to him on condition that k* ilmld eane to her in 
a chariot drawn by lions and boars. This task 
Admetus performed by the aiaistance of Apollo, 
who served him aecordinf to mom aeoounts out of 
attachment to him (SchoL mi Emrip. Aletal. 2 ; 
CallioL k, M ApoU. 48, &cX or ■•■^■■g to othcfs 
becauM he waa ohligad to wrro • nwtal far oao 
year for hariag slain the Cydopa. (Apollod. iii. 10. 
§ 4.) Ob the day ti hia aamage with .\kestia, 
Admetus negteelea to oAar a Mcxifioe to Anemia, 
and when in tho vnmSag ho ontvod tho bridal 
chamber, ho faaid thon s UMhor of nokea railed 
up in a hunp. ApoUo, howovw, raeeociled 
Artemis to him, and at the ame tiae fwHwitd tho 
Moirae to grant to Admetoa delivonHice firan 
death, if at the hour of his death his father, mother, 
or wife would die for him. Akeatis did so, but 
Kora, or •ooerding to others Heracles, brought hor 
back to tho nppor world. (Apollod. L 9. § 15; com- 
pare ALCHtTia.) [1* 8.] 

ADME'TUS CAJmijtoj), king of the Moloo- 
sians in the time of Themistoclea, who, when n- 
preme at Atboaa, had opposed him, perhaps not 
without insult, in ■one mit to the people. But when 
flying from the edkers who were ordered to Miae 
him as a party to the treaaoo of Pausanias, and 
driven from Corcyia to Epirus, he found himself 
upon some emergency, with no hope of refuge but 
the house of Admetus. Admetus was absent ; but 
Phthia his queen welcomed the stranger, and bade 
him, as the most solemn form of supplication 
among the Molossians, take her son, the young 
prince, and sit with him in his hands upon the 
hearth. Admetus on his return home assured him 
of protection ; according to another account in 
Plutarch, he himself^ and not Pthia enjoined the 
form as affording him a pretext for refusal : he, at 
any rate, shut his ears to all that the Athenian 
and Lacedaemonian commissioners, who soon after- 
wards arrived, could say ; and sent Themistocles 
safelv to Pvdna on his wav to the Persian court. 
(Thiicyd. L"1 36, 137 ; Plut." Tfunn. 24.) [\. H. C] 
ADME'TUS ('AS^ijToi), a Greek epigram- 
matist, who lived in the early part of the second 

c 2 



20 



ADONIS. 



ciMlury after Christ. One line of hi* it preserved 
by liUciun. (Demimaa, 44 ; Jlruiici<, ^'fn«/. iii. p. 
-I.) [CI*. M.J 

ADO'NEUS i'MuMvf). 1. A HuniiunL- of 
liacchuB, sigiiifiea the Kulcr. (Aunoii. JCpiyr. xx'ix. 
G.) 

'2. Adoncui i« tometimci uied by I^tin poets 
fur Adonis. (Pluut. Menaech. i. 2. 35 ; CatulL 
xxix. '.).) [L. S.] 

ADO'NIS ("ASwwt), nccordin); to Apollodorus 
(ill. 1 4. S W) it Hon of CinyniH aiul Mi-darine, iittord- 
ilij{ to licbiod ((/;). Apollml. iii. 14. § 4) a Hon of 
Phoenix and Alj>hL'Hil)oca, and according to the 
cyclic poet I'anyuHis (up. AjHiUod. I. c.) a son of 
Thi'ius, king of AsHyria, who begot him by his 
own daughter Smyrna. (Myrrha.) The ancient 
story run thus: Smyriui had neglected the wor- 
ship of Aphrodite, and was punished by the god- 
dess with an unnatund love for her father. With 
the assistance of her nurse she contrived to shiire 
her father's bed without Wing known to him. 
When he discovered the crime he wished to kill 
her ; but she Hed, and on being nearly overtaken, 
I)niyed to the gods to make her invisible. They 
were moved to pity and changed her into a tree 
called aixipva. After the lapse of nine months 
the tree burst, and Adonis was bom. Aphrodite 
was so much charmed with the beauty of the infant, 
that she concealed it in a chest which she entrust- 
ed to Persephone ; but when the kitter discovered 
the treasure she had in her keeping, she refust^d to 
give it up. The case was brought before Zeus, 
who decided the dispute by declaring that during 
four months of every year Adonis should be left to 
himself, during four months he should belong to 
Persephone, and during the remaining four to 
Aphrodite. Adonis however preferring to live 
with Aphrodite, also spent with her the four 
months over which he had controuL After- 
wards Adonis died of a wound which he received 
from a boar during the chase. Thus far the story 
of Adonis was related by Panyasis. Later writers 
furnish various alterations and additions to it. 
According to Hyginus {Fah. 58, 164, 251, 271), 
Sraynia was punished with the love for her father, 
because her mother Cenchreis had provoked the 
anger of Aphrodite by extolling the beauty of her 
daughter above that of the goddess. Smyrna after 
the discovery of her crime fled into a forest, where 
she was changed into a tree from which Adonis 
came forth, when her father split it with his 
sword. The dispute between Aphrodite and Per- 
sephone was according to some accounts settled by 
Calliope, whom Zeus appointed as mediator be- 
tween them. (Hygin. Poet. Asiron. ii. 7.) Ovid 
(Met X. 300, &c.) adds the following features: 
Myrrha's love of her father was excited by the 
furies ; Lucina assisted her when she gave birth to 
Adonis, and the Naiads anointed him with the 
tears of his mother, i. e. with the fluid which 
trickled from the tree. Adonis grew up a most 
beautiful youth, and Venus loved him and shared 
with him the pleasures of the chase, though she 
always cautioned him against the wild beasts. 
At last he wounded a boar which killed him in 
its fury. According to some traditions Ares 
(Mars), or, according to others, Apollo assumed 
the fonn of a boar and thus killed Adonis. (Serv. 
ad Virg. Ed. x. 18 ; Ptolem. Hephaest. L p. 306, 
ed. Gale.) A third story related that Dionysus 
carried off Adonis. (Phanocles ap, Plut, Sympos. 



ADRASTEIA. 

ir. 5.) When Aphrodite was inbrmed af ker 
Ix-loved being wounded, »h<> hastened to the tpot 
and sprinkled neetir into bta Uood, firoai vbidi 
immcdiaU-ly floweti llliam W. VariMM aUMT 
modifications of the tHorj may be fcad in IIjrgiaM 
(J'oet. Aitrim. ii. 7), Theocritus (Idyll. xt.\ 
liion (Idyll, i.), and in the tcboliMt on Lyeo- 
phron. (H3!>, &c.) From the double tnairiage of 
Aphrodite with Ares and Adonis sprmng Priapiu. 
(Schol. ad AjxJlun. liltod. I 9, 32.) UeMdr* 
him (Jolgos and lieroe are likewise called children 
of Adonis and Aphrodite. (SchoL wl Thtumt. «». 
100; Nonni Di>my$. xlL 155.) Ou hu death 
Adonis was obliged to descend into the lower 
world, but he was allowed to spend six inoiitha 
out of every year with bis beloved Aubrodite in 
the upjM'r world. ((Jrph. hymn. 55. 10.) 

The worship of Adonis, which in later tiinaa 
was spread over nearly all the countries round the 
Mediterranean, was, as the story itself sutficientlr 
indicates, of Akiatic, or more especially of Phoeni- 
cian origin. (Lucian, de dea Syr. c. 6.) Thenoe it 
was transferred to Assyria, Kgypt, (ireeee, and 
even to Italy, though of course with Tarioos nto- 
ditications. In the Homeric poem* no tnoeof it 
occurs, and the later Greek poets changed the 
original symbolic account of Adonis into a poetical 
story. In the Asiatic religions Aphrodite waa the 
fructifying principle of nature, and Adonis appear* 
to hare reference to the death of natan in winter 
and its reviral in spring — hence he apenda six 
months in the lower and six in the upper world. 
His death and his return to life were celebrated 
in annual festivals ('Aittfia) at liyblos, Alexandria 
in Kgypt, Athens, and other places. [L. S.] 

AUIIANUS ( ASpcwJj), a Sicilian divinity who 
was worshipped in all the inland, but especially at 
Adranus, a town near Mount Aetna. (Plut. TinwL 
1 2 ; Diodor. xir. 37.) Hesychius (t. r. UoKucoi) 
represents the god aa the father of the PalicL 
According to Aelian (HiM. Anim. xi. 20), about 
1000 sacred dogs were kept near hi* temple. 
Some modem critics consider this divinity to be of 
eastern origin, and connect the name Adranus 
with the Persian Adar (hre), and regard him aa 
the same as the Phoenician Adramelech, and aa 
a personification of the sun or of fire in generaL 
(Bochart, GeDgrayk. Hacra, p. 530.) [L. S.] 

ADRANTUS, ARDRANTUS or ADRAS- 
TUS, a contemporary of Athenaeus, who wrote a 
commentary in five books upon the work of Theo- 
phrastus, entitled rtpl 'Hduiv, to which he added a 
sixth book upon the Nicomachian Ethics of Aris- 
totle. (Athen. xv. p. 673, e. with Schweighauser'a 
note.) 

AURASTEIA ('ASpiffrtia). 1, A Cretan 
nymph, daughter of Melisseus, to whom Rhea 
entrusted the infant Zeus to be reared in the Dic- 
taean grotto. In this office Adrasteia was assisted 
by her sister Ida and the Curetes (-\pollod- L I, 
§ 6 ; Callimach. hymn, in Jov. 47), whom the 
scholiast on Callimachus calls her brothers. Apol- 
lonius Rhodius (iii. 132, &c.) relates that she gave 
to the infant Zeus a beautiful globe ((T<pa2pa') to 
play with, and on some Cretan coins Zeus is 
represented sitting upon a globe. (SpanL ad 
Callim. I. c.) 

2. A surname of Nemesis, which is derived by 
some writers from Adrastus, who is said to have 
built the first sanctuary of Nemesis on the river 
Asopus (Strab. xiii. p. 588), and by others from 



ADRASTUS. 
the verb iiSpdffKfiv, according to which it would 
tignify the goddess whom none can escape. (Vale- 
ken, ad Herod, iii. 40.) [L. S.] 

ADRASTI'NE. [Adbastus.] 

ADRASTUS {'ASpcuTTos), a son of Talaus, 
king of Argos, and of Lyuimache. (Apollod. i. 9. 
§ 13.) Pausanias (ii. C. § 3) calls his mother 
Lysianassa, and Hyginus {Fab. C9) Eurynome. 
(Coiiip. Schol, ad Eurip. I'hocn. 423.) During a 
feud between the most powerful houses in Argos, 
Talaus was slain by Amphiaraus, and Adrastus 
being expelled from his dominions fled to I'olybus, 
then king of Sieyon. When Polybus died with- 
out heirs, Adrastus succeeded him on the throne 
of Sicyon, and during his reign he is said to have 
instituted tlie Nemean games. (Horn. It. ii. .'>72 ; 
Find. Nem. ix. 30, &c. ; Herod, v. 07 ; Paus. ii. 
6. § 3.) Afterwards, however, Adrastus became 
reconciled to Aniphiaraus, gave him his sister f^ri- 
phyle ill marriage, and returned to his kingdom of 
Argos. During the time he reigned there it hap- 
])ened that Tydeus of Calydon and Polynices of 
Thebes, both fugitives from their native countries, 
met at Argos near the palace of Adrastus, and 
came to words and from words to blows. On 
hearing the noise, Adr.istus hastened to them and 
separated the combatants, in whom he immediately 
recognised the two men that had l)een promised t« 
him bj' an oracle as the future husbiinds of two 
of his daughters ; for one bore on his shield 
the figure of a boar, and the other that of a 
lion, and the oracle was, that one of his daughter* 
was to marry a boar and the other a lion. Adras- 
tus therefore gave his daughter DeVpyle to Tydeus, 
and Argeia to Polynices, and at the same time 
promised to lead each of these pnnces back to his 
own country. Adrastus now prepared for war 
ogiiinst Thebes, although .^mphiiiraus foretold that 
all who should engage in it should perish, with 
the exception of Adrastus. (.\pollod. iiL (>. § 1, 
&c. ; Hygin. FiU>. C), 70.) 

Thus arose the celebrated war of the " Seven 
against Thebes," in which .\draBtus was joined by 
six other heroes, vir. Polynices, Tydeus, Aniphia- 
raus, Capaneus, Hippomedon, and Parthenopaeus. 
Instead of Tydeus and Polynices other legends 
mention Eteoclos and Mecisteus. This wiir ended 
OS unfortunately as Aniphiaraus had predicted, 
and Adrastus alone was saved by the swiftness of 
his horse Areion, the gift of Heracles. (Horn. //. 
xxiii. 340, &c. ; Paus. Anii. 25. § 5 ; Apollod. iiL 
6.) Creon of Thebes refusing to allow the bodies 
of the six heroes to be buried, Adrastus went to 
Athens and implored the assistance of the Athe- 
nians. Theseus was persuaded to undertake an 
expedition against Thebes; he took the city and 
delivered up the bodies of the &Ilen heroes to 
their friends for burial. (Apollod. iii. 7. § 1 ; 
Paus. ix. 9. § 1.) 

Ten years after this Adrastus persuaded the 
seven sous of the heroes, who had fallen in the 
war against Thebes, to make a new attack upon 
that city, and Aniphiaraus now declared that the 
gods approved of the undertJiking, and promised 
success. (Paus. ix. ft. § 2; Apollod. iii. 7. § 2.) 
This war is celebrated in ancient story as the war 
of the Epigoni ('Eirt^oi/oi). Thebes was taken and 
razed to the ground, after the greater part of its 
inhabitants had left the city on the advice of 
Tiresuvs. (Apollod. iii. 7. § 2 — 4 ; Herod, v. 61 ; 
Strab. vii. p. 32o.) The only Argive hero that 



ADRIAN'US. 



21 



fell in this war, was Aegialeus, the son of Adras- 
tus. After having built a temple of Nemesis in 
the neighbourhood of Thebes [Adrasteia], he set 
out on his return home. But weighed down by 
old age and grief at the death of his son he died at 
Megara and was buried there. (I'aus. i. 43. § 1.) 
After his death he waa wonhipped in several parts 
of Greece, as at Megan (PaoSb /. c), at Sicyon 
where his memory wa« ct^ebrated in tragic cho- 
ruses (Herod, v. 67), and in Attica. (Paus. i. 30. 
§ 4.) The legends about Adrastus and the two 
wars against Thebes have furnished most ample 
materials for the epic as well as tragic poet« of 
Greece (Paus. ix. 9. § 3), and some works of art 
relating to the stories about Adrastus are mentioned 
in Pausanias. (iii. 18. § 7, x. 10. § 2.) 

From Adrastus the female patronymic Adraatine 
n-as formed. (Horn. //. t. 412.) [L. S.] 

ADR.\STUS CA8pa<rroj), a son of the Phry- 
gian king Gordius, who had unintentionally killed 
his brother, and was in consequence expelled by 
his father aud deprived of everything He took 
refuge as a suppliant at the court of king Croesus, 
who purified him and received him kindly. After 
some time he was sent out as guardian of Aty*, 
the son of Croesus, who was to deliver the coun- 
try from a wild boar which had made great haroe 
all around. Adnutoa had tlM oiiafartiui* to kiU 
prince Atys, while ha WM aiiaing at tke wild 
beast. Croesus pardoned tlie uafbctiuata man, aa 
he saw in this accident the will of the gods and 
the fulfilment of a prophecy ; but Adrastus could 
not endi. ::ger and killed himself on the 

tomb ot i. i, 35—45.) [L. S.] 

.»"" '^•<- V •■'■ i.i"-i-iaa, a 

I' caad 

ti-! ' Use o« 

the amuigeatciit ui Ansluiie's wriiuig* and his 
system of philosophy, quoted by Simplicius (Prue- 
fiU. m vim. Aft. J*ijli')i and by Achilles Tatius 
(p 82). Some eonmeBtariea of his oo the Timaeus 
of Plato are also quoted by Porphyry (p. 270, m 
Uarmoniea PtoUmari), and a treatise on the Cate- 
gories of Aristotle by Galea. None of these have 
come down to us ; but a work on Harmonics, w*pi 
'Apito¥utMfy is preserred, in MS., in the Vatican 
Library. [B. J.] 

ADKl.VNUS. [Hadriaki'8.] 

ADRIA'NUS ("AS^ju-iJj), a Greek rhetorician 
bora at Tyre in Phoenicia, who flourished under 
the emperors M. Antoninus and Commodus. He 
was tlie pupil of the celebrated Herodes Attkus, 
and obtained the chair of philosophy at Athens 
during the lifetime of his master. His advance- 
ment does not seem to have impaired their mutual 
regard ; Herodes declared that the unfinished 
speeches of his scholar were " the fragments of a 
colossus," and Adrianus showed his gnttitude by a 
faneral oration which he pronounced over the ashes 
of his master. Among a peo^e who rivalled one 
another in their zeal to do him honour, Adrianus 
did not shew much of the disc-retion of a philoso- 
pher. His first lecture commenced with the modest 
encomium on himself TaAiy « ♦oiviVrjt ypd/ifiara, 
while in the magnificence of his dress and equipiige 
he affected the style of the hierophant of philoso- 
phy. A story may be seen in Philostratus of his 
trial and acquittal for the murder of a begging 
sophist who had insulted him : .\drianus had re- 
torted by styling such insults iir/fuxra icopttty, but 
his pupils were not content with weapons ot 



22 AEACIDES. 

riiliculp. The visit of M. Antoninim to Athcn* 
iimdi! him >u;qiuiiiit<-d witli Adriiiniis, whom he 
iiiviti-d tn Ilomu and honoiirnd with hiit friendkhip: 
t\w cMii[MTor even condesccndc'd to m-t th<! the»i» of 
ii di'tiain!ilii)ii for him. After tho di-iith of Aiito- 
nitiiiK lie hctaiiu? the privaUi iM^cri-tary of (.'oiiiiikkIu*. 
IliKdcatii took pliice at Home iit the eightieth yiuir 
of liiH age, not later than A. v. \'J'2, if it l)c true 
that (^ominoduH (who wan aHKaBHiiuited at the end 
of this year) wnt him a letter on hi» death-bed, 
which ho i» represented a« kisning with devout 
carnestn»!8i» in his liist moments. (Phih)str. Vil. 
Ailriaii. ; Suidas, s. r. 'ASptaySs.) ()( the works 
nttriltutcd to him by Suidas three declamations 
only are extant. These have been edited by Leo 
Allatius in the ISjeoerpta Varia Grofcorum So- 
phixttirum ac Wwtoricorum, Homae, 1641, and by 
Walz in the firat volume of the Rhetorti frraeci, 
1832. [B.J.] 

ADRIA'NUS {'ASpiav6s), a Greek poet, who 
wrote an ejjic poem on the history of Alexander 
the Great, which was called 'AX*iayipiis. Of this 
poem the seventh book is mentioned (Steph. By*. 
«. V. 2a»«ia), l)Ut we possess only a fragment con- 
sisting of one line. (Su-ph. By*. ». e. 'AffT^o.) 
Suidas (». r. 'A^l>iav6s) mentions among other 
poems of Arrianus one called 'AXt^avipiis, and 
there can Ije no doubt that this is the work of 
Adrianus, which he by mistake attributes to his 
Arrianus. (Mcineke, in the Abltandl. lUr lierlin. 
Akculemic, 1«32, p. 124.) [L. S.] 

ADRIA'NUS ('ASpiavrfj) flourished, according 
to Archbishop Usher, A. D. 433. There is extant 
of his, in Greek, hagoge Siirrarum. Literarum, re- 
commended by Photius (No. 2) to beginners, edited 
by Dav. Hoeschel, 4to. Aug. Vindel. 1602, and 
among the Criliri Sacri. fol. Ijond. 1660. [ A. J.C] 

ADU'SIUS (^ASoiffios), according to the account 
of Xcnophou in the Cyrojuiedeia, was sent by 
Cyrus with an army into Caria, to put an end to 
the feuds which existed in the country. He after- 
wards assisted Hystaspes in subduing Phrygia, 
and was made satrap of Caria, as the inhabitants 
had requested, (vii. 4. § 1, &c., viii. 6. § 7.) 

AEA. [Gaka.] 

AEA, a huntress who was metamorphosed by 
the gods into the fabulous island bearing the same 
n.ime, in order to rescue her from the pursuit 
of Phasis, the river -god. (Val. Flacc. i. 742, v. 
426.) [L. S.] 

AE'ACES (A»o»crjs). 1. The fether of Syloson 
and Polycrates. (Herod, iii. 39, 139, vi. 13.) 

2. The son of Syloson, and the grandson of the 
preceding, was tyrant of Samos, but was deprived 
of his tyranny by Aristagoras, when the lonians 
revolted from the Persians, b. c. 500. He then 
fled to the Persians, and induced the Samians to 
abandon the other lonians in the sea-fight between 
the Persians and lonians. After this battle, in 
which the latter were defeated, he was restored to 
the tyranny of Samos by the Persians, b. c. 494. 
(Herod, iv. 138, vi. 13, 14,25.) 

AEA'CIDES (Aio/ft57/y), a patronymic firom 
Aeacus, and given to various of his descendants, 
as Peleus ( Ov. Met. xi. 227, &c., xii. 365 ; Horn. 
11. xvi. 15), Telamon (Ov. Met. viii. 4 ; Apollon. 
i. 1330), Phocus (Ov. Met. vii. 668, 798), the 
sons of Aeacus ; Achilles, the grandson of Aeacus 
(Horn. Jl. xi. 805 ; Virg. Aen. i. 99) ; and 
Pyrrhus, the great-grandson of Aeacus. (Virg. 
Aen. iii. 296.) [L. S.] 



AEACUS. 

AEACIDES (AUuMfit), the mi tt Arpmlm, 
king of Kpirua, tuccMded to the throiM on tlM 
death of hi* cousin Alexander, who wm slAin ia 
Italy. (Liv. Tiii. 24.) Aeacid^ manud Phthk, 
the daughter of Mcnon of I'hanolas, by wtMa 1m 
had the celebrated Pyrrhus and two 
Deidameia and Tro'ia*. In H. c. 317 Iw 



Polys[H-rchon in mitoring Oiympias aiid th» jrnng 
Alexander, who was then only bve jmn OM, t* 



Macedonia. In the foUowinc year h» i 
the assistance of OlympkM, woo waa hard 
by Cassander ; but th« Epirota disUkad Um i 
rose against Aeacides, and drora him froai tha 
kingdom. Pyrrhus, who waa than aaly tara 
years old, was with difficulty saved from JuatriMi 
tion by some faithful tervants. But becomiac toad 
of the Macedoniiin nile, the Epirota reeallad Aaa* 
cides in B. c. 313 ; Cassander immediately tent aa 
army against him under Philip, who conqoeiad 
him the same year in two buttles, in the hut of 
which he was killed. (Paus. i. 1 1 ( LHod. xix. 11, 
36, 74 ; Plut. J'yrrh. i. 2.) 

AP/ACUS (Afcucof), a son of Zeus and Aegioa, 
a daughter of the rirer-god Asopon He waa bam 
in the island of Oenona w Oeaopia, jrhifiwr 
Acgirm had been carried by Zens to eeenra her 
from the anger of her parents, and whence this 
island waa afterwarda called Aegina. (ApoUod. 
iii, 12. § 6 ; Hygin. FuA. 52 ; Pans. ii. 29. g 
2; comp. Nona. Dionys. vi. 212; Ov. A/et ti. 
113, vii. 472, &c.) According to some ac- 
counts Aeacus was a son of Zeus and Europa. 
Some traditions related that at the time when 
Aeacus waa bom, Aegina waa not yet inhabited, 
and that Zena changed the ants (nvpuriKtt) 
of the island into men (Mynrndones) over whom 
Aeacus ruled, or that he made men grow up out 
of the earth. (lies. Fraym. 67, ed.Oottling ; Apol- 
lod. iii. 12. § 6; Paus. I. c.) Ovid {Met. viL 520; 
comp. Hygin. Fal>. 52; Strab. viiL p. 375), on the 
other hand, supposes that the island was not unin- 
habited at the time of the birth of Aeacus, and state* 
that, in the reign of Aeacus, Hera, jealous of 
Aegina, ravaged the island bearing the name of the 
latter by sending a plague or a fearful dragon into 
it, by which nearly all its inhabitants were carried 
oi!^ and that Zeus restored the population by 
changing the ants into men. These legends, as 
Milller justly remarks {Aeginetica), are nothing 
but a mythical account of the colonisation of 
Aegina, which seems to have been originally in- 
habited by Pelasgians, and afterwards received 
colonists from Phthiotis, the seat of the Myrmi- 
dones, and from Phlius on the Asopus. Aeacus 
while he reigned in Aegina was renowned in all 
Greece for his justice and piety, and was fre- 
quently called upon to settle disputes not only 
among men, but even among the gods themselves. 
(Pind. Isth. \-iii. 48, &c. ; Paus. i. 39. § 5.) He 
was such a favourite with the latter, that, when 
Greece was visited by a drought in consequence of 
a murder which had been committed (Diod, ir. 
60, 61 ; Apollod. iii. 12. § 6), the oracle of Delphi 
declared that the calamity would not cease unless 
Aeacus prayed to the gods that it might ; which 
he accordingly did, and it ceased in consequence. 
Aeacus himself shewed his gratitude by erecting a 
temple to Zeus Panhellenius on mount Panhel- 
lenion (Paus. ii. 30. § 4), and the Aeginetans 
afterwards built a sanctuary in their island called 
Aeaceum, which was a square place enclosed by 



AEDESIA. 

walls of white marble. Aeacus was believed in 
later times to be buried under the altar in this 
sacred enclosure. (Paus. ii. 29. § 6.) A legend pre- 
served in I'indar {01. viii. 39, &c.) relates that 
Apollo and Poseidon took Aeacus as their assistant 
in building the walls of Troy. AV'hen the work 
was completed, three dragons rushed against the 
wall, and while the two of them which attacked 
those parts of the wall built by the gods fell down 
dead, the third forced its way into the city through 
the part built by Aeiurus. Hereupon Apollo pro- 
phesied that Troy would fall through the hands of 
the Aeacids. Aeacus was also believed by the 
Aeginetans to have surrounded their island with 
high cliffs to protect it against pirates. (Paus. ii. 29. 
§ 5.) Several other incidents connected with the 
story of Aeacus are mentioned by Ovid- ( Met. vii. 
50(j, &c., ix. 435, &c.) By Endei's Aeacus had 
two sons, Telamon and Peleus, and by Psamathe 
R son, Phocus, whom he preferred to the two 
others, who contrived to kill Phocus during a 
contest, and then tied from their native island. 
[Pklkus ; Tklamon.] After his death Aeacus 
became one of tlie three judges in Hades (Ov. 
Met. xiii. 25; Hor. Carm. ii. 13. 22), and accord- 
ing to Plato {Uorg. p. 523 ; compare A/xjloy. p. 
41 ; Isocrut. Eixiy. 5) especially for the shades of 
Europeans. In works of art he was represented 
bearing a sceptre and the keys uf Hades. (ApoUod. 
iii. 12. § G ; Pind. Istkm. viii. 47, &c.) Aeacus 
had sanctuaries both at Athens and in Aegina 
(Paus. ii. 29. § (> ; Hesych. «. r. ; SchoL ad I'md. 
Nein. xiii. 155), and the Aeginetans regarded 
him as the tutelary deity of their island. (Pind. 
Aem. viii. 22.) [L. S.] 

AEAEA (Aia/a). 1. A surname oi Medeia, 
derived from Aea, the country where her latiier 
Aeetes ruled. (Apollun. Khud. iii. 1136.) 

2. A suniiuue of Circe, the sister of Aeetei. 
(Hom. Od. ix. 32; ApoUon. Rhod. iv. 559 ; Vii^. 
Aeu. iii. 3t!t>.) Her sun Telegunus is likewise 
mentioned with this surname. {Aeaeu^if Propert. 
ii. 23. § 42.) 

3. A surname of Calypso, who was believed to 
have inhabited a small island of the name of Aeaea 
in the straits between Italy and Sicily. (Pomp. 
Mela, ii. 7; Proin-rt. iii. 10. 31.) [L. S.] 

AEA'NTIDES (Ai'a^riSijj). 1. The tyrant of 
Lampsacus, to whom Hippias gave his daughter 
Archedice in marriage. (Thuc. vi. 59.) 

2. A tragic poet of Alexandria, mentioned as 
one of the seven poets who fom»ed the Tragic 
Pleiad. He lived in the time of tiie second Ptolemy. 
(Schol. (id Htphuest. p. 32, 93, ed. Paw.^ 

AEBU'TIA (JENS, contained two families, the 
nimies of which are Caris and Elva. The for- 
mer was plebeian, the latter patrician ; but the 
gens was originally patrician. Coruii-en does not 
seem to have been a family-name, but only a sur- 
name given to Postumus Aebutius Elva, who was 
consul in B. c. 442. This gens was distinguished 
in the early ages, but from the time of the above- 
mentioned Aebutius Elva, no patrician member of 
it held any curule office till the praelorahip of M. 
Aebutius Elva in b. c. 1 76. 

It is doubtful to which of the family P. Aebutius 
belonged, who disclosed to the consul the existence 
of the Bacchanalia at Rome, and was rewarded by 
the senate ia consequence, b, c. 186. (Liv. xxxix 
9, 11, 19.) 

AEDE'SI A (Ai5e(rfa),a female philosopher of the 



AEDON. 



Ii 



new Platonic school, lived in the fifth century after 
Christ at Alexandria. She was a relation of Syria- 
nus and the wife of Hermeias, and was equally 
celebrated for her beauty and her virtues. After 
the death of her husband, she devoted herself to 
relieving the wants of the distressed and the edu- 
cation of her children. She accompanied the btter 
to Athens, where they went to study philosophy, 
and was received with great distinction by all the 
philosophers there, and especially by Proclus, to 
whom she had been betrothed by Syrianus, when 
she was quite young. She lived to a i ' ~ ' ' • 
age, and her funeral oration was pi 
Damascius, who was then a young u. _ , 
meter verses. The names of her sons were Am- 
monius and Heliodorus. (Suidas, s. r. ; Damascius, 
ap. PkU. cod. 242, p. 341, b. ed. Bekker.) 

AEDE'SI US (AiStffiot), a Cappadociau, called 
a Phttonic or perhi^ taato cor ' '' ' 

philosopher, who lirad !■ ths t 

f riend and most distinguiaheddiM..,.. 

After the death of his master the school of ^y^i;l 
was dispersed, aitd Aedesius feanug the real or 
fancied hostility of the Christian emperor Coustan- 
tine to philosophy, took refuge in divination. An 
' xanetar tcim repccMnted a putotal 
I ily ntntt, bat hiu di>ci pi a», periMqia 

L.. „ ...^ fe«n by a nsetaphoricm) inteipntatton, 

compelled him to resume his instructions. He 
settled at Pergamus, where he numbered among 
his pupils the emperor Julian. After the accession 
of the latter to the imperial purple he invited 
A« ie<i— t» caatiiMi0 hi* iMtracUMU. but the de- 
clining •traMtk of tke Mge ^"f vn^"^ t" the 
taak, two of Us wtaH, lawMd diaoplM, Chrjsanthes 
and FniiihiM. van by his own desire appointed to 
•apply his place. (Eunap. Vit. Atde*.) IB. J- J 

AEDU.V ('AnS^f). 1. A daughter of Panda- 
reus of Ephesus. According to Haiu«r (pd. xix. 
517, &C.) sbe waa tke w& of Zethus, king of 
Thebea, and tka wather «f Ujloik Envious of 
Niobe, the wifs of har bnthar Aaphion, who had 
six sons and six daufHtan, aha ioraiMl the plan of 
killing the eldest of Niobe's sons, but by mistake 
slew her own son Itylus. Zeus relieved her grief 
by changing her into a ui!.'htiiii;al«:, whose mclan- 
cbo^ tonM an repiwente ' 
laaMSlatiHM abaiit bar ^ 

cydea, Fmg m. p, 138, i— -^ , -., 

5. § 5.) According to a kter tradition pres. i vt i 
in Antoninus Liberalis (c 11), Aedou wus \\\-- 
wife of Polytechnus, an artist of Colophon, and 
boasted that she lived more happUv with him than 

Ii , . ' :' ■■ _■ ' '■• ' 1 



chair, and Aedon a piece of embroider}', and they 
agreed that whoever shoidd finish the work tirst 
should receive fiwm the other a female slave as the 
prise. When Aedon had conquered her husband, 
he went to her father, and {u- ' ii hii 

wife wished to see her sister ( t'^k 

her with him. On his way hoi;.>^ ..^ 

dressed her in slave's attire, enjoined her to u - 
the strictest silence, and gave her to his .v : 
the promised prise. After some time Chelidunis, 
believing herself unobserved, lamented her own 
£ite, but she was overheard by Aedon, and the 
two sisters conspired against Polytechnus and 
killed his son Itys, whom they placed beforv^ him 
in a dish. Aedon fled with Chelidonis to her 



24 



AEOA. 



filtlier, who, whnn Polytccliiiu* came in pursuit of 
IiIh wife, liiiil him boiiiui, miicarud with honey, 
and thim cxpowd iiiiii to thi; inm-flH. At-'doii now 
tooic |)ity uj>on the huircringn of her huNl>iiiid, add 
wlicii her n-iatiouH were on the point of killing her 
for thiit weakneHH, ZeuH chatif^ed PolytcchniiH into 
a pelican, the brother of Aedon into a whoop, her 
father into a »ea-eagle, Chelidoni* into a nwaliow, 
and Aedon herneif into a nightin^^ale. 'J'hix niyihn* 
wenis to have originated in mere etymologies and 
iH of the Bamo cVmh aa that about i'liilonielt; and 
I'rocne. IL. S.J 

AKKTES or AKK'TA (AitJttjj), a son of 
IleiioMand Perscis. (Apoilod. i. .'). § 1 ; He». TIuukj. 
\)hl .) According to others his mother's n.'ime waa 
Persa (Ilygin. I'ruef. p, 14, ed. Staveren), or 
Antiope. (Schol. ad I'ind. OL xiii. 52.) lie wa» 
a brother of Circe, Pasiphae, and I'erses, (Hygin. 
I. c. ; ApoUod. /. c. ; Horn. Otl. x. 13(), &c. ; Cic, 
de Nat. Dear. iii. 19.) He was nmriied to Idyia, 
n daughter of Uceanus, by whom he had two 
daugliters, Medeia and ChalciojM;, and one son, 
Absyrtus (Ilesiod. /"/wfy. »()(».; Apoilod. i. f»,'23.). 
Jle was king of Colchis at the time when Phrixus 
brought thither the golden lieece. At one time he 
was expelled from his kingdom by his brother 
Perses, but was restored by his daughter Medeia. 
(Apoilod. i. 9. § "JO.) Contpare Ausyrtus, Ar- 
ooNAiiTAK, Jason, and Mkdkia. fL. S.] 

AKpyTIS, AKKTIAS, and AEKTI'NE, are 
patronymic forms from Aeetes, and arc used by 
Roman poets to designate his daughter Medeia. 
(Ov, i»Ie/. vii. 9, 29(), HtrM. vi. 103 ; Val. Flacc. 
viii. 233.) [L. S.] 

AEGA (Afyij), according to Hyginus (/'eW. 
Asir. ii. 13) a daughter of Olenns, who was a de- 
scendant of Hephaestus. Aega and her sister 
Hclice nursed the infant Zeus in Crete, and the 
former was afterwards changed by the god into 
the constellation called Capelia. According to 
other traditions mentioned by Hyginus, Aega was 
a daughter of Melisseus, king of Crete, and was 
chosen to suckle the infant Zeus ; but as she was 
found unable to do it, the service was performed 
by the goat Amalthea. According to others, again, 
Aega was a daughter of Helios and of such dazzling 
brightness, that the Titans in their attack upon 
Olympus became frightened and requested their 
mother Gaea to conceal her in the earth. She was 
acconlingly confined in a cave in Crete, where she 
became the nurse of Zeus. In the fight with the 
Titans Zeus was commanded by an oracle to cover 
himself with her skin (aegis). He obeyed the 
command and raised Aega among the stars. 
Similar, though somewhat different accounts, were 
given by Euernerus and others. (Enitosth. Caiast. 
13 ; Antonin. Lib. 36 ; Lactant. Instit. i. 22. § 19.) 
It is clear that in some of these stories Aegia 
is regarded as a nymph, and in others as a goat, 
though the two ideas are not kept clearly distinct 
from each other. Her name is either connected 
with af|, which signifies a goat, or with ai'f, a gale of 
wind ; and this circumstance has led some critics to 
consider the myth about her as made up of two 
distinct ones, one being of an astronomical nature 
and derived from the constellation Capelia, the rise 
of which brings storms and tempests (Arat. Phaen. 
150), and the other referring to the goat which 
was belie,ved to have suckled the infant Zeus in 
Crete. (Compare Buttmann in Meier's Ursprung 
und Bcdeulung der Siemnameru, p. 309 ; Bottiger, 



AFOKRIA. 

Aiiuibltfa, i. p. I'i, tui.; Crcurtr, Si/mh<J. iv. p. 
45»l <Vc.) ^ IL h.J 

AE(JAEON {Si-yaluv), a ton of IJriiiiui l»y 
(iiu-a. Aegiwon and )ii» brolhern Gygi-» and 
CottUR arc known under the imnie of the IJranid* 
(He». Tlwixj. .502, inc.), and are d«r»criljr^ a* hujfe 
monsters with n hundred ann« (««aT<>7x«<f»«») and 
fifty heads. (Ap<.IUMl.L 1. S 1 ; Hes '/V-a/. U», 
&c.) Most writer* mention the third (>niiiid 
under the name of liriareus inktt-.'ui of Aeg:Mrun, 
which is cxphiined in a passage of lloiiier (//. i. 
403, &c.), who says that men called him Aega<-on, 
but the gods iirioreus. (Jn one occasion wlieu the 
Olympian gods were about to put Zeus in cliains, 
Thetis called in the assisUince of Ae){ae<>n, who 
compelled the gods to desist from their intention. 
(Horn. //. i. 398, ice.) According to He»iod 
(T/ieng. 154, &c. (ill, &.C.), Aeguron and hia 
brothers were hated by Uranus from the time of 
their birth, in cons(>quence of which they were 
concealed in the depth of the earth, where thejr 
remained until the 'I'ltans began their war against 
Zeus. On the advice of Gaea Zeua delivered the 
Unuiids from their prison, that they might aaaiat 
him. The hundred-anned giants conquered the 
Titans by hurling at them thrv« hundred rocks at 
once, and secured the victory to Zeus, who thniat 
the Titans into Tartarus and placed the Hecatoo- 
cheires at its gates, or, according to others, in tli* 
depth of the ocean to guard them. (Hes. Tlteog. 
(>17, &c. 815, &c.) According to a legend in 
Pausanios (ii. 1. § b', ii. 4. § 7), liriareus was chosen 
as arbitrator in the disputi; between Poseidon and 
Helios, and adjudgeil the Isthmus to the former 
and the Acrocorinthus to the latter. The Scholiast 
on Apollonius Khodius (i. 11G5) represents Ae- 
gaeon as a son of Gaea and Pontus and as living 
as a marine god in the Aegean sea. Ovid ( MH. 
ii. 10) and Philostratus ( Vit. Afxdltm. iv. 6) like- 
wise regard him as a marine god, while Virgil 
{Aen. X. 565) reckons him among the giants 
who stormed Olympus, and Callimachus {Ilymn. 
in Del. 141, &c.), regarding him in the same light, 
phices him under mount Aetna. The Scholiast on 
Theocritus {Idyll, i. 65) calls Briareus one of the 
Cyclops. The opinion which regards A^aeon and 
his brothers as only personifications of the extra- 
ordinary powers of nature, such as are manifested 
in the violent commotions of the earth, as earth- 
quakes, volcanic eruptions and the like, seems to 
explain best the various accounts about them. [ L. S.] 

AEGAEUS (AiYoToi), a surname of Posei- 
don, derived from the town of Aegae in Euboea, 
near which he had a magnificent temple upon a 
hilL (Strab. ix. p. 405 ; Virg. Aen. iii. 74, where 
Servius erroneously derives the name from the 
Aegean sea.) [L. S.] 

AEGEIDES {hlytiZi)s\ a patronymic from 
Aegeus, and especially used to designate Theseus. 
(Horn. //. i. 265; Ov. Heroid. iv. 59, ii. 67 ; 
compare Aegeus.) [L. S.] 

AEGE'RIA or EGE'RIA, one of the Camenae 
in Roman mythology, from whom, according to 
the legends of early Roman story, Numa received 
his instructions respecting the forms of worship 
which he introduced. (Liv. i. 19; Val. Max. L 2. 
§ 1.) The grove in which the king had his in- 
terviews with the goddess, and in which a well 
gushed forth from a dark recess, was dedicated bv 
him to the Camenae. (Liv. i. 21.) The Roman 
legends, however, point out two distinct places 



AEGEUS. 

sacred to Aegeria, one near Aricia (Virg. Aen. vii, 
7GI, &c.; Ovid, Fust. iii. 2«3, &c.; Strab. v. 
p. 239; Plut. Num. 4; Lactaiit. i. ^-i. § 1), and 
the other near the city of Rome at the Porta 
Capena, in the valley now called Caparella, where 
the Bacred shield had fallen from heaven, and 
where Numa was likewise believed to have had 
interviews with his beloved Camena. (Plat. Num. 
13 ; Juv. iii. 12.) Ovid {Afet. xv. 431, &c. ; 
compare Stnib. /. c.) relates that, after the death 
of Numa, Aegeria fled into the shady grove in the 
vale of Aricia, and there disturbed by her lamen- 
tations the worship of Diana wliich had been 
brought thither from Tauris by Orestes, or, ac- 
cording to others, by Iiip|x)lytU8. Virgil {Aen. 
vii. 70'1) makes Ilippolytus and Aegeria the 
parents of Virbius, who was undoubtedly a native 
Italian hero. This is one of the most remarkable 
iiisUinces of the manner in which the worship of a 
Greek divinity or hero was engrafted upon and 
combined with a purely Italian worship. Aegeria 
was regarded as a prophetic divinity, and also ac 
the giver of life, whence she was invoked by 
pregnant women. (Festus, ». r. Eyeriae; compare 
Wagner, Cummettlatio de Eyeriae fonte et nftecu 
eiustjue situ, Marburg, 1824 ; Ilartung, Die Hulig. 
der Jtumer, ii. p. 203, tie. and 213, &c.) [L. S.J 

AEGESTUS. [AcKbTES.] 

AEGEUS (Aiyfvs). 1. According to Mme 
accounts a son uf Pandion II. king of Athena, and 
of Pylia, while others call him a son of Scyrius or 
Phemius, and stiite that he was only an adopted 
8on of Pandion. ( Pans. i. 5. § 3, &r. ; Schol. ad 
Li/co/i/ir. 494 ; A[)ollod. iii. -15. § 5.) PandioD 
had been e.xpelled from his kingdom by the 
Metionids, but Aegeus in conjunction with his 
brothers, Pallas, Nysus, and Lycus restored him, 
and Aegeus being the eldest of the brothers suc- 
ceeded Pandion. Aegeus first married Meta, a 
daughter of Iloples, and then Chalciope, the 
daughter of Hliexenor, neither of whom bore him 
any children. (Apollod. iii. 15. §(),iLC.) He ascrib- 
ed this misfortune to the anger of Aphrodite, and 
in order to conciliate her introduced her worship 
At Athens. (Pans. i. 14. § 6.) Afterwards he begot 
Theseus by Aethra at Troezen. (Plut. T/ies. 3; 
Apollod. iii. 15. § 7 ; Ilygin. Fub. 37.) When 
Tiicscus had grown up to manhood, and wm in- 
formed of his descent, he went to Athens and de- 
feated the lift}' sons of his uncle Palla«, who 
chiiming the kingly dignity of Athens, had made 
war ujwn Aegeus and deposed him, and also 
wished to exclude Theseus from the succession. 
( Plut. Thes. 1 3.) Aegeus was restored, but died 
soon after. His death is related in the following 
mani;er : When Theseus went to Crete to deliver 
Athens from the tribute it had to pay to Minos, 
he promi^d his father that on his return he would 
lioist white sails as a signal of his siifety. On his 
approach to the cosist of Attica he forgot his 
promise, and his father, who was watching on a 
rock on the seacoast, on j)ea'eiviug the black sail, 
thought that his son had perished and threw him- 
self into the sea, which according to some tradi- 
tions received from this event the name of the 
Aegaean sea. (Plut. T/ies. 22; Diod. iv. 61; 
Paus. i. 22. § 5 ; Hygin. Fub. 43; Serv. ad Aen. iii 
74.) Medeia, who was believed to have spent 
some time at Athens on her return from Corinth 
to Colchis, is said to have become mother of a son, 
Medus, by Aegeus. (Apollod. i. 9. § 28 ; Hygin. 



AEGIDIUS. 



25 



Fab. 26.) Aegeus was one of the eponymic 
heroes of Attica ; and one of the Attic tribes 
(Aegeis) derived its name from him. (Paus. i. 5. 
§ 2.) His grave, called the heroum of Aegeus was 
believed to be at Athens (Paus. L 22. § 5), and 
Pausanias mentions two statues of him, one at 
Athens and the other at Delphi, the latter of which 
had been made of the tithes of the booty taken 
by the Athenians at Marathon. (Pans. L 5. § 2, 
X. 10.§I.) 

2. The eponymic hero of the phyle called the 
Aegeidae at Sparta, was a son of Oeolyciu, and 
grandson of Theras the founder of the eolooy in 
Thera. (Herod, iv. 149.) All the Aegeida were 
believed to be Cadmeans, who formed a settlement 
at Sparta previous to the Dorian conquest Thera 
is only this difiEerenoe in the aocoonta, that, ac- 
cording to somei, Alpena waa the leader of the 
Cadmean coloniata at Sparta, while, according to 
Herodotus, they reoeiTed their name of AegeVds 
from the later Aegeos, the son of Oeolycus. (Piud. 
J'yth. V. 101 ; JtdL YiL la, &c., with the SchoL) 
There was at Sparta a heroum of Aegeus. (Paus. 
iii. 15. § 6 ; compare iv. 7. § 3.) [L. S.] 

AEGI'ALE or AEGIALELA. (Ai>«iAi» or 
A<7ia\fta), a daughter of .\drastiu and Am- 
phithea, or of Aegialeus the son of Adrastus, 
whence she bears the surname of Adrastine. (lioin. 
//. T. 412 ; ApoUod. i. 8. § 6, 9. § 13.) She was 
uuu'ried to Diomedes, who, on his return from 
Troy, found her living in adultery with Cometes. 
(Eubtath, ad 11. y. p. 566.) The hero attributed 
thia auaiurtuue to the auger of Aphrodite, whom 
ha had woaaded in the war against Troy, but 
whoi Aegiale went so frr aa to threaten his life, 
he Hed to Italy. (SchoL ad Lyeopkr. 610; Ov. 
Met. xiv. 476, &c.) Aeeording to INctys Crvteusis 
(vi. 2), Aegiale, like Clytemuestra, had beeo 
seduced to her criminal conduct by a treachMooa 
f^,. .. .1... I tiomedea waa retoming with a Trojan 
w V ed with him as his wife, and on his 

an ^oa Aegiale expelled him. In Ovid 

(y^ 34i^) ihfl ia deacribed aa the type of a bad 
wife. [L i>.] 

AEGl'ALEUS (AlyioXwi). 1. A son of 
Adrastuk and .\mphithea or Deinoanaiaa. (Apollod. 
i. 9. § 13; Hygin. FitL 71.) He was the only 
one among the Epigones tliat fell in the war 
against Thebes. ( .\puliod. iii. 7. § 3 ; Paus. ix. 5. § 7; 
compare Adhastl's.) He was worsliipped as a 
hero at Pegae in Megaris, and it was believed 
that his body had been conreyed thither from 
Thebes and been b>iried there. (Pans. L 44. § 7.) 

2. A lOD of Inachus and the Oceanid Melia, 
from whom the part of Peloponnesus after- 
wards called Achaia derived its name of .\egialeia. 
(Apollod- iL 1. j 1.) According to a Sicyonian 
tradition he was an autochthon, brother of Phoro- 
neus and first kuig of Sicyon, to whom the 
foundation of the town of Aegialeia was ascribed. 
(Paus. ii. 5. § 5, viL 1. § 1.) 

3. A son of Aeetes. [Absvrtis.] [L. S.] 
AEGI'DIUS, a Roman commander in Gaul 

under Majorianus. (a. d. 457 — 461.) After the 
death of the latter, he maintained an independent 
sovereignty in Gaul, and was elected by the Franks 
as their king, after they had banished Childeric 
Four years afterwards, Childeric was restored ; but 
Aegidius did not oppose his return, and he retained 
his influence in Gaiil till his death. (Gregor. Tu- 
ron. ii. 12.) 



26 



AWilNKTA. 



AKOIOU'CiroS or AKOrOCHOS (A/7180U- 

Xoi or A(7/ox"s), 11 siiriiaiiK! of Z(!Uh, as the Ixmrcr 
of till! Ai'(,MH with wliich h(! Htrikct t<;rror into the 
iiiijiiouH mill liJH eiiciiiicit. (llom. //. i. '202, ii. \t)7, 
37.5, iVc. ; Piiid. htJi. iv. 'J'J ; llyKin. I'oet.Astr. ii. 
13.) OthcFK derive the Hurnamc from at^ and <ix'i» 
and tiike it uh im iilluitioii to Zcuh bein;; fed by a 
gont. (SiKiiili. W (Jallim. hymn, in Ji/v. 49.) [L. S.] 

AK'OIMIIS, or AKCil'MIUS {Mytfiot, or 
Ai'yi/uios), one of the nio»t ancient of the Greek 
phvHiciittiH, who iH wiid by Ualen {JM IMfli-r. I'ldn. 
i. 'J, iv. '2. 11. vol. viii. pp. 49H, 71<i, 7.V2) to 
have been the first person who wrote a troatiitc on 
till! ()iilit(\ ilo was a native of Velia in Lucania, 
and Ih Hupposed to have lived iK^fore the time of 
]!ip|)(M,'rat(!H, that in, in the fifth ccntnry before 
Christ. His work was entitled Xl*p\ noA^f, /> 
J'a/jiilutionihiu, (a name which alone Kutliciently 
iiidicatei> its antiquity,) and is not now in cxiht- 
ence. CallimachuH («;>. Aiken, xiv. p. 643, e.) men- 
tions an author named AegimiuB, who wrote a 
work on the art of making chee»ecakc« (xKaxow- 
TOKoiiKov ffvyypanfia), and Fliny mentions a per- 
son of the same name (//. A'', vii. 4.V), who was 
Baid to have lived two hundred years ; but whether 
these arc the same or ditferent iudividiuils is quite 
uncertain [W. A. O,] 

A KU I'M I US {Alyifuot), the mythical ancestor 
of the Doric race, who is descril>ed as their king 
and lawgiver at the time when they were yet in- 
habiting the northern parts of Thessaly. (Pind. 
J^i/th. I. 124, V. 'Mi.) When involved in a war 
with the Lapithae, he ciiUcd Heracles to his 
assistance, and promised him the third port of hit 
territory, if he delivered him of his enemies. The 
Lapithae were conquered, but Heracles did not 
take for himself the territory promised to him by 
Aegimius, and left it in trust to the king who was 
to preserve it for the sons of Heracles. (ApoUod. 
ii. 7. § 7; Diod. iv. 37.) Aegimius had two sons, 
Dymas and Pamphylus, who migrated to Pelopon- 
nesus and were regarded as the ancestors of two 
branches of the Doric race (Dy manes and Pam- 
phylians), while the third branch derived its name 
from Hyllus (Hylleans), the son of Heracles, who 
had been adopted by Aegimius. (Apollod. iL 8. 
§ 3 ; Schol. ad I'ind. Pyth. i. 121.) Respecting 
the connexion between Aegimius and Heracles, 
see MiiUer, Dor. i. 35, &c. 

There existed in antiquity an epic poem called 
" Aegimius," of which a few fragments are still 
extant, and which is sometimes ascribed to Hesiod 
and sometimes to Cercops of Miletus. (Athen. xL 
p. .lOS; Steph. Byz. s.v. 'ASapris.) The main 
subject of this poem appears to have been the war 
of Aegimius and Heracles against the Lapithae. 
(Groddeck, Diblioth. der alt. Lit. und Kunst, ii. 84, 
&c.; MUller, Z)or. i. 33, &c.; Welcker, Der Episdte 
Ct/dius, p. 266, &c. The fragments are collected 
in Ddntzer, Die Fraffm, d. episch. Poes. der 
Griech. bis zur Zeit Alexand, p. 56, &c.) [L. S.] 

AEGI'NA. [Abacus.] 

AEGINAEA (Aj^icat'a), a surname of Artemis, 
under which she was worshipped at Sparta. (Paus. 
iii. 14. § 3.) It means either the huntress of cha- 
mois, or the wielder of the javelin (aj^oveo). [L.S.] 

AEGINE'TA, a modeller {fictor) mentioned 
by Pliny. (//. A'', xxxv. 11. s. 40.) Scholars are 
now pretty well agreed, that Winckelmaan was 
mistaken in supposing that the word Aeffinetae in 
the passage of Pliny denoted merely the country 



AEU1»THU8. 
of some artist, whose real name, (or mom mmmb or 
other, wa> not k'v*^"- ">* l^rvtWr Paaiaa, • 
[Miinter of Motne dutiocttOB, WM s pofil of Kri^u- 
nus, who had b««l tuUmf gria 4« t t* tlte arti»t 
Ncalcc*. We Imto from Plotardi (Arut, 13), 
that NealcM wm a friend of Antu* ti flkjoa, 
who was elected praetor of the Achacaa MfM 
u. c. 243. We «hall not be (ar wrong thtwfcw ia 
a«suming, that Aegineta and hi* brother floviab- 
ed about 01. <;xi.. u. c. 220. (K. O. Miiller, Ardi 
der Kun>t. p. 151.) (C. P. JL) 

AEGINETA PAULUS. [Pauli h Aw.i- 

NKTA.] 

AE(iI'OCHUS. [Aeoiduchuh.] 

AE'(HPAN {Kl-fiwav), that isGoatPan, wa» 
according to some stateroentii a U-ing dintiiict fnrni 
Pan, while others regard him a* idimtical with 
Pan. His st<jry ap|)ears to be alUigcther of Ut<; 
origin. According to Hyginus (/■'uZi. 155) he was 
the son of Zeus and a guat, or of Zeus and Aega, 
the wiie of Pan, and was tnuisferrcd to the 
star*. (Hygin. /V/. >4«/r. ii. 13. g28.) Otbt-n 
again make Aegipan the father of I'an, and i>tate 

that he a» well a* his - presented a* half 

gfwt and half fi»h. (I './. 27.) When 

Zeus in his cont/*tt u ' . uis was deprired 

of the sinews of bis huniis and feet, Hermes and 
Aegipan secretly restored them to him and fitted 
them in their proper place<i. i. 6. I 3 ; 

Hygin. Poet. Attr. L c.) A a Itoman 

tradition mentioned by Plui.ii<.ii yj ufvUleL 22), 
Aegipan had sprung from the iocntuoaa inter- 
course of V^aleria of Tusculum and her &ther 
Valerius, and was considered only a different name 
for iffiTanus. (Comp. Pan, and Voss, MytJuL 
Brif/e, i. p. 80, &c) [L. 8.] 

AEGISTHUS (Afyjfffloi), a son of Thyestes, 
who unwittingly begot him by his own dalighter 
Pelopia. Immediately after bis birth he was ex- 
posed by his mother, but was found and sared bjr 
shepherds and suckled by a goat, whence his name 
Aegisthus (from a{^ ; Hygin. Fab. 87, 88 ; Aeliaii, 
V. II. xii. 42). Subsequently he was searched after 
and found by Atreus, the brother of Thyestes, who 
had him educated as bis own child, so that ererj 
body believed Aegisthus to be his son. In the night 
in which Pelopia had shared the bed of her father, 
she had taken from him his sword which she 
afterwards gave to Aegisthus. This sword became 
the means by which the incestuous intercouTK be- 
tween her and her father was discovered, where- 
upon she put an end to her own life. Atreiu in his 
enmity towards his brother sent Aegisthus to kill 
him ; but the sword which Aegisthus carried was 
the cause of the recognition between Thyestes and 
his son, and the latter returned and slew his unde 
Atreus, while he was oifering a sacrifice on the 
sea-coast. Aegisthus and his father now took 
possession of their lawful inheritance from which 
they had been expelled by Atreus. (Hygin. /, c. 
and 252.) Homer appears to know nothing of all 
these tragic occurrences, and we learn from him 
only that, after the death of Thyestes, Aegisthus 
ruled as king at Mycenae and took no part in the 
Trojan expedition. (0(/. iv. 518, inc.) While 
Agamemnon, the son of Atreus, was absent on 
his expedition against Troy, Aegisthus seduced 
Cly temnestra, the wife of Agamemnon, and was so 
wicked as to offer up thanks to the gods for the 
success with which his criminal exertions were 
crowned. (Horn. Od. iii. 263, &c.) In order not 



A EG us. 

to be surprised by the return of Agamemnon, he 
sent out spies, and when Agamemnon came, 
Aegisthus invited him to a repast at which he had 
him treacherously murdered. (Hom. Od. iv. 524, 
&c. ; Pans. ii. 16. § 5.) After this event Aegisthus 
reigned seven years longer over Mycenae, until in 
the eighth Orestes, the son of Agamemnon, re- 
turned home and avenged the death of his father 
by putting the adulterer to death. (Hom. Od. L 
28, &c. ; compare Agamemnon, Clytbmnkstra, 
Orkstes.) [L. S.] 

AEGLE {My>^ri)- 1. The most beautiful of the 
Naiads, daughter of Zeus and Neaera(Virg. Edog. 
vi. 20), by whom Helios begot the Charites. 
(Pans. ix. 35. § 1.) 

2. A sister of Pliaeton, and daughter of Helios 
and Clymene. (Hygin. Fab- 154, 156.) In her 
grief at the death of her brother she and her sisters 
were changed into poplars. 

3. One of the Hesperides. (ApoUod. ii. 5. § 11; 
Serv. (id Aen. iv. 484 ; corap. HKsrEHiOEs.) 

4. A nymph, daughter of Panopeus, wlio was 
beloved by Theseus, and for whom he forsook Ari- 
adne. (Plut Thea. 20; Athen. xiii. p. 557.) [L. S.] 

AEGLE (AlfyXij), one of the daughters of 
Aesculapius (Plin. //. A^. xxxt. 40. § 31) by 
Ijanipetia, the daughter of the Sun, according to 
llermippus (aj). SduA. in Arutoph. I'lut. 701), or 
by Epione, according to Suidas. (». r. 'Hirio'i^.) 
She is said to have derived her name Aegle, 
" Brightness," or " Splendour," either from the 
beauty of the human body when in good health, 
ur from the honour paid to the medical profeauon. 
(J. II. Meibom. Comment, in IJijijMicr. ^Jtuyur." 
Lugd. Bat. 1643, 4to. c. 6. § 7, p. 55.) [VV. A.G.] 

AEGLE'lS (AI^Atj/i), a daughter of Hyacinthus 
wlio had emigrated from Lacedaemon to Athens. 
During the siege of Athens by Minos, in the reign 
of Aegeus, she together with her sisters Anthei's, 
Lytaea, and Orthaea, were sacrificed on the tomb 
of Geraestus the Cyclop, fur the purpose of avert- 
ing a pestilence theu raging at Athens. (Apollod. 
iii. 15. § 8.) [L. S.] 

AEGLES (AlyXiji), a Samian athlete, who was 
dmub, recovered his voice when he made an effort 
on one occasion to express his indignation at an 
attempt to impose upon him in a public contest. 
(Gell. v. f) ; Val. Max. i. 8, ext. 4.) 

AEGLE'TES (^\iy\ijrrjs), that is, the radiant 
god, a surname of Apollo. (ApoUon. Rhod. iv. 
1730 ; Apollod. i. 9. § 26 ; Hesych. s. v.) [L. &] 

AEGO'BOLUS {\lyo€6Kos), the goat-killer, a 
surname of Dionysus, at Potniae in Boeotia. 
(Paus. ix. 8. § 1.) [L.S.] 

AEGO'CERUS (AlyoKfpus), a surname of Pan, 
descriptive of his figure with the horns of a goat, 
but is more comraonlj- the name given to one of the 
signs of the Zodiac. (Lucan, ix. 536 ; Lucret. y. 
614 ; C. Ciies. Genn. in A rut. 213.) [L. S.] 

AEGO'PHAGUS {Aiyo<pdyos), the goat-eater, 
a suniame of Hera, under which she was worship- 
ped by the Lacedaemoniims. (Paus. iiL 15. § 7; 
Hesych. and Etym. M. s. v.) [L. S.] 

AEGUS and HOSCILLUS, two cluefs of the 
Allobroges, who had served Caesar with great 
fidelity in the Gallic war, and were treated by 
him with great distinction. They accompanied 
him in his campaigns against Pompey, but having 
been reproved by Caesar on account of depriving 
the cavalry of its pay and appropriating the booty 
to themselves, they deserted to Pompey in Greece. 



AELIA GENS. 



27 



(Caes. Be//. Civ. iiL 59, 60.) Aegus was after- 
wards killed in an engagement between the cavalry 
of Caesar and Pompey. (iii. 84.) 

A EGYPT US (AryiflTToi), a son of Belus and 
Anchinoe or Achiroe, and twin-brother of Danaus. 
(Apollod. iL I. § 4 ; Tzetz. ad Lycophr. 382, 
1155.) Euripides repreaented Cqiheus and Phi- 
neus liken-ise ai bnuan of Aegyptns. Belus 
assigned to Danaiu the MTereigiitj of Libya, and 
to Aegyptus he gave Arabia. The latter also sub- 
dued the country of the Melampodes, which he 
called Aeg}-pt after his own name. Aegyptus by 
his several wives had fifty soni, and it so hap- 
pened that his brother Danaus had just as many 
daughters. (Apollod. ii. I. S 5 ; Hygin. FoA. 170.) 
Dauaus had reason to fear the sons of his brother, 
and fled with his daughters to Argos in Pelopon- 
nesus. Thither he was followed by the sous of 
Aegyptus, who demanded his daughters for their 
wives and promised Csithfid alliance. Daiuius 
complied with their request, and distributed his 
daughters among them, but to each of them he 
gave a dagger, with which thej weie to kill their 
husbands in the bridal night. All th* •ooa of 
Aegyptus were thus murdered with the exeeptioB 
of Lyuceus, who was saved by Hypermneatn. 
The Danaids buried the heads of their murdered 
husbands in Lema, and their bodies outaide the 
town, and were afterwards purified of tlieir crime 
by Athena and Hermes at the command of Zeus. 
Pau88nias(iL 24.§ 3),whoaawthemooament ludor 
which the heads of the sods of Aegyptus were bdiev* 
ed to be buried, says that it stood an the way ts 
Larissa, the citadel of Aigos, and that their bodiea 
were buried at Lema. In Hyginos (/Vii. 168) 
the story ia aomewfaat diflsnat. According to 
him, Aegyptos Canned the pba of murdering 
Danaus and his daaghtars in order to gain posses 
sion of his doauBioML Whaa Daoaus was in- 
fonaod of this ka flad with kia daiiglitets to Argtw. 
Ae|]rpt«a then seat eat Ua aaaa ia puauit of the 
fugitives, and eajoiaed theas Mt to retum unless 
they had shun Danaus. The sons of Aegyptus 
Lud siege to Aigos, and when Danaus saw that 
further resistance was useleaa, ho put an end to the 
hostilities by giving to each of the besiegers me of 
his daughters. Th« murder of the sons of Aegyp- 
tus theu took pkea in the bridal night Thm 
was a tradition at Patrae in Achaia, according to 
which Aegyptus himself came to Greece, and died 
at Aroe with grief for the fate of his sons. The 
temple of Serapis at Patrae contained a monument 
of Aegyptus. (Paus. viL 21. § 6.) [L. S.] 

AEIMNESTUS ('A«i/x>T}OToj), a Spartan, who 
killed Mardonius in the battle of Plataea, B. c. 479, 
and afterwards fell himself in the Messenian war. 
(Herod- ix. 64.) The Spartan who killed Mar- 
donius, Plutarch {^AriU. 19) calls Arimuestus 
('Af>i^uT>aToj), 

AE'LIA GENS, plebeian, of which the &nuly- 
names and surnames are Cati's, Galli's, Gra- 
cilis, Lamia, Liuur, Paetis, Staienls, 
Stilo, Tcbero. Ou coins this gens is also 
written Aiiiu, but A Ilia seems to be a distinct 
gens. The only £unily-name« and surnames of the 
Aelia gens upon coins are BaUi, Lamia, Foetus, 
and Sejanui. Of Bala nothing is known. S^jn- 
nus is the name of the favorite of Tiberius, who 
was adopted by one of the Aelii. [Sejaxis.] 
The first member of this gens, who obtained the 
consulship, was P. Aelius Paetus, in b. c. 337. 



2n 



A ELI AN us. 



Uiidi-r the empire the Aeliaii name iMicame iitlll 
nioni ci^h^lirutiul. It wati the nmiH! of the emperor 
iliuli'iiin, iiiid conttequciitly of tho Autoniuei, whom 
h(^ iuloptcd. 

It is doubtful to which family P. Acliu» be- 
longed who wan one of the fintt plebeian quaciitorii, 
U.C. 409. (Liv. iv. 54.) 

AKIilA'NUS was together with Amandus the 
leader of an insurrection of (iailic pcaKantii, called 
lia^iuidac, in the reign of Diocletian. It was put 
down by the Caesar Maximianus Ilerculius. (Ku- 
trop. ix. i;} ; Aurcl. Vict, dc Cae*. '.YJ.) 

AllLIA'NlJS, CASl'K'lUUS, prefect of the 
Praetorian guards under Doniitian and Nerva. 
He excited an insurrection of the guards against 
Nerva, in order to obtain the punishment of some 
obnoxious persons, but was killed by Trajan with 
his accomplices. (Uion Cass. Ixviii. 3, .5.) 

AKLIA'NUS, CLAU'DIUS (KAaJSiot kiKm. 
v6s\ was born according to Suidas (». t». KlKuw6%) 
at Praeneste in ItiUy, and lived at Home. He 
calls himself a Iloman ( F. H. xii. 25), as pos- 
Bessing the rights of Roman citizenship. He was 
particularly fond of the (Jreeks and of Greek lite- 
Kiture and oratorj-. ( V. II. ix. .'{2, xii. 25.) 
He studied under Pausanias the rhetorician, and 
imitated the eloquence of Nicottratus and the style 
of Dion Chrysostom ; but especially admired 
H erodes Atticus more than all. He taught rheto- 
ric at Rome in the time of Hadrian, and hence was 
called 6 (ro<pi(m^s. So complete was the command 
he acquired over the Greek language tluit he could 
speak as well as a native Atiienian, and hence was 
called 6 ixf\iy\wTros or fif\i<p0iryyos. ( Philost VU. 
iS(iph. ii. 31.) That rhetoric, however, was not his 
forte may easily be believed from the style of his 
works ; and he appears to have given up teaching 
for writing. Suidas calls him 'Apx'tp*^^ (Pontifex). 
He lived to above sixty j'cars of age, and had no 
children. He did not marry, because he would 
not have any. There are two considerable works 
of his remaining : one a collection of miscellaneous 
history (rioi/ctArj 'Itrrop^o) in fourteen books, com- 
monly called his "Varia Historia," and the other 
a work on the peculiarities of animals (Hepl Ztitov 
iSiSrriTos) in seventeen books, commonly called his 
"De Aninialium Natura." The former work con- 
tains short narrations and anecdotes, historical, 
biographical, antiquarian, &c., selected from various 
authors, generally without their names being given, 
aiid on a great variety of subjects. Its chief value 
arises from its containing many passages from 
works of older authors which are now lost. It is 
to be regretted that in selecting from Thucydides, 
Herodotus, and other writers, he has sometimes 
given himself the trouble of altering their language. 
But he tells us he liked to have his own way and 
to follow his own taste, and so he would seem to 
have altered for the mere sake of putting some- 
thing different. The latter work is of the same 
kind, scrappy and gossiping. It is partly collected 
from older writers, and partly the result of his own 
observations both in Italy and abroad. According 
to Philostratus (m Vit.) he was scarceh- ever out 
of Italy ; but he tells us himself that he travelled 
as far as Aegypt ; and that he saw at Alexandria 
an ox with live feet. {De Anim. xL 40 ; comp. xL 
II.) This book would appear to have become a 
popular and standard work on zoology, since in the 
fourteenth century Manuel Philes, a Byzantine 
poet, founded upon it a poem on animals. At the 



AEMANU8. 

end of the work iit a concluding clu»(cr(MA«7«i), 
wliere he iiUtc* the general principlet on which he 
has comjKiwrd hi* work : — tliat he ! ■•■at 

hiliour, care, and thought in writi: ' h« 

has preferred the pumuit of knowleui^e to tur puf- 
suit of wealth ; and that, for hia put, Im mad 
much more plrature in otMerving the habiU ti tim 
lion, the panther, and the fox, in listening to Um 
song of the nightingale, and in ttudring Um mi- 
grations of cranes, than in vam haa|Mlif ap rifhw 
and lM;ing numliercd among tlw gMrt : ~- durt 
throughout his work he ha* MOght to adbof* t* 
the truth. Nothing can l>c i m ag i iMid BMW doftcJO B t 
in arrangement than this work : he |ow fnm on* 
subject to another without the least link of Mood- 
ation ; as (e. g.) from elephants fxi. 15) to dmgoua 
(xi. 10), from the liver of mice (iu 5G) to tho MOt 
of oxen (ii. 57). But this aWnce of amngnaont, 
treating things woiKi'Xa iroiKiAw}, he Mjrt, M in- 
tentioiml ; he adopted this plan to gire rariety to 
the work, and to avoid t<*dium to the reader. H» 
style, which be commends to the indulgence of 
critics, though free from any f(Ttat fault, bos no 
particular merit. The similarity of plan in the two 
works, with other internal eridenees, teeae to 
shew that they were both written bjr the msm 
Aelian, and not, as Vom and Valckenaer conjec- 
ture, by two different persons. 

In both works he seems desirous to inculcate 
moral and religions principles (see T. II. rii. 44 ; 
De Anim. vi. 2, vii. 10, 11, ix. 7, and Efiilog.) ; 
and he wrote some treatises expressly on philoso- 
phical and religions subjects, especially one on 
Providence (n«ol Tlpoyolat) in three books (Saidaa, 
$. V. 'AiouTiwlaTois), and one on the Divine Mani- 
festations (n«pl Btuiv 'E»'«p7«i«v), directed against 
the P^picureans, whom he alludes to elsewhere. 
{Dt Anim. vii. 44.) There are also attributed to 
Aelian twenty letters on husbandry and such-like 
matters {^Aypoucucai 'LwiinoXal), which are by 
feigned characters, are written in a rhetorical on- 
real style, and are of no value. The first edition 
of all his works was by Contad Gesner, 1556, foL, 
containing also the works of Heraclides, Poleroo, 
Adamantius and Melampus. The ^ Varia Historia" 
was first edited by Camillus Pemscus, Rome, 
1545, 4to. ; the principal editions since are by 
Perizonius, Leyden, 1701, 8vo., by Gronovius, 
Ley den, 1731, 2 vols. 4to., and by KUhn, Leip- 
zig, 1780, 2 vols. 8vo. The De Animalioni 
Natura was edited by Gronovius, Lend. 1744, 
2 vols. 4to., and by J. G. Schneider, Leipzig, 
1784, 2 vols. 8vo. The last edition is that by 
Fr. Jacobs, Jena, 1832, 2 vols. 8vo. This contains 
the valuable materials which Schneider had col- 
lected and left for a new edition. The Letten 
were published apart from the other works by 
Aldus ]Manutiu8 in his " Collectio Epistoiarum 
Graecanim," Venice, 1499, 4to. 

The Varia Historia has been translated into 
Latin by C. Gesner, and into English by A. Fle- 
ming, Lond. 1576, and by Stanley, 1665; this 
last has been reprinted more than once. The De 
Animalium Natura has been translated into Latin 
by Peter Gillius (a Frenchman) and by Conrad 
Gesner. It does not appear to have been translated 
into English. 

There has also been attributed to Aelian a work 
called KaTTryopia tov FvyviSos, an attack on an 
efFeminate man, probably meant for Elagabalns. 
(Suidas, s. v. "Appev.) [A. A.] 



AELIANUS. 

AELIA'NUS, LU'CIUS, one of the thirty ty- 
rants (a. d. 2.59-2C8) under the Roman empire. 
He assumed the purple in Giaul after the death of 
Postumus, and was killed by his own soldiens, be- 
cause he would not allow them to plunder Mogun- 
tiacum. Trebellius PoUio and others call him 
LoUianus ; Eckhel (Doctr. Num. vii. p. 448) thinks, 
that his true name was Laelianus ; but there seems 
most authority in favour of L. Aelianus. (Eutrop, 
ix. 7 ; Trebell. Poll Tru;. Tyr. 4 ; AureL Vict de 
Cues. 33, Epit. 32.) 

AELIA'NUS ME'CCIUS {'KiKiavoi VltKKios), 
an ancient physician, who must have lived in the 
second century after Christ, as he is mentioned by 
(lalen (IM T/ieriaca ad Pamphil. init. vol. xiv. 
p. 299) as the oldest of his tutors. His father is 
supposed to liave also been a physician, as Aelianus 
is said by Galen {De Dvusect. MuscuL c. 1. p. 2. 
ed. Uietz) to have made an epitome of his father's 
anatomical writings, Galen speaks of that part of 
his work which treated of the Dissection of the 
Muscles as being held in some repute in his time 
{ibid.), and he always mentions his tutor with re- 
spect, {Ibid. c. 7, 22, pp, 11, 57.) During the 
prevalence of an epidemic in Italy, Aeliuims is 
said by Galen {De T/ieriaca ud I'ampliU. ibid.) to 
have used the Theriiica {Diet, of Ant. art Tliie- 
riaca) with great success, both as a means of cure 
and iilso as a preservative against the disease. He 
must have been a person of some celebrity, as this 
same anecdote is mentioned by the Arabic Histo- 
rian Abu '1-Faraj {llistor. Cumpend. Difttad. p^ 
77), with exactly the same circumstances except 
that he makes the epidemic to have broken out at 
Antioch instead of in Italy. None of his works 
(as far as the writer is aware) are now extant. 
[W. A. G,] 

AELIA'NUS, PLAUTIUS, otfervd up the 
prayer as pontifex, when the first stone of the 
new Capitol was laid in a. d, 71. (Tac. llitt. iv. 
S3.) We learn from an inscription (Gruter, p. 453; 
Orelli, n. 750), that his full name was Ti. Plautius 
Silvanus Aelianus, that he held many important 
military commands, and that he was twice consul. 
His first consulship was iu a, d. 47 ; the date of 
his second is unknown. 

AELIA'NUS TA'CTICUS(AtAjanJiTaJtTuc«)i) 
was most probably a Greek, but not the same as 
Ckudius Aelianus. He lived iu Rome and wrote 
a work in fifty-three chapters on tlie Military Tac- 
tics of the Greeks (Flfpl 'irparjiyiKQu Tdlf<ȴ 
'EX\T)fiKcvi/), which he dedicated to the emperor 
Hadrian, He also gives a brief account of the 
constitution of a Roman army at that time. The 
work arose, he says {Dedic:), from a conversation 
he had with the emperor Nerva at Frontinus's 
house at Fonuiae. He promises a work on 
Navul Tactics also ; but this, if it was written, 
is lost. The first edition of the Tactics (a very 
biid one) was published in 1532 ; the next much 
better, was by Franciscus Robortellus, Venice, 
1552, 4to., which contains a new Latui version by 
the editor, and is illustrated with nuiny cuts. The 
best edition is that printed by Elzevir at Leyden, 
1()13. It is usually found bound up with Leo's 
Tactica [Leo]. 

It was translated into Latin first by Theodorus 
of Thessalonica. Tliis translation was published 
at Rome, 1487, together with Vegetius, Frontinus, 
and Alodestus. It is printed also iu Robortellus's 
edition, wiiich therefore contains two Latin ver- 



AEMILIA- 



2» 



sions. It has been translated into English by 
Capt. John Bingham, Lond. 1616, fol., and by 
Lord DiUon, 1814, 4to. [A. A.] 

AE'LIUS ARISTI'DES. [Aristidks.] 
AE'LIUS ASCLEPI'ADES, [Asclepiauks.] 
AE'LIUS DIONY'SIUS. [Dionvsius.] 
AE'LIUS DONA'TUS. [Donatus.] 
AE'LIUS LAMPRl'DIUS. [Lampridils.] 
AE'LIUS MARCIA'NUS. [Mahcianus.] 
AE'LIUS MAURUS. [Mairus.] 
AE'LIUS PROMO'TUS (AfA«.j Upon^os), 
an ancient physician of Alexandril^ of whose per- 
sonal history no particulars are known, and whoM 
date is uncertain. He is supposed by Villoiaon 
{A need. Grate. voL iL p. 179, note 1) to have 
lived after the time of Pompey the Great, that is, 
in the first century before Christ ; by others he is 
considered to be much more ancient ; and by 
Chouhuit {HaiuUmck dtr B'tiekerhmiU fur d^ 
AelUre Medtcia, Ed. 2. LeipBg, 1840, Sto.), oa 
the other Itaud, he is placed as kte as the seoood 
half of the first century after Christ He is most 
probably the same person who is quoted by Galea 
{De Cumpos. Meditxim. aeamd. Loeott >*• 7, voL 
xii. p. 730) simply by tlie same vS Adhu. He 
wrote several Greek medical worics, which are still 
to be found in manuscript in difierent libraries 
in Europe, but of which none (as ba as the writer 
is aware) iiave ever been published, though Kiiha 
intended bis works to have been included in his 
collection of Greek medical writer*. Some extracU 
from one of his works entitled t^vtmiufiw^* Altdi- 
eiuaiium FormuJanm GJUetiOf are inserted by C. 
G. Kuhn in his AJdUcm. ad Stmeh. Mml. Vtt. a 
J.A.Fubndo m *^BiU. Or.'* EaUL^ and by Bona 
in his Troetattu de ScoHmto, Verona, 1781, 4to. 
Two other of his works are quoted or mentioned 
by Hieron. Mercurialis in his Varmt Jjt et icm mt iik 
4, and his work D» Vmmm «t Mcrik Kmmmmm, 
i. 1(>, ii. 2 ; and also by Schneider in his PrefiKea 
to Nicauder's TieriaeUf p. xL, aiid Ak^npianuueut 
p. xix. [W. A. G.J 

AELLO. [Harpyiak.] 
AELLOPUS ('AfAAovotts), a surname of Iris, 
the messenger of the gods, by which she is de- 
scribed at swift- footed Uke a storm- wind. Homer 
uses the form i*XX6ros. {/I. viiL 409.) [L. S.] 
AELURUS. [TiMOTUKLS Akllri'S.J 
AEMl'LIA. 1. A vestal virgin, who, when 
the sacred fire was extinguished on one occasion, 
prayed to the goddess for her assistance, and mira- 
culously rekindled it by throwing a piece of her 
garment upon the extinct ember*. (Dionys. it 
68; VaL Max. i. I, §7.) 

2. The third daughter of L. Aemilius Paullus, 
who fell ui the battle of Cannae, was the wife of 
Scipio Africanus I. and the mother of the celebrated 
Cornelia, the mother of the GracchL She was of 
a mild disposition, and long survived her husband. 
Her property, which was large, was inherited by 
her grandson by adoption, Scipio Africanus II., 
who gave it to his own mother Papiria, who had 
been divorced by his own father L. Aemilius. 



* Avvafifpof is a word used by the later Greek 
writers, and is explained by Du Cange {(ilusn. .Med. 
et Injim. Graecil.) to mean rts, rirttn. It is how- 
ever frequently used in the sense given to it in the 
text See Leo, Gmspect. Medic, iv. 1, II. ap. 
Ermerin. Anecd. Med. Gruec. pp. 153, 157. 



80 



AEMILIANU8. 



(Polyb. xxxii. 12 ; Diod. Exc. xxxi, ; VaJ. Max. 
vi. 7. § 1 ; I'liit. Arm. 2; Liv. xxxviii. 67.) 

3. The third daughter of L. Aeiniliii» I'aulluii 
AIuccdonicuH wnii a litth) girl when her father wait 
nppitinted conHul u wtoiid time! to conduct the war 
n^aiiiKt I'erwus. Upon returniii(? home after hi* 
election he found her in tearH, and upon inquiring 
the reuHon fihe told him that I'eriteui luid died, 
whicli wag the name of her dog ; whereupon he 
exclaimed " I accept the omen," and regarded it 
nx a pledge of hi* success in the war. (Cic. <U 
Div. i. 4(;, ii. 40; I'lut. Aem. 10.) 

4. Aeniilia Lepida. [IjKI'IDA.] 

5. A voKtal virgin, who was put to death ii. a 
114 for having committed incest upon several oo- 
casions. She induced two of the other rettal 
virgins, Marcia and Licinia, to commit the same 
crime, hut these two were acquitted l)y the ponti- 
fices, when Aemilia was condemned, but were 
subsequently condemned by the praetor L. Cassiu*. 
(l»lut. Qituest. Horn. p. 284 ; Li v. EpU. «3 ; 
Orosius, V. 15 ; Ascon. m Cic. MU, p. 46, ed. 
Orelli.) 

AKMI'LTA OENS, originally written AIMI- 
LIA, one of the most ancient patrician houvs at 
Rome. Its origin is referred to the time of Numa, 
and it is said to have been descended from Ma- 
mercus, who received the name of Aemiliiu on ac- 
count of the persuasiveness of his language (Si' 
olfivKlav Xiyou). This Mamercus is represented 
by some as the son of Pythagora*, and by others 
as the son of Numa, while a third account traces 
his origin to Ascanius, who had two sons, Julius 
and Aemylos. (Plut. Aemil. 2, Num. 8, 21 ; Festus, 
t. V. Aemil.) Amulius is also mentioned as one 
of the ancestors of the Aemilii. (Sil. Ital. viii. 297.) 
It seems pretty clear that the Aemilii were of 
Sabine origin ; and Festus derives the name Ma- 
mercus from the Oscan, Mamers in that language 
being the same as Mars. The Sabines spoke 
Oscan. Since then the Aemilii were supposed to 
have come to Home in the time of Numa, and 
Numa was s;iid to have been intimate with Pytha- 
goras, we can see the origin of the legend which 
makes the ancestor of the house the son of Pytha- 
goras. The first member of the house who ob- 
tained the consulship was L. Acmilius Mamercus, 
in B. c. 484. 

The family-names of this gens are : Barbcla, 
BucA, Lepidus, Mamercus or Mamercinus, 
Papus, Pal'llus, Regillus, Scaurus. Of these 
names Buca, Lepidus, Paullus, and Scaurus are the 
only ones that occur on coins. 

AEMILIA'NUS. 1. The son of L. Aemilius 
Paullus Macedonicus, was adopted by P. Cornelius 
Scipio, the son of P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus, 
and was thus called P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus 
Africanus. [Scipio.] 

2. The governor of Pannonia and Moesia in the 
reign of Callus. He is also called Aemilius ; and 
on coins we find as his praenomen both Marcus 
and Caius. On one coin he is called C. Julius 
Aemilianus ; but there is some doubt about the 
genuineness of the word Julius. (Eckhel,vii. p. 372.) 
He was bom in ^lauritania about a. d. 206. He 
defeated the barbarians who had invaded his pro- 
vince, and chased them as far as the Danube, a. d. 
253. He distributed among his soldiers the booty 
he had gained, and was saluted emperor by them. 
He then marched into Italy, but Gallus, who had 
advanced to meet him, was slain at Interamna to- 



AENEA& 

gether with his ion VaUmdnntm by hb •«« MUkn, 
Aemiliaiiu* wa« acknowMgad Mr tk* MHWl*, bat 
was tlain after • reign of tkne or nmr aontke bjr kie 
soldier* new Saolotam, on the appraKh of Vakii- 
anus. According to other *eeo«aU bo 4ie4 • 
natund death. (ZosimtM, L 28| 29{ ZenuM, sii. 
21, 22 ; Kutrup. ix. 5 ; AnnL Vict, if Cam. tl. 
J£pU. 31.) 




3. One of the thirty tjnuiU (a. d. 259— 26S) 
wa* compelled by the troop* in Egypt to Maoae 
the purple, ilc took the surname of Alexaaderor 
.\lexandninu. Oallieniu leat Tbeodotae agibMt 
him, bj wooB be ww taken ad aent prieeaer U 
Gallienns. Aemilianaa wm etnngled is prkea. 
(TreU-U. Poll. Trif,. Tyr. 22, aaUien. 4, 5.) 

AEMILIA'NUS (who is also called Aemiliim) 
lived in the fifkk eaatunr after Christ, and is 
known as a phynekn, eoowssor, and martyr. In 
the reign of tke Yndal King Hnmenc (a. d. 
477-484X daring tke Arin perwcatkn in Africa, 
be was moot craeDy pot to death. The Komish 
church ceiebfBtes bia meoiory on the sixth of De- 
cember, the Greek chnich on the seventh. (Afar- 
tyroL Bom. ed. Baron. ; Victor Vitensis, De Per- 
tecuL VamdaL v. 1, with Ruinart's notes, Paris. 
8vo. 1694 ; Bxoviua, S'omendaiur Simctorutn Pro- 
fettiome Medicurum.') [W. A. G.J 

AEMILIA'NUS (At/buAWos), a native of the 
town of Nicaea, and an ^ignunmatic poet. Nothing 
further is known aboat him. Three of his epi- 
grams have been preserved. (AntboL Grace, rii. 
623, ix. 218, 75C.) [C. P. M.] 

AEMI'LIUS ASPER. [Aspxr.] 
AE.MI'LIUS M.\CER. [Mackr.] 
AEMI'LIUS MAGNUS ARBO'RIUS. [A«. 
borius.] 
AE.MI'LIUS PACENSIS. [Pacxnsm.] 
AEMI'LIUS PAPINIA'NUS. [Pakki- 

AXfS.] 

AEMI'LIUS PARTHENIA'NUS. [Pabt 

THENIANLS.] 

AEMI'LIUS PROBUS. [Nbpos, Corni- 

LICS.] 

AEMI'LIUS SURA. [Sura.] 

AENE'ADES (A«v€uiJ«i), a patronymic finom 
Aeneas, and applied as a surname to those who 
were believed to be descended from him, such 
as Ascanius, Augustus, and the Romans in 
general. ( Virg. Aen. ii- 653 ; Ov. Ejc Pont L 35 ; 
Met. XV. 682, 695.) [L. S.] 

AENE'AS (A/mos). Homeric Story. Aeneas 
was the son of Anchises and Aphrodite, and bom 
on mount Ida. On his father's side he was a 
great-grandson of Tros, and thus nearly related to 
the royal house of Troy, as Priam himself was a 
grandson of Tros. (Hom. //. xx. 215, ice, ii. 
820, v. 247, &c.; Hes. Tfieog. 1007, Ac) He was 
educated from his infancy at Dardanus, in the 
house of Alcathcus, the husband of his sister. {IL 



AENEAS. AENEAS. 31 

xiii. 463, &c.) At the beginning of the war of 
the Greeks agiiinst Troy he did not take any part 
in it, and the poet intimates that there existed an 
ill feeling between him and Priam, who did not 
pay sufficient honour to Aeneas. (II. xiii. 460, &c., 
XX. 181.) This prolmbly arose from a decree of 
destiny, according to which Aeneas and his de- 
scendants were to rule over Troy, since the house 
of Priam had drawn upon itself the hatred of 
Cronion. (//. xx. 307.) One day when Aeneas 

was tending his flocks on mount Ida, he was 

attacked by AchiUes, who took his cattle and put 

him to fliglit. But he was rescued by the gods. 

This event, however, and the admonition of Apollo, 

roused his spirit, and he led his Dardanians against 

the Greeks. (//. xx. 89, &c., 190, &c., ii. 819, &c.) 

Henceforth he and Hector are the great bulwarks 

of the Trojans against the Greeks, and Aeneas ap- 
pears beloved and honoured by gods and men. (//. 

xi. 58, xvi. 619, V. 180, 467, vi. 77, &c.) He is 

among the Trojans what Achilles is among the 

Greeks. Both are sons of immortal mothers, both 

are at feud with the kings, and both possess horses 

of divine origin. (//. v. 265, &c.) Achilles him- 
self, to whom Hector owns his inferiority, thinks 

Aeneas a worthy competitor. (//. xx. 175.) The 

place which Aeneas occupies among the Trojans is 

well expressed in Philostratus {Her. 13), who says 

that the Greeks called Hector the hand, and Aeneas 

the soul of the Trojmis. Respecting the brave and 

noble manner in which he protects the body of his 

friend Pundarus, see //. v, 299. On one occasion 

he was engaged in a contest with Uiomedes, who 

Iiurled a mighty stone at him and broke his hip. 

Aeneas fell to the ground, and Aphrodite hastened 

to his assistance (//. v. 305), and when she too 

was wounded, Apollo carried him from the field of 
battle to his temple, where he was cured by Leto 
and Artemis. (//. v. 345, &c.) In the attack of 
the Trojans upon the wall of the Greeks, Aeneas 
commanded the fourth host of the Trojans. (//. 
xii. 98.) He avenged the death of Alcathous by 
slaying Oenoimius and Aphareus, and hastened to 
the assistance of Hector, who was thrown on the 
ground by Ajax. The last feat Homer mention* 
is his fight with Achilles. On this as on all othnr 
occasions, a god interposed and saved him, and this 
time it was by Poseidon, who although in general 
hostile towards the Trojans, yet rescued Aeneas, 
that the decrees of destiny might be fulfilled, and 
Aeneas and his offspring might one dav rule over 
Troy. (//. XX. 178, &c., 305, &c.) Thus far only 
is the story of Aeneas to be gathered from the 
Homeric poems, and far from alluding to Aeneas 
hiiving emigrated after the capture of Troy, and 
having founded a new kingdom in a foreign hind, 
the poet distinctly intimates that he conceives 
Aeneas and his descendants as reigning at Troy 
after the extinction of the house of Priam. (Comp, 
Strab. xiii. p. 608.) 

Later Stories. According to the Homeric hymn 
on Aphrodite (257, &e.), Aeneas was brought up 
by the nymphs of mount Idii, and was not taken 
to his father Anchises, until he had reached his 
fifth year, and then he was, according to the wish and additions, some of which, as his lauding at 
of the goddess, given out as the sou of a nymph. Carthage and meeting with Dido, are irreconcilable 
Xcnophon (De Vttiat. 1. § 15) says, that he was j with chronology. From Pallene (Thrace), where 
instructed by Cheiron, the usual teacher of tlie j Aeneas stayed the winter after the taking of Troy, 
heroes. According to the " Cypria," he even took and founded the town of Aeneia on the Thermaic 
part in carrying off Helen. His bravery in the I gulf (Liv. xl. 4), he sailed with his companions to 
war against the Greeks is mentioned in the kter [ Delos, Cythera (where he founded a temple of 



traditions as well as in the earlier ones. (Hygin. 
Fab. 115 ; Philostr. /. c.) According to some ac- 
counts Aeneas was not present when Troy was 
taken, as he had been sent by Priam on an expe- 
dition to Phrj'gia, while according to others he 
was requested by Aphrodite, just before the fall of 
the city, to leave it, and accordingly went to mount 
Ida, carrj'ing his father on his shoulders. (Dion. 
Hal. L 48.) A third account makes him hold out 
at Troy to the last, and when all hopes disappeared, 
Aeneas with his Dardanians and the warriors of 
Ophrynium withdrew to the citadel of Pergamus, 
where the most costly trauares of the Trojans 
were kept. Here he repelled the enemy and re- 
ceived the fugitive Trojans, until he could hold out 
no longer. He then sent the people ahead to 
mount Ida, and followed them with his warriors, 
the images of the gods, his £tther, his wife, and 
hk ekildfea, hoping tkU h« would be able to 
nMJrtriahaMdfwiththM^terfaMwntlda. But 
being thratOMd wkk an attadc bjr the Greeks, he 
entered into negotiatiMia with them, in consequence 
of which he ninaidered his position and was 
allowed to depart in safety with his friends and 
treasures. (Dionys. L 4ti, &c ; Aelian, V. U. 
iii. 22 ; Hygin. FuL 254.) Others again reUtted 
that he was led by his hatred of Paris to betray 
llion to the Oreelu, and was allowed to depart 
free and ia£B in oonaequence. (Dionys. I.e.) Livy 
(i« 1) stataa, that Aeneu and Antenor were the 
only Trojua a^niiMt whan the Oveeka did not 
make um ti thair right of caaqaMt, on amount of 
an ancient cwBrnBiioa ti hiapltility oxiating bo* 
twaan than, «r hocMMa Aaneaa had alwnya adviaad 
his eouttiynan to loalan Ualaa to Meaahwa. 
(Comp. Strab. l. e.) 

The farther part of the atory of Aaneaa, after 
leaving UMunt Ida with hia friends and the inuigea 
of the goda. emeeiaUy that of PaUaa (/WWum, 
PaaL iL 2S. I 5) ptvaanta as anay Tariataoos aa 
that rahuing to the taking of Troy. All aocounts. 
howevor, agree in stating that he kfi the eoasU of 
Asia and craaaed of er into £w«pe. According to 
soaoe he waot aeron the UoUa^pont to the penin- 
■nk of PdUane and died than ; according to othera 
he pneeeded fron Thnue to the Arcadian Oreho- 
menoo and aettkd there, f'^"-*' ' ■ ,- Pans. viiL 
12. S 5; Dionys. UaL L 4 the greater 

number of later writers, li . : jus to put 

him in connexion with the hiriory ut Latium and 
to make hin the aaeeetorial hero of the Komans, 
state that he went to Italy, though some assert 
that the Aeneas who came to Italy was not the 
son «^ Anchises and Aphrodite, and others that 
after his arrival in Italy he returned to Troy, 
leaving his son Ascanius behind him. (Lycophr. 
1226, &c; Dionys. i. 53; Liv. L 1.) A de- 
scription of the wanderings of Aeneas before he 
reached the coast of Latium, and of the various 
towns and temples he was believed to have found- 
ed during his wanderings, is given by Dionysius 
(L 50, &c.), whose account is on the whole the 
same as that followed by Virgil in his Aeneid, 
although the latter makes various embellishments 



83 



AENEAS. 



Aphrodite), IViiiifi in Laconia (where he built Etiii 
and AphrodiniiiH, I'liui. iii. '2,2. § 9), Zutynthiu 
(temple uf Aphrodite), Leticun, Actiuni, Anibnicia, 
and to Dodona, where he met the Trojan 
lli'lenuH. From Kpirux he wiled itcrom ilie 
Jonian sea to Italy, where he landed at the 
lapygiati promontory. Hence he crotted over to 
Sicily, where he met the Trojanit, Klymu« and 
Aej^eMtiis (AceHteii), and built the town* of Klyine 
and Aegenta. From Sicily he soiled back to Italy, 
landed in the port of I'alinurua, camo to the 
iKland of LeucaHia, and at laHt to the coaitt of 
Latium. VariouH iiignH ]M>inted out thin phice at 
the end of hiH wanderings, and he and his Trojans 
la-cordingly settled in liatium. The place where 
tlu-y had landed was ciUled Troy. I^iitinus, king 
of the Aborigines, when informed of the arrival of 
the stnmgers, prepared for war, but afterwards 
concluded an alliiince with them, gave up to them 
a part of his dominions, and with their auittance 
con(|uered the Uutulians, with whom he wm then 
nt war. Aeneas founded the town of Lavinium, 
called after Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus, 
whom he married. A new war then followed be- 
tween LutinuB and Tumus in which both chiefs 
fell, whereupon Aeneas became sole ruler of the 
Aborigines and Trojans, and both nations united 
into one. Soon after this, however, Aeneas fell in 
a liattle with the Rutulians, who were awiated by 
MezcntiuH, king of the KtruKant. At hit body 
was not found after the battle, it was believed that 
it had been uirried up to heaven, or that he had 
perished in the river Nuniicius. The Latins 
erected a monument to him, with the inscription 
To t/ie father and native god. {Jovi Indiyeii, 
Liv. i. 2 ; Dionys. i. 64 ; Strab. v. p. 229, xiiL 
p. 59.5 ; Ov. Met. xiii. 623, &c., xiv. 75, &c., xr. 
438, &c. ; Conon, Narrat. 46 ; Plut. Rom. 3.) 
Two other accounts somewhat different from those 
mentioned above are preserved in Servius (cm/ ylen. 
ix. 264, from the work of Abas on Troy), and in 
Tzetzes (ad Lyrophr. 1252). Dionysius places the 
landing of Aeneas in Italy and the building of 
Lavinium about the end of the second year after 
the taking of Troy, and the death of Aeneas in the 
seventh year. Virgil on the other hand represents 
Aeneas landing in Italy seven years after the fall 
of Troj-, and comprises all the events in Italy 
from the landing to the death of Tumus within 
the space of twenty days. 

The stcry about the descent of the Romans 
from the Trojans through Aeneas was generally 
received and believed at Rome at an early period, 
and probably arose from the fact, that the inhabit- 
ants of Latium and all the places which Aeneas 
was said to have founded, lay in countries inhabit- 
ed by people who were all of the same stock — 
Pelasgians : hence also the worship of the Idaean 
Aphrodite in all places the foundation of which is 
ascribed to Aeneas. Aeneas himself, therefore, 
such as he appears in his wanderings and final 
settlement in Latium, is nothing else but the per- 
sonified idea of one common origin. In this 
character he was worshipped in the various places 
which traced their origin to him. (Liv. xl. 4.) 
Aeneas was frequently represented in statues and 
paintings by ancient artists. (Pans. ii. 21. § 2, v. 
22. § 2 ; Plin. H. N. xxxv. 10. § 36.) On gems 
and coins he is usually represented as carrying his 
father on his shoulder, and leading his son Asca- 
nius by the hand. 



AKNEA8. 

Tlesperting the incon»i*trnci«t in tlM 
about Aeneoa and the mixie of toUiiig 
Nicbuhr, UtMl. of Jlniiu, L p. 179, Kc RMprct- 
ing the colonies he it taid t<i have pivmAtfj^ 
Fid' - ' iriUtuAentiuttdi'kutmiemmtUtmiim 
}>ei' ••1,1837,41a Aboattkawtr- 

thij> .ncliaiicterof AencM, Ma Uackoid, 

<icti-luchle licM TroJuuiMcfifn Kruyet, Stutt|pud, 
1836, p. 3U2,&4:.; llartung, Ge»ckkkU drr HtUtj. 
der liorner^ i. p. U3, &c. ; and ftbore all It H. 
Klauten, Aenea* unildie J'euattm^ cqwcially book i. 
p. 34, &c, lUS.] 

AENE'AS (AjVWaf) OAZAEL'S, to callrd 
from hit birth-phue, tiourinhed a. \>, 487. H« 
wot at first a Platonitt and a .Siphitt, being • 
ditciple of the philotoper llieroclet (at appears 
from hit T/tajphriuius, (ialknd. p. 629) and a 
friend of I'rocopiut (at we know from hit Kpittlca). 
Hit date thus ascertained i* confinned by hit 
ttating, that he had heard tpcak tome of the Con- 
fciton whote tonguet llunneric had cut out, x. O. 
484. (Ilnd. p. 663, c.) When a Chrittian, h« 
compotcd a dialogue. On the Immortuitly of lit 
Soul and the lieturrection of the liody, called Tkuf 
phrwUut from one of the interlocuton. Thit a^ 
pcared fint in a Latin verti«m by AmbruMus 
Cauuildulcntit, 8vo., \'en. 1513, and 4to, IlatiL 
1516. The original (Jreck, with the I^tin vrrtion 
of Wolf, fol. Tigur. 1 559 ; with the Latin vertioa 
and notet of C. Darthiut, 4to. Lipt. 1655 (te« 
Fabricius, de VeriUit. liiJiy. Chrut. Si/llahui, p. 107, 
Ilanib. 1725); alito in Gallandi't liMiiMecu J'a- 
trum, vol. X. p. 629, Ven. 1766 ; and with the 
notet of Boistonade, 8vo. Par. 1836. In Kbert*s 
Dictionary it the following reference : Wtmtdorf 
J'r. de Aenea Gaz., Numb. 1817, 4to. In tho 
Aldine CoUettiou of EpuUet by Greek A uiltort there 
are 25 by Aencat, Gr, 4to., Ven. 1499. Se« Fa- 
bricius, liiUiotli. Graec. vol. i. pp. 676-690. Some 
of the letters of Aeneat may be found in the E»cf- 
dopaedia Philologica of Joanne* fatuta, Gr. 8ro., 
Ven. 1710, voLL [A. J. C] 

AENE'AS SI'LVIUS, ton of Silrius, and 
grandson of Ascanius. He is the third in the list 
of the mythical kings of Alba in Latium, and the 
Silvii regarded him as the founder of their houte. 
(Liv. i. 3.) Dionysiu3 (L 71) ascribes to him a 
reign of 31 years. (Comp. Virg. Aen. vi. 769.) 
Ovid (Afet. xiv. 6 1 0, &c.) does not mention him 
among the Alban kings. [L. S.] 

AENE'AS (AiVtios), sumamed TACTICUS 
(d TuKTMos), a Greek writer, whose precise date it 
not known. Xenophon (Hell. viL3. § 1) mentions 
an Aeneas of Stymphalus, who about the time of 
the battle of Mantineia (362, b. c.) distinguished 
himself by his bravery and skill as general of the 
Arcadians. Casaubon supposes this Aeneat to be 
the same, and the supposition is confirmed by a 
passage (Comment. Poliorc. 27) where he speaks 
familiarly of an Arcadian provincialism. But, 
however this may be, the general character of thia 
work, the names he mentions, and the historical 
notices which occur, with other internal evidence, 
all point to about this period. He wrote a large 
work on the whole art of war, ffTpoTTT/Jitd fiiSKia, 
or irepl TctJ* (TTpaTqyiKicv VTro/JLvrifjLaTa (Polvb. x. 
40; Suidas, s. t: AiVei'os), consisting of several parts. 
Of these only one is preserved, called TaKTiK6v t« 
Kol To\iopKT]Tu<6v vTTOfurqfjia irepl rod itus yjii/i 
■roXiopKovfjievov avrexftv, commonly called Com- 
mentarius Poliorceticus. The object of the book 



AENESIDEMUS. 

IB to shew how a siege should be resisted, the va- 
rious kinds of instruments to be used, manoeuvres 
to be practised, ways of sending letters without 
being detected, and without even the bearers know- 
ing about it (c. 31, a very curious one), &c. It 
contains a good deal of information on many points 
in archanilogy, and is especially valuable as con- 
taining a large stock of words and technical terms 
connected with warfare, di-noting instruments, i;c., 
which are not to be found in any other work. 
From the same circumstance, many passages are 
difficult. 

The book was first discoyered by Simler in the 
Vatican library. It was edited first by Isaac 
Casaubon with a I^tin version and notes, and up- 
pended to his edition of Polybius. (Paris, 1609.) 
It was republished by Gronovius in his Polybius, 
vol. iii. Amsterdam, ItiTO, and by Ernesti, Leipzig, 
17<J3. The last edition is that of J. C. Orelli, 
Leipzig, 1918, with Casaubon's version and notes 
and an original conuuentarj', published as a supple- 
ment to iSchweigliaeuser's Polybius. Besides the 
Vatican M.S. there are three at Paris, on which 
Casaubon founded his edition, and one in the Lau- 
rentian library at Florence. This lajst is, according 
to Urelli (Praef. p. 6), the oldest of all. The work 
contiiins many very corrupt and mutilated passages. 
An epitome of the whole book, not of the frag- 
ment now remaining, was made by Cineas, a Thes- 
sjilian, who was sent to Home by Pyrrhus, 279, 
B. c. (Aelian, Tact. 1.) This abridgment is re- 
ferred to by Cicero (ad Fam. ix. 25). [A. A.) 
AKNE'IUS or AENE'SIUS (A<W<os or Ai>T^ 
aios), a surname of Zeus, under which he was 
worbiii])]>ed in the island of Ce]>halenia, where be 
had a temple on mount Aenos. (Hes. ap. SduJ. 
ad Apu/tuH. lihutl. ii. 297.) [L. S.] 

AENESIDE'MUS {AlyvaiSrinos), the sou of 
Pataicus, and one of the body-guards of Hippo- 
crates, tyrant of tJela, was the son of Theron, the 
ruler of Agrigentum, in the time of thePeraiau war. 
(lleix)d. vii. 154, 16.5.) [Thkron.] 

AENESIIJE'MUS (Aivr/aiSij^j), a celebrated 
sceptic, bom at Cnossus, in Crete, according to 
Diogenes Laertius (ix. 116), but at Aegae, accord- 
ing to Photius (Cod. 212), probably lived a little 
later than Cicero. He was a pupil of Heracleides 
f^d received from him the chair of philosophy, 
wliich had been handed down for above three hmi- 
dred years from Pyrrhon, the founder of the sect 
For a fuU account of the sceptical system see 
Pykriidn. As Aenesidemus differed on many 
points from the ordinary sceptic, it will be cooTe' 
nient before proceeding to his (larticular opinions, 
to give a short account of the system itself. 

The sceptic began and ended in universal 
doubt. He was equally removed from the aca- 
demic who denied, as from the dogmatic philoso- 
pher who affirmed ; indeed, he attempted to con- 
found both in one, and refute them by the same 
arguments. (Sext. Emp. i. 1.) Truth, he said, 
was not to be desired for its own sake, but for the 
sake of a certain repose of mind (ctrapofia) which 
followed on it, an end which the sceptic best at- 
tained in another way, by suspending his judg- 
ment (e'ox'i)? *i<i tdlowing himself literally to 
rest in doubt, (i. 4.) With this view he must 
travel over the whole range of moral, metaphysi- 
cal, and physical science. His method is the 
comparison of opposites, and his sole aim to prove 
that nothing can be proved, or what he termed. 



AENESIDEMUS. 



33 



the Iffotrdivfia of things. In common life he may 
act upon <(>cuv6iifya with the rest of men : nature, 
law, and custom are allowed to have their influ- 
ence ; only when impelled to any vehement effort 
we are to remember that, here too, there is much 
to be said on both sides, and are not to lose our 
peace of mind by grasping at a shadow. 

The famous 8c<ca rpomai of the sceptics were a 
number of heads of argument intended to over- 
throw truth in whatever form it might appear. 
[Pyrrhon.] The opposite appearances of the 
moral and natural world (Sext. Emp. i. 14), the 
fallibility of intellect and seiuse, and the illusions 
produced upon them by intervals of time and space 
and by every chaiige of position, were the first 
arguments by which they a&sailed the reality of 
things. We cannot explain what man is, we can- 
not explain what the seiwes are : still lew do w« 
know the way in which they are acted upon by 
the mind (ii. 4 — 7): begiuuing with uiiWi' opifw, 
we must end with ovUiv ftaKKoti. We are not 
certain whether material objects are anything but 
ideas in the mind : at any rate the different qua- 
lities which we perceive in them may be wholly 
dependent on the percipient being ; or, supposing 
them to I' .'ity as well as stihstantT, it 

maybe i >. trying with the perceptive 

power of ;... „ „i senses. (iL 14.) Having 

thus c«nfounded the world without aitd the world 
within, it was a natural transition Cor the sceptic 
to confound physical and metaphysical argumeuta. 
The reasonings of natural pliilosophy were over- 
thrown by metaphyiical HibdeUes, and metaphy- 
sics Bude to kiok ahaaid bj UlMrtwIiiiiM only ap- 
piicaUe to mateiial thi■g^ TW acknowledged 
imperfection of hinguage WM also ptetaed into the 
service ; words, they said, weie ever Tarying in 
their signification, so that the ideas of which they 
were t£ aigM auMt be alike Tariaht^ The lead- 
ing iden of tlkt witole ayiteai waa, that all tnith 
involved either a videoa dick or a petitio prin- 
cipii, {w, even in tlw aimpleat truths, something 
must be nmiiiri to aake the reaaoning applicable. 
The truth of the aenaes waa known tu us &um the 
intellect, but the intellect operated through the 
senses, so that our knowledge of the nature of 
either depends npaa the other. There was, how- 
ever, a deeper ado to thia philosophy. Every- 
thing we know, eenfaaaedly, nins up into some- 
thing we do not know : of the true nature of cause 
and effect we are ignorant, and hence to the 
£sveurite method, dr^ too m irupof «K/3aAAf w, or 
aiguing faackwiud from cause to cause, the very 
impert'ectioB of human faculties prevents our 
giving an answer. We must know what we 
believe ; and how can we be sur« of secondary 
causes, if the first cause be wholly beyond us? 
To judge, however, from the sketch of Sextiu 
Empiricus (PyrrL Hyp.), it was not this side 
of their system which the sceptics chiefly urged : 
for tlie most part, it must be confessed, that they 
contented themselves with dialectic subtleties, 
which were at once too absurd for refutation, and 
impossible to refute. 

The causes of scepticism are more fiiUy given 
under the article Pvrrhon. One of the most re- 
markable of its features was its connexion with the 
later philosophy of the Ionian schooL From the fciil- 
ure of their attempts to explain the phenomena of 
the visible world, the Ionian philosophers were in- 
sensibly led on to deny the order and harmony of 



84 



AENESIDEMUS. 



creation : tlipy wiw nothin;^ Jjut n poq)ctiml niid 
evcr-chiinj,'iii>{ cIiuor, act«:<l u|xiii, or rather m-lf- 
uctiiifi;, by an inliprctit jxiwer of motion, of which 
tho iiiituro wan only known liy it* etfr-ctii. Thi» 
■wiw till! doctrine of llcnulcitus that "th« world 
waH a (ire ever kiiidllnf; and goin^ out, which nindif 
nil thingM and wa8 all thin^H." It wa« thii link of 
cnnnoxion between the ftceptical and Ionian ichoolt 
which AeneKidemiis attempted to rcHtorc. The 
doctrine of HenicleitiiK, although it iijKike of a «ub- 
tle fire, really meant nothing more than a principle 
of change ; and although it mif^ht leein abturd to 
a Btrict bceptic like; SextuH Knipiricu* to qfflrm erea 
a principle of change, it involved no real inconiu- 
tcncy with the sceptical syRtem. We arc left to 
conjecture as to the way in wliich Aenciidemui 
arrived at his concluHioni : the following account of 
them Kcms pn>bable. It will be Men, from what 
has been mid, that the ocepticol Ry»tcni had de- 
Btroycd everything but fteniuition. lint icniation it 
the effect of change, the principle of motion work- 
ing internally. It was very natural then that the 
sceptic, proceeding from the only dpXfi which re- 
mained to him, fthould suggest an explanation of 
the outward world, derived from that of which 
nionc he was certain, his own internal sensations. 
I'he mere suggestion of a pmlmble cause might 
seem inconsistent with the distinction which the 
sceptics drew between their own absolute uncer- 
tainty and the proljability spoken of by the 
Academics : inde<-d, it was inconsiKtent with their 
metaphysical punidoxes to draw concluHions at all : 
if so, we must be content to allow that Aeneside- 
njus (as Sextus Kmpiricus implies) got a little be- 
yond the dark region of scepticism into the light 
of probability. 

Other saittered opinions of Aenetidemus have 
been preserved to us, some of which seem to lead 
to the siime conclusion. Time, he said, was rd iv 
and rd irpuTov trdifia (Pyr. Hyp. iii. 17), probably 
in allusion to the doctrine of the Stoics, that all 
really existing substances were atifiara : in other 
words, he meant to say that time was a really ex- 
isting thing, and not merely a condition of thought. 
This was connected with the principle of change, 
which was inseparable from a notion of time : if 
the one had a real existence (and upon its exist- 
ence the whole system depended), the other must 
likewise have a real existence. In another place, 
adapting his language to that of Heracleitus, he 
said that "time was air" (Sext. Emp. adv. Logicos, 
iv. 233.), probably meaning to illustrate it by the 
imperceptible nature of air, in the same way that 
the motion of the world was said to work by a 
subtle and invisible fire. All things, according to 
his doctrine, were but <fxuv6ix(va which were 
brought out and adapted to our perceptions by 
their mutual opposition : metaphorically they might 
be said to shine forth in the light of Heracleitus's 
fire. He did not, indeed, explain how this union 
of opposite* made them sensible to the faculties of 
man ; probably he would rather have supported 
his view by the impossibility of the mind conceiv- 
ing of anything otherwise than in a state of motion, 
or, as he woiUd have expressed it, in a state of mu- 
tual opposition. But <paiv6fi.eva are of two kinds, 
SfSta and Koiva (Sext Emp. adv. Log. ii. 8), the 
perceptions of individuals, and those conunon to 
mankind. Here again Aenesidemus seems to lose 
sight of the sceptical system, which (in speculation 
at least) admitted no degrees of truth, doubt, or 




AE0LIDE8. 

probability. The tame nroark apblie* to bia di»- 
tinction of itirtiffit into ittrmtmriM^ and ft*rm€Aif- 
T<Kif, sinipfe notion mddMnge. li« 
have oppmwd Um perpkzitjr which tJio i 
deavounsd to bring abMrt betwo— 
mind ; for bo Mwrtad tbal tbnmht ' 
dent of tbe bodj, and ^'tbat tJM umAnt fiwtr 
looked out throM^ tbo cnnniet of tho ammmJ^ 
(Adv. Ijx/. i. 84$.) LMtly, kio TigoTMM aiiid 
wa« above the paltiy goiifiiiiion of fhjiiad aad 
metaphysical diktinctioao; ht bo dockred, aAor 
HencleitiM, "tbiU n put wm tbo mom witb tho 
wbolo and yot dUbtnt from it." Tho gnad m»- 
culiaritj of bit mtem wao tbe attenpt to nito 
■cepticism with the earlier philo*f>phy, to nieo n 
pooitivc foundation for it by accuuutiog frcn ihe 
nature of things for tbe nrrrr fWiinf chMfw both 
in the material and •piritnal wofld. 

SoKtiu Empinctu baa prewrred bio trgiiint 
ffumt oar knowledge of cauaee, a* well aa a taUo 
of eight aothodo by which all a priori rrasnningo 
mar be conftited, at all aiguoenta wbaterer Bay 
be bj tbe M«a rp^wou I. Either the eaoae gmm 
i» nnaeeii, and not praron by thiaga aoen, aa if a 
peraoB wart toonlain tho BotSona of the piaawU 
by tbe rnnaie of the Mhod^ II. Or if tbo como 
be leen, it cannot bo ihewn to exclude other 
hypotheee* : we moat not only prove tbe caaie, 
but dispose of every other cause. 1 1 1. A regular 
effect may be attributed to an irregular eaoae ; 
as if one were to explain Um notions of tbe 
heavenly bodies by a aoddea faafdaa IV. Men 
argue from thing* aeen to thing* oneeen, aaana* 
ing that they are governed by the same laws. 
V. Causes only mean opinions of causes, which are 
inconsistent with phenomena and with other opi- 
nions. V'l. Equally probable causes are accepted 
or rejected as they agree with this or that preeon- 
ceived notion. VII. These causes are at varianea 
with phenomena as well as with abstract pnnciplea. 
VIII. Principles must be uncertain, because tbe 
£acts fh)m which they proceed are uncertain. (Pjrrli. 
Hyp. i. 17, ed. Fabr.) 

It is to be regretted that nothing is known of 
the personal history of Aenesidemus. A list of his 
works and a sketch of their contents hare been 
preserved by Photius. (Cod. 212.) He was the 
author of three books of Tlv^pmyfieu "frorrvrdffus, 
and is mentioned as a recent teacher of philosophy 
by Aristocles. (Apud Eundi. I'raeparat. Kramj. 
xiv. 18.) It is to Aenesidemus that Sextus Em- 
piricus was indebted for a considerable part of his 
work. [B. J.] 

AENE'TE (Aij^TTj), a daughter of Eusorus, 
and wife of Aeneas, by whom she had a son, 
Cyzicus, the founder of the town of this itame. 
(Apollon. Rhod. i. 950; Orph. ^r^o». 502, where 
she is called Aenippe.) [L. S.] 

AE'NICUS (ATi/jicoy), a Greek poet of the old 
comedy, whose play 'AiTeia is referred to by Sui- 
das. (s. V. AtviKos.) He seems to be the same as 
Eunicus mentioned by Pollux, (i. 100.) 

AENI'DES, a patron jmic from Aeneas, which 
is applied by Valerius Flaccus (iii. 4) to the in- 
habitants of C\"zicus, whose town was believed 
to have been founded by Cyzicus, the son of 
Aeneas. [L. S.] 

AECLIDES (AioXtSrjj), a patronymic given to 
the sons of Aeolus, as Athamas (Ov. Met iv, 
511), Magnes (Paus. vi. 21. § 7), Macareus (Ov. 
Met. ix. 506), Misenus (Virg. Aen. \i. 1C4), 



AEOLUS. 

Sisyphus (Ov, Afet. xiii. 2G ; Horn. //. vi. 154), 
Cretheus (Horn. Od. xi. 237), locastus (Tzetz. ad 
Lycophr. 732); and to his grandsons, as Cephalus 
(Uv. Met. vi. 621), Odysseus (Virg. Aen. vi. 529), 
and Phryxus. (VaL Flacc. i. 286.) Aeolis is the 
patronymic of the female descendants of Aeolus, 
and is given to his daughters Canace and Alcyone. 
(Ov. Met. xL 573 ; Heroid. xi. 5.) [L. S.] 

AE'OLUS {hioXos). In the mythical history 
of Greece there are three personages of this name, 
who are spoken of by ancient writers as connected 
with one another, but this connexion is so con- 
fused, tliat it is impossible to gain a clear view of 
them. (Miiller, OrcAom. p. 138, &c.) We shall 
follow Diodorus, who distinguishes between the 
three, although in other passages he confounds 
them. 

1 . A son of Hellen and the nymph Orseis, and 
a brother of Dorus and Xuthus. He is described 
as the ruler of Thessaly, and regarded as the 
founder of the Aeolic braiidi of the Greek nation, 
lie married Enarete, the daughter of Deimacluu, 
by whom lie had seven sons and five daughters, 
and according to some writers still more. (Apollod. 
i. 7. § 3; Schol. ad Find. Pyth. iv. 190.) Ac- 
cording to Miiller's supposition, the mo«t ancient 
and genuine story knew only of four sons of 
Aeolus, viz. Sisyphus, Athamas, Cretheus, and 
Salmoneus, as tlie representatives of the four main 
branches of the Aeolic race. The great extent of 
country wliich this race occupied, and the desire of 
each part of it to trace its origin to some descend- 
ant of Aeolus, probably gave rise to the varying 
accounts about the number of his children. Ac- 
cording to Ilyginus {Fab, 238, 242) Aeolus had 
one son of the name of Macareus, who, after hav- 
ing committed incest witli hih sister Canace, put 
an end to his own life. According to Ovid {Heroid. 
11) Aeolus threw the fruit of this love to the 
dogs, and sent his daughter a sword by which she 
was to kill herself. (Comp. Plut Pantliel. p. 312.) 

2. Diodorus (iv. 67) suys, that the second 
Aeolus was the grcat-gnuidson of the first Aeolus, 
being the son of Ilippotes and Mehuiippe, and 
the grandson of Mimas the son of Aeolus. Ame, 
the daughter of this second Aeolus, afterwards be- 
came mother of a third Aeolus. (Comp. Paus. ix. 
40. § 3.) In another passage (v. 7) Diodorus re- 
presents the third Aeolus as a son of Hippotes. 

3. According to some accounts a son of Hip- 
potes, or, according to others, of Poseidon and 
Ame, the daughter of the second Aeolus. His 
story, which probably refers to the emigration of a 
branch of the Aeolians to the west, is thus related : 
Anie declared to her father that she was with child 
bj' Poseidon, but her father disbelieving her state- 
ment, gave her to a stranger of Metapontum in 
Itiily, who took her to his native town. Here she 
became mother of two sons, Boeotus and Aeo- 
lus (iii.), who were adopted bj- the man of Meta- 
pontum in accordance with im oracle. When they 
had grown up to manhood, they took possession of 
the sovereignty of Metapontum by force. But 
when a dispute afterwards arose between their 
mother Ame and their foster-mother Autolyte, the 
two brothers slew the latter and fled with their 
mother from Metapontum. Aeolus went to some 
islands in the Tyrrhenian sea, which received from 
him the name of the Aeolian islands, and accord- 
ing to some accounts built the town of Lipara. 
(Diod. iv. 67, v. 7.) Here he reigned as a just 



AEPYTUS. 



S5 



and pious king, behaved kindly to the natives, 
and taught them the use of sails in navigation, and 
foretold them from signs which he observed in the 
fire the nature of the winds that were to rise. 
Hence, says Diodorus, Aeolus is described in 
mythology as the ruler over the winds, and it was 
this Aeolus to whom Odysseus came daring his 
wanderings. A dilferent aooonat of Um matter is 
given by Hygiuus. (Fab. 186.) 

In these accounts Aeolus, the father of the 
Aeolian race, is placed in relationship with Aeolus 
the mler and god of the winds. The groundwork 
on which this connexion has been fonued by later 
poets and myth(^n^phers, is found in Homer. (Od. 
X. 2, &c.) In Homer, however, Aeolus, the son 
of Hippotes, is neither tlie god nor the £ither of 
the winds, but merely the liappy ruler of the 
Aeolian island, whom Cronion had made the 
rofdifs of the winds, which he might soothe or ex- 
cite according to his pleuure. (Od. x. 21, &.c.) 
This sutement of Homer and tha etymolflgj of 
the name of AmIw from dUAAs* wen the CMua, 
that in Uiter times Aeolus wis regarded aa the god 
and king of the winds, which he kept enclosed in 
a mountain. It is therefore to him that Juno ap- 
pUes when she wishes to destroy the fleet of the 
Trojans. (Virg. .^en. L 78.) The AeuUan ielaiid 
of Homer was in the time of PauMiuM beliered to 
be Lipara (Pans. X. II. § 3), andthiaorStfwwyk 
was accordingly regarded in later times aa the pGiee 
in which the god of the winds dwelled. (Viig. 
Atm. viii. 416, i. 52; Strab. vL p. 276.) Other 
aoeooBts place the residence of Aeolus in Thrace 
(ApoUon. Rhod. L 954, iv. 765 ; Callim. IlymM. 
m DeL 26), or in the BMfhhoiiihoad of Rhegium 
in Italy. (Tietfc ad XfnqOr. 7S2 ; tamf. Diod. 
r. a) The fbllowiag pawagwi of htar poete alao 
shew how universally Aeolus had gradually come 
to be regarded as a god : Or. Met. i. 264, xL 748, 
xiv. 223 ; VaL Flacc i. 575 ; Quint. Smym. xiv. 
475. Whether he was represented by the an- 
cients in works of art is not certain, but we now 
possess no representation of him. [L. S.] 

AE'P YTUS (KUvTos). 1. One of the mythi- 
cal kings of Arcadia. He was the son of Kihitus 
(Piud. Oi. vi. 54), and originally ruled over Phae- 
sana on the Alpheius in Arcadia When Cleitor, 
the toil of Ann, died without leariqg any issue, 
Aepytns succeeded him and became kiug of the 
Arcadians, a part of whose country was called 
after him Aepytis. (Pans. viii. 4. § 4, 34. § 3.) 
He is said to have been killed during the chase on 
mount Sepia by the bite of a Tenomoas snake. 
(Pans. viiL 4. § 4, 16. § 2.) His tomb there waa 
still shewn in the time of Pausanias, and he was 
anxioos to see it, because it was mentioned in 
Homer. (//. iL 604.) 

2. The youngest son of Cresphontes the He- 
raclid, king of Messenia, and of Merope, the 
daughter of the Arcadian king Cypselus. Cres- 
phontes and his other sons were murdered during 
an insurrection, and Aepytus alone, who was 
educated in the house of his gtand&ther Cypselus, 
escaped the danger. The throne of Cresphontes 
was in the meantime occupied by the Ileraclid 
Polyphontes, who also forced Merope to become his 
wife, (.\pollod. ii. 8. § 5.) When Aepytus had 
grown to manhood, he was enabled by the aid of 
Holcas, his fether-in-law, to return to his kingdom, 
punish the murderers of his feither, and put Poly- 
phontes to death. He left a son, Glaucos, and it 
o2 



M 



AF.riOPUS. 



WU from him that )iubiu>qii(.-ntly the king« of Mc»- 
ienia were called AejiytidH iiisU-iul of the more 
goncral iKinic IlcniclidH. (I'niiit. iv. 3. § 3, &c., 
Tiii. 5. § 5; IlyKin. J'',ih. 1:J7, 184.) 

3. A fK)ii of llippotliouH, and king of Arcadia, 
lie wa» a groat-grandMon of the Aopyttis niciitioncd 
first. He wuH reigning at the time when ()rc»t(?i, 
in coniMviiicnce of an onitle, left Mycenae and 
Bottled in Arcadix There wa» at MantineLi a 
Baiictunry, which down to the latest time no mortjd 
W!is ever allowed to enter. Aei)ytiui dinregarding 
the wicred cuKtom crossed the threshold, but was 
inniiediiitely struck with hlindncss, and died »o<jn 
after, lie was Kucceedod by his son Cypsehis. 
(I'auR. viii. ."i. § :i ) |L. S.) 

AK'HUIS (*A«pioj), Heretic, the intimate friend 
of Kiist<-ithius of Sclmste in Armenia, a. d. 3(J0, 
was living when St. K|>iphanius wrote his Book 
against Heresies, a. d. 'A1\-(\. After living toge- 
ther an ascetic life, Kustathius was raised to the 
episcopate, and l)y him Ac-rius was ordained priest 
and set over the Hospital (TruxoTfxxfxioy) of I'on- 
tus. (St. K])iph. wlv. Ihwr. 1:i. g 1.) Hut notliing 
could allay the envy of Aerius at the elevation of 
his companion. Caresses and threats were ia vain, 
and at last he left Kustathius, and |mbliciy accused 
him of covetousness. He assembled a troop of 
men and women, who with him professed the 
renunciation of all worldly goods (dw^ora^fa). De- 
nied entrance into the towns, they roamed altout 
the fields, and lodged in the open air or in caves, 
exposed to the inclemency of the season*. Ai'rius 
superadded to the irreligion of Anus the following 
errors : 1. The denial of a difference of order Ije- 
tweeii a bishop and a priest. 2. The rejection of 
prayer and alms for the dead. 3. The refusal to 
observe Kaster and stated fasts, on the ground of 
such obst^rvanees l)eing Jewish. St. Epiphaniu* 
refutes these errors. (I. c.) There were remains 
of his followers in the time of St. Augustine. i^Adr. 
Ifaer. § 53, vol. viii. p. 18, which was written 
A. D. 428.) [A. .1. C] 

AE'ROPE ('Ai-pdirT/), a daughter of Crateus, 
king of Crete, and granddaughter of Minos. Her 
father, who had received an oracle that he should 
lose his life by one of his children, gave her and 
her sister, Clymene, to Nauplius, who was to sell 
them in a foreign land. Another sister, Apcmone, 
and her brother, Aethemenes, who had heard of the 
oracle, had left Crete and gone to Rhodes. Aerope 
afterwards married Pleisthenes, the son of Atreus, 
and became by him the mother of Agamemnon 
and Menelaus. (Apollod. iii. 2. § 1, &c. ; Serv. ad 
Aeti. i. 458 ; Dictys Cret. i. 1.) After the death 
of Pleisthenes Aerope married Atreus, and her two 
sons, who were educated by Atreus, were generally 
believed to be his sons. Aerope, however, became 
faithless to Atreus, being seduced by Thj-estes. 
(Eurip. Orest. 5, &c., Helen. 397 ; Hygin. Fafj. 
87 ; SchoL ad Horn. II. ii. 249 ; Serv. ad Aen. xL 
262.) [L. S.] 

AE'ROPUS ('Ae'poiroj). 1. The brother of 
Perdiccas, who was the first king of Macedonia of 
the family of Temenus. (Herod, \-iii. 137.) 

2. I. King of Macedonia, the son of Philip I., 
the great-grandson of Perdiccas, the first king, and 
the father of Alcetas. (Herod, viii. 139.) 

3. II. King of Macedonia, guardian of Orestes, 
the son of Archelaus, reigned nearly six years 
from B. c. 399. The first four years of this time 
he reigned jointly with Orestes, and the remainder 



AESCHINES. 

alone. He wm* luccerded by hi* « 

(Diud. xiv. 37,84; !>«• «ippu», ap. A jw fl rf/ . f. 2(0,%.; 

comp. Polyai-n. iL 1.817.) 

AK'SACUS (Attrcucoi), ■ M>n of Priam aao 
Ariiilic, the daught<-r of Meropa, fram wkMB Am*- 
cus learned the art of int«rpretinf drainM. Whc« 
Heculm daring her pragnaocjr with Fvia dMmt 
that the wm giriBf biftt to ■ bami^f piwa «f 
wood which iinMd oon<Uf;r>tioii thraofh th« 
whole city, ArMunui exphiined this to mean, that 
she would give birth to a Min who would he the 
ruin of the city, and accordingly reconunettded the 
ex|>o«ure of the child aft<>r iu birth. [PARUk] 
Aemurua hiniM-lf woa married to Atterope, the 
daughter of the river-god Cebren, who died earijr, 
and while he was lamenting Iter death he wae 
changed into a bird. (Apollu<l. iiL 12. 8 5.) Ovid 
(Aht. xi. 750) relate* his story diffcmitly. Ae- 
cordiiiK to him, Ae«acu» wait the ton of .Mexirboe, 
the duughti-r of the river (iranicus. He lived fu 
from his father's court in the xjlitude of mouutaiiH 
forests. Hespi-ria, however, the daughter of 
Cebren, kindled love in bit heart, and on one oe- 
casion while he waa pursuing her, she was stong 
by a riper and died. Acmcu* in his grief threw 
himself into the sea and wae changed by Thetia 
into an aquatic bird. [L. 8.] 

AE'SAHA (Aiedpa), of Lucania, a female 
Pythagorean f hiloaopher, said to be a daughter of 
Pythagaraa, wiote a work ** about Human Nature," 
of which a fragment is preaerred by Stobaeu*. 
{Ed. L p. 847, ed. Heeren.) Some editor* attri- 
bute this fragment to Areaas. one of the aucceaaora 
of PytluwoiBa, but Bentley pnfen reading Aeaaia. 
She ia dbo mentioned in the life of Pythagoraa 
(ap. Phot. Cod. 249, p. 438, b. ed. Ilekker), where 
Bentley reads Altrdpa instead of iipa. {DUierlutiom 
upon I'hulariM, p. 277.) 

AE'SCHI-NES (Aiffx^ioji), the orator, waa bon 
in Attica in the demua of Cothocida^, in u. c. 389, 
as it clear from hia speech against Timarchu* (p. 
78), which was delivered in B. c 345, and in 
which he himself says that he waa then in bit fortj- 
fifth year. He waa the ton of Tromea and Glao- 
cothea, and if we liaten to the account of Demoa- 
thenea, his political antagonist, his father waa not 
a free citizen of Athens, but bad been a alave in 
the house of Elpias, a schoolmaater. After the re- 
turn of the Athenian exilea under Thrasybulua, 
Tromea himself kept a small school, and Aeschinea 
in his youth assisted his father and performed 
such services as were unworthy of a free Athenian 
youth. Demosthenes further states, that Aea- 
ehines, in order to conceal the low condition of hia 
father, changed his name Tromes into Atrometua, 
and that he afterwards usurped the rights of an 
Athenian citizen. (Dem. De Coron. pp. 313, 320, 
270.) The mother of Aeschinea is described aa 
originally a dancer and a prostitute, who even after 
her marriage with Tromes continued to carry on 
unlawful practices in her house, and made monej 
by initiating low and superstitious persons into a 
sort of private mysteries. She is said to have 
been generally known at Athens under the nick- 
name Empusa. According to Aeschinea himself, 
on the other hand, his father Atrometus was de- 
scended bam an honourable family, and was in 
some way even connected with the noble priestly 
family of the Eteobutadae. He was originally an 
athlete, but lost his property during the time of 
the Peloponnesian war, and was afterwards driyen 



AESCHINES. 

from his country under the tyranny of the Thirty. 
He then served in the Athenian armies in Asia 
and spent the remainder of his life at Athens, at 
first in reduced circumstances. (Aesch. De faU. 
Lejj. pp. 38, 47.) His mother, too, was a free 
Athenian citizen, and the daughter of Glaucias of 
Acliame. Which of these accounts is true, can- 
not be decided, but there seems to be no doubt 
that Demosthenes is guilty of exaggeration in his 
account of the parents of Aeschines and his early 
youth. 

Aeschines had two brothers, one of whom, Phi- 
l(x;hare«, was older than hinuself^ and the other, 
Apliobetus, was the youngest of the three. Phi- 
lochares was at one time one of the ten Athenian 
generals, an office which was conferred upon him 
for three successive years ; Aphobetus followed 
the calling of a scribe, but had once been sent on 
an embassy to the king of Persia and was after- 
wards connected with the administration of the 
public revenue of Athens. (Aesch. De /at*. Ley, 
p. 4fi.) All these things seem to contain strong 
evidence that the family of Aeschines, although 
poor, must have been of some respectability. Ue- 
specting his early youth nothing can be said with 
certainty, except that he assisted his father iik his 
sclwol, and that afterwards, being of a strong and 
athletic constitution, he was employed in the 
gymiuisb for money, to contend with other young 
men in their exercises, (l)em. De Curon. p. 313; 
Plut. VU. X orut. Aesch. p. 840.) It is a favourite 
custom of late writers to place great orators, philo- 
sophers, poets, &LC., in the relation of teacher and 
scliolur to one another, and accordingly Aeschines 
>H represeuti-d as a disciple of Socrates, IMato, and 
I Socrates. If these staltsmeuts, which are even 
contradicted by the ancients themselves were 
true, Aeschines would not have omitted to men- 
tion it in the many opportunities he had. The 
distinguished orator and stittesman Aristophon en- 
gaged Aeschiues as a scribe, and in the same 
capacity he afterwiuds served Eubulus, a man of 
great influence with the democratic-al party, with 
whom he formed an intiiuate friendship, and to 
whose politiciU principles he remained faithful to 
the end of his life. That he served two years as 
■trtfii-KoKos, from his eighteenth to his twentieth 
year, as all young men at Athens did, Aeschines 
{De fills. Ley. p. oO) expressly states, and this 
period of his military training must probably be 
placed before tlui time that he acted as a scribe to 
Aristophon ; for we find that, after leaving the 
service of Eubulus, he tried his fortune as an actor, 
for which he was provided by nature with a strong 
and sonorous voice. He acted the parts of Tpna- 
yaivuTTTJf, but was unsuccessful, and on one occa- 
sion, when he was perfonning in the character 
of Oenomaus, was hissed otT the stage. (Dem. 
De Corott. p. "288.) After this he left the stage 
and engaged in military services, in which, accord- 
ing to his own account {De fals. Ley. p. 50), he 
gained great distinction. (Comp. Dem. De fals. 
Ley. p. 375.) After several less important engage- 
ments in other parts of Greece, he distinguished 
himself in b. c. 362 in the battle of Mantiueia ; 
and afterwards in b. c. 358, he also took part in 
the expedition of the Athenians against Euboea, 
and fought in the battle of Tamynae, and on this 
occasion he gained such laurels, that he was praised 
by the generals on the spot, aud, after the victory 
was gained, was sent to carry the news of it to 



AESCHINES. 



37 



Athens. Temenides, who was sent with him, 
bore witness to his courage and braverj', and the 
Athenians honoured him with a crown. (Aesch. 
Defuh Ley. p. 51.) 

Two years before this campaign, the last in 
which he took part, he had come forward at Athens 
as a public speaker (Aesch. Epist. 1*2), and the 
military fame which he had now acquired estab- 
lished his reputation. His former occupation as a 
scribe to Aristophon and Eubulus had made him 
acquainted with the laws and constitution of 
Athens, while his acting on the stage had been a 
useful preparation fur public speaking. During 
the first period of his public career, be was, like 
all other Athenians, zealously engaged in directing 
the attention of his fellow-citizens to the growing 
power of Philip, and exhorted them to check it in 
its growtL After the fiill of Olynthus in B. c. 
348, Eubulus prevailed on the Athenians to send 
an embassy to Peloponnesus with the object of 
uniting the Greeks against the common enemy, 
and Aeschines was sent to Arcadia. Here Aes- 
chines spoke at Megalopolis against Hieronymua, 
an emissary of Philip, but without success ; and 
from this moment Aeschines, as well as all his 
fellow-citizens, gave up the hope of effecting anv- 
thing by the united forces of Greece. (Dem. De 
fitU. Ley. pp. 344, 438 ; Aesch. De/uU. Ley. p. 38.) 
When therefore Philip, in B. c. 347, gave tbe 
Athenians to understand that he was inclined to 
make peace with them, Philocnte* urged the ne- 
eessitj of sending an aadausj to Philip to trest on 
the subject. Ten men, and among <><"><< A-^hines 
and Demosthenes, wera according! lip, 

who received them with the atmu? uiul 

.\eschiues, when it was his turn to 
minded the king of the rights which A 
tohisfriaadahmaadalliaDeB. Th' ' 
to Mad ftrthwlUi MihaMadan to > 

tiate the tenns of peaen After t: 

Athenian ambassadors they were each rewarded 
with a wreath of olive, ou the prupovxtl uf Demos- 
thenes, for the manner in whic dis- 
charged their duties. Aeschiues t : lent 
forward was inflexible in his ofuuiun, uiui n 'thing 
but peace with Philip could avert utter ruin from 
his country. That tlus was peiiectly in acxordance 
with what Philip wished is clear, but there is no 
reason for supposing, that Aeschines had been 
bribed into this opiuiou, or that he urged the 
necessity of peace with a view to ruin his countrjr. 
(Aesch. u* Ctesipk. p. (J2.) Antipater and two 
other Macedonian ambassadors arrived at Athens 
soon after the return of the Atheuuui ones, and 
after various debates Demosthenes urgently advised 
the people to conclude the peace, and speedily to 
send other ambassadors to Philip to receive his 
oath to it. The only difference between .\eschines 
and Demosthenes was, that the former would have 
concluded the peace even vk'ithout providuig for 
the Athenian allies, which was happily prevented 
by Demosthenes. Five Athenian ambassadors, 
aud among them Aeschines but not Demosthenes 
{De Coniii. p. 235), set out for Macedonia the 
more speedily, as Philip was making war upon 
Cersobleptes, a Thracian prince and ally of Athens. 
They went to Pella to wait for the arrival of 
Philip from Thrace, and were kept there for a con- 
siderable time, for Philip did not come until he 
had completely subdued Cersobleptes. At last, 
however, he swore to the peace, from which the 



88 



AKSCIlINESw 



I'hocianR were cxpre«i«ly excludod. Philip honour- 
ed the AtliPtiian iinitMiMuulnr* with rich {ircKontN, 
proiiiiHfd to ronton! ull Ath<;iiian pri»<>noni without 
ruiiHoin, iiiid wrote a polito letter to the people of 
Athi-iiH ii|M>Ii)Ki/iiif{ for hiiviii^ dclaim-d their (iiii- 
liaMHiidorH HO long. (I Jem. Ih: fuU. h'lj. pji. 394, 
40.").) JlypcridfK and 'I'iinurthun, the furnicr of 
whom was a friend of DemoKtheneii, brought for- 
ward an accuwition agiiinnt the anibaMudors, 
charging them with higti treaiton agaiuHt the re- 
piiiilio, Ix-cauRe they wen; bribed by the king. 
'I'iinarchug iiecuHed Aeschiiien, and Hyperide* I'hi- 
locratcH. Hut AcNchiiies eviuied the danger by 
bringing forward a counter-occuMition ogainit 
Tiinarchuii (h. c. .'{4.5), and by »hewing that the 
nionil conduct of his accuHer wju Huch that he had 
no right to H|)eak before the jM-ople. The Hpeech 
in which AeHchines attacked Timarchua ii still ex- 
tant, and its effect was, that Tiniarchus was obliged 
to drop liiH accusation, and Aenchincii gained a bril- 
liant triumph. The operations of I'hilip after this 
peace, and his niarcli towards ThennopyUie, mode 
the Athenians very uneasy, and Aeschines, though 
he assured the p<-oplc that the king had no hostile 
intentions towards Athens and only intended to 
chastise ThelM-s, was again re()uestc(l to go m am- 
bassador to Piiilip and insure his abiding by the 
terms of his peace, liut he deferred going on the 
pretext that he was ilL (l)em. De/alt. Lry. p. 
3^7.) On his return he pretended that the king 
had secretly confided to him that he would under- 
tiike nothing against either I'hocis or Athens. 
Demosthenes siiw through the king's plans as well 
08 the treachery of Aeschines, and how just his 
apprehensions were became evident soon after the 
return of Aeschines, when Philip announced to the 
Athenians that he had taken possession of Phocis. 
The people of Athens, however, were silenced and 
lulled into security by the repeated assurances of 
the king and the venal orators who advocated his 
cause at Athens. In B. c. 346, Aeschines was 
sent iis ttvXarfbpos to the assembly of the amphic- 
tyons at Pylae which was convoked by Philip, 
and at which he received greater honours than he 
could ever have expected. 

At this time Aeschines and Demosthenes were 
at the head of the two parties, into which not 
only Athens, but all Greece was divided, and 
their political enmity created and nourished per- 
sonal hatred. This enmity came to a head in the 
year b. c, 343, when Demosthenes charged Aes- 
chines with having been bribed and having be- 
trayed the interests of his country during the 
second embassy to Philip. This charge of Demos- 
thenes (ir«pl Trapa-wptaSflas) was not spoken, but 
published as a memorial, and Aeschines answered 
it in a siniiliu: memorial on the embassy (irepl 
■Kapairpe<r§(ias), which was likewise published 
(Dem. De /als. Leg. p. 337), and in the composi- 
tion of which he is said to have been assisted by 
his friend Eubulus. The result of these mutual 
attacks is miknown, but there is no doubt that it 
gave a severe shock to the popularity of Aeschines. 
At the time he wrote his memorial we gain a 
glimpse into his private hfe. Some years before 
that occurrence he had married a daughter of Phi- 
lodemus, a man of high respectability in his tribe 
of Paeania, and in 343 he was father of three 
little children. (Aesch. Defals. Leg. p. 52.) 

It was probably in a. c. 342, that Antiphon, 
who had been exiled and lived in Macedonia, 



moKtheii 
ri-tfi\c(l 
fuiKTal I 
roneia. 



ACSCillNES. 

secretly returned to the Peinu«u« with tlw i 
tion of M-tting fire to the Athenian khips af WW. 
Demoitheties diacover^'d him, and had hiM ar- 
rettc(L Acachine* denounced th« CMidaet af I>^ 
mootheneit as a vkdatioa af tba diinmrnHfaal aoaali- 
tution. Antiphon «M w mUmmA ta 4mA% aad 
although no diadani* of any kiad eaaU ka a^ 
torted from him, still it seem* \i\ have baeo W 
lieved in many quarters that Amkchines had baa* 
his accomplice. Hence the hoDOOlBbla oAaa tt 
axiviiKot \n the sanctuary in Daioa, which had Jaat 
be<*n given him, was taken from him and heatowrd 
upon llyperides. (iJcmottth. IM Corun. p. '^71.) 
In ILC. 340 Aeschines was again prewnt at LMpki 
aa Athenian wvKay6i>ai, and caiuaed tha lawad 
■acred war againot Amphista in Locria for havntf 
taken into cultivation tefa» Meved hada. Philip 
entrusted with thi; supnoM «imai id by the aai- 
phictyon*, marched into Locria with aa amy ti 
30,000 men, ravagp<l the country, and wtablithad 
himself in it. VVbcn in 338 he adranead ie«tk' 
ward aa &r aa Bataa, all Oiaeea waa m co a a Uf a 
tion. DetBeathaaaa aiona penarerad, aad roaiad 
his GoantryBMa ta a hurt aad daapanta Ulnm/At, 
Tha batda of Chaaraaak ia tUa MM yaar da&d 
the &ta of Ofeeea. Tha a iial brta a a af that dqr 
gave a handle to the enemies of Deaioathaaaa Hr 
attacking him; but notwithstanding tha kribaa 
which Aeschines received from Antipater for thia 
purpose, the pure and unstained patriotism of I>e- 

-"- - -- • •':.t he 

the 
I hafr- 
Ctesiphon proposed that Demosthenes 
should be rewarded for the services he had done 
to his country, with a golden crown in the theatre 
at the great Dionysia. Aeschines availed himself 
of the illegal form in which this reward was pro- 
posed to be given, to bring a charge against Ctesi- 
phon on that ground. But he did not prosectite 
the matter till eight years later, that is, in B.C. 330, 
when after the death of Philip, and tiie rictoriea 
of Alexander, political affiiirs had aaaomed a diffe- 
rent aspect in Greece. After having comaMaeed 
the prosecution of Ctesiphon, he is said to haTe 
gone for some time to Macedonia. What induced 
him to drop the prosecution of Ctesiphon, and to 
take it up again eight years afterwards, are qnca- 
tions which can only be answered by conjecturea. 
The speech in which he accused Ctesiphon in b. c 
330, and which is still extant, is so skilfully ma- 
naged, that if he had succeeded he would have 
totally destroyed all the political influence and 
authority of Demosthenes. The latter answered 
Aeschines in his celebrated oration on the crown 
(rfpl aTe<p<!a'ov). Even before Demosthenes had 
finished his speech, Aeschines acknowledged him- 
self conquered, and withdrew from the court and 
his country. When the matter was put to the votes, 
not even a fifth of them was in fevour of Aeschines. 
Aeschines went to Asia Minor. The statement 
of Plutarch, that Demosthenes provided him with 
the means of accomplishing his journey, is surely a 
fable. He spent several years in Ionia and Caria, 
occupying himself with teaching rhetoric, and 
anxiously waiting for the return of Alexander to 
Europe. When in b. c. 324 the report of the 
death of Alexander reached him, he left Asia and 
went to Rhodes, where he established a school of 
eloquence, which subsequently became very cele- 
brated, and occupies a middle position between the 



AESCHINES. 

grave manliness of the Attic orators, and the effe- 
minate luxuriance of the so-called Asiatic school of 
oratory. On one occasion he read to his audience 
in Rhodes liis speech against Ctesiphon, and when 
some of his hearers expressed their astonishment 
at his having been defeated notwithstanding his 
brilliant oration, he replied, " You would cease to 
be astonished, if you had heard Demosthenes." 
(Cic. De Oral. iii. 5C ; Plin. //. N. vii. 30 ; Plin. 
Epist. ii. 3 ; Quinctil. xi. 3. § 6.) From Rhodes he 
went to Samos, where he died in B. c. 314. 

The conduct of Aeschines haa been censured by 
the writers of all ages ; and for this many reasons 
may be mentioned. In the first place, and above 
all, it was his misfortune to be constantly pUtced 
in juxtaposition or opposition to the spotless glory 
of Demosthenes, and this must have made him ap- 
pear more guilty in the eyes of those who saw 
through his actions, while in later times the con- 
trast between the greatest orators of the time was 
frequently made the theme of rhetorical declama- 
tion, in which one of the two was praised or 
blamed at the cost of the other, and less with re- 
gard to truth than to etl'ect. Respecting the lust 
period of his life we scarcely possess any other 
source of information thiin the accounts of late 
sophists and dechimations. Another point to 
be considered in forming a just estimate of the 
chanicter of Aescliines is, tiiat he had no advaii- 
tiiges of education, and tluit he owed his greatness 
to none but himself. His occupations during the 
early part of his life were such via necessarily en- 
gendered in him the low desire of giiin and wt^th ; 
and had he overcome these pabsiuns, he would 
have been equal to Demosthenes. There is, how- 
ever, not the slightest ground for lielieviiig, that 
Aeschines recommended peace witli Macedonia at 
first from any other motive than the desire of pro- 
moting the good of his country. Demo«theues 
himself itcted in the same spirit at that time, for 
the craftiness of Philip di-ceived both of them. 
But while Demosthenes altered his policy on di«r 
covering the secret intentions of the king, Aeschines 
continued to advocate the principles of peace. But 
there is nothing to justify the belief that Aeschines 
intended to ruin his country, and it is much more 
probable that the crafty king made such an iut- 
pression upon him, that he tinuly believed he 
was doing riglit, and was thus unconsciously led 
on to become a traitor to his country. But no an- 
cient writer except Demosthenes charges him with 
having received bribes from the Macedouiaua for 
the purpose of betniying his country. He appears 
to have been carried away by the favour of the 
king and the people, who delighted in hearing 
from him what they themselves wished, and, 
perhaps also, by the opposition of Demostheue* 
himself. 

Aeschines spoke on various occasions, but he 
published only three of his orations, namely, against 
Timua'hus, on the Kmlwssy, suid against Ctesiphon. 
As an orator, he was inferior to none but Demos- 
thenes. He was endowed by nature with extra- 
ordinarj' oratorical powers, of which his orations 
atford abundant proofs. The facility and felicity 
of his diction, the boldness and the vigour of his 
descriptions, carry away the reader now, as they 
must have carried away his audience. The an- 
cients, as Photius (Cod. 61) remarks, designated 
these three orations as the Grixceg, and the nine 
letters which were extant in the time of Photius, 



AESCHINES. 



39 



as the Muses. Besides the three orations, we now 
possess twelve letters which are ascribed to Aes- 
chines, which however are in all probability not 
more genuine than the so-called epistles of Phalaris, 
and iire undoubtedly the work of late sophists. 

The principal sources of information concerning 
Aeschines are : 1. The orations of Demosthenes on 
the Embassy, and on the Crown, and the orations 
of Aeschines on the Embassy and against Ctesi- 
phon. These four orations were translated into 
Latin by Cicero ; but the translation is lost, and 
we now possess only an essay which Cicero wrote 
as an introduction to them: "De optimo genere 
Oratorum." 2. The life in Plutarch's Vitae deetrm 
Oraiorum. 3. The life of Aeschines by Philostratus. 
4. The life of Aeschines by Libanias. 5. Apollo- 
nius' Exegesis. The last two works are printed 
in Keiske's edition, p. lU, foil. The best modem 
essay on Aeschines is that by Passow in Ersch and 
Gruber's Eitcydopadie, ii. p. 73, &c. There is 
also a work by E. Stechow, De Aetekimit Orvtorii 
Vita^ Berlin, '1841, 4to., wkkk M an attMBpt to 
clear the character of Aeackines from all the i«- 
pruaches that have beMi attached to it; but the 
essiiy is written in exceedingly bad Latin, and the 
attempt is a most complete £sUure. 

The first edition of the orations of Aeschines is 
that of Aldus ilauutiua in hi* OtIUttia Hktlormm 
Gnteforttrnt Vmioe^ 1518, toL An cditiaii witk a 
Latin tranahtimi, wUck abo eootaiiu the letteia 
ascribed to Aeschinea, is that of H. Woif^ Basel. 
157'i, foL The next important edition is that by 
Taylor, which ogntniw the aotea of Wol^ Taylor, 
and M a rk la n d, and ■Hiinwd at C— hndge in 
1748-56 in his eo l l e etie n of the Attic oratoriL In 
Ileiske's edition uf the Attic orators Aeschines 
occupies the third Tolume, Lips. 1771, 8vo. The 
best editions are those of L Bekker, vol. iiL of his 
Oruium AOki, Oxfitfd, l»-->-2, 8vo., for which 
thirteen aev MSSL wen eolkted, and of F. U. 
Bnai, Zvadii, 1821, 2 voia. 8w. The eeatioo 

aaniiist IVnin<th.»(^ }i^ httH tnUSisted ItttO 

i: -dLakad. [L. S.] 

- Alexi*^)> an Athenian philo- 

sopher and ihctuiician, aoa of a saasayvseller, or, 
acx-ording to other aeeoanta, of Lyaanias (IMog. 
I^aert. ii. 6U ; Suidaa, t. e. 'Atrj^b^), and a discipk, 
although by sooie of his iinalfMifeiiiliii hekl an 
unworthy one, oi Socrate*. From the account of 
Laertius, he appears to have been the familiHr friend 
of his great master, who said that ^ the sausage- 
seller's son only knew how to honour him." The 
tame writer has preserved a tradition that it was 
Aeschines, and not Crito, who offered to aaaiat 
Socrates in his escape from prison. 

The greater part of his life was spent in abject 
poverty, which gave rise to the advice of Socrates 
to him, " to borrow money of himself^ by diminish- 
ing his daily wants." After the death of his mas- 
ter, according to the charge of Lysias {apud A then. 
xiii. p. 611, e. f.), he kept a perfumer's shop with 
borrowed money, and presently becoming bank- 
rupt, was obliged to leave Athens. Whether from 
necessity or inclination, he followed the fashion of 
the day, and retired to the Syracusau court, where 
the friendship of Aristippus might console him for 
the contempt of Plato. He remained there until 
the expulsion of the younger Dionysius, and on 
his return, finding it useless to attempt a rivalry 
with his great contemporaries, he gave private lec- 
tures. One of the charges which his opponents 



40 



AKSCIIRION. 



delighted to repiit, and which by a»iiociation of 
idouH coiiKtitiitvd him n Rophifit in the eye* of I'lato 
and hiH foliowcm, was that of rwioivinj? money for 
hiH iiiHtnictioiia. Another Ktory was invented lliat 
the»i' (liaionueH were really the work Qf Sm-rnten ; 
and AriKti|ipiiH, either from joke or iiiali(e,'])ubli(ly 
rliarged Aettthincn with the theft while he wa» 
reading them nt Mefrara. Pinto is related by 
Ilcf^esaiider {ii/iiul Allii-u. xi. p. AO?, c.) to have 
•tolen from him Imh solitary pupil Xenocrnteii. 

The three dialogueK, n»>)J cl^tTTJf, tl hi.hairr6v, 
'Epuf^os ^ itfpl irKouTou, 'A^ioxos ^ irtpl 0aviTou, 
which have eonie down to us und(T the name of 
Aeschineg are not genuine rcmaiiiH: it is even 
doidited whether liiey arc the »anic work* which 
the nncientH acknowledged an »piiriou». They 
have been edited by Fischer, the third edition of 
which (8vo. Lips. 17(t<>) contain* the criticisms of 
Wolf, and forms part of a volume of spurious Pla- 
tonic dialogues (Siiii'Diis Siwratifi ut viilrtur dialnt/i 
qtiatiior) by Uiickh, lieidel. 1810. 

The genuine dialogues, from the slight mention 
made of them by Demetrius Phalcreus, seem to 
bave been full of Socratic irony. Hennogenes, 
X\tp\ 'Mf&v, consi<ler« Acschines m ■•up«Tior to 
Xenophon in elegance and purity of style. A long 
nnd amusing passage is quoted by Cicero from him. 
{J)e Invent. 1. 31 ; Diogenes I^aertius, ii. 60-64, and 
the authorities collected by Fischer.) [B. J.] 

ApysCIIINES (AiVx'»''7J), of Mii.ktus, n con- 
temporary of Cicero, and a distinguished orator in 
the Asiatic style of eloquence. He is said by Dio- 
genes Laertius to have written on Politics. He 
died in exile on account of having spoken too freely 
to Pompey. (Cic. lirul. 9.5 ; Diog. Lacrt. ii. 64 ; 
Strab. xiv. p. 63.5 ; Sen. Omtrov. i. 8.) 

AK'SCHINES(Ai(rxi«T)5), of Nkapolis, a Peri- 
patetic philosopher, who was at the head of the 
Academy at Athens, together with Charmades and 
Clitomachus about B. c. 109. (Cic de Oral. i. 11.) 
Diogenes Laertins (ii. 64) says, that he was a 
pupil of Melanthus the Rhodian. 

AE'SCHINES (AiVx^'ls)? »" ancient physi- 
cian, who lived in the latter half of the fourth 
century after Christ. He was bom in the isi.and 
of Chios, and settled at Athens, where he appears 
to have practised with very little success, but ac- 
■quired great fame by a happy cure of Eunapius 
Sardianus, who on his voyage to Athens (as he tells 
us himself, in vita Proaeres. p. 76, cd. Boisson) 
had been seized with a fever of a very violent 
kind, which yielded only to treatment of a peculiar 
aiature. An Athenian physician of this name is 
quoted by Pliny {H. A\ xxviii. 10), of whom it is 
only known, that he must have lived some time 
before the middle of the first century after 
■Christ. [W. A. G.] 

AE'SCHRION, of Syracuse, whose wife Pippa 
was one of the mistresses of Verres, is frequently 
mentioned by Cicero in the Verrine Orations, (ii. 
14, V. 12, 31.) He assisted Yerres in robbing the 
Syracusans (ii. 21), and obtained the farming of 
the tithes of the Herbitenses for the purpose of 
.plundering them. (iii. 33.) 

AE'SCHRION {Ala-xpicav), an iambic poet, a 
■native of Samos. He is mentioned by Athenaeus 
(vii.p. 296, f.viii. p. 335, c), who has preserved some 
choliambic verses of his, in which he defends the 
Samian Philaenis s^inst Polj'crates, the Athenian 
rhetorician and sophist. Some of his verses are 
also quoted by Tzetzes {ad Lycophr. 638). There 



AESCHYLUS. 

was an epic |>04>t of the Mine name, v|m wm • 
native of Mitylene and a pupil of Ariatotle, md 
who is said to have accointMinuHl Alexander on 
some of his expeditions. If" i« nv^tinned bjr 

Suidas ((. r.) and Tzetzrs {( .'i'!). As 

he was also a writer of ian. iambics, 

many M'holarit have iiu[ip<iiH <! ,,, „-. iAmtfitl 

with the Samian Aenclirion, and to Imvc baett 
oiiied a Mitylen.vnn in consequence of kaTiny ro> 
sided for some time in that city. (8cbnekle«iB( 
iMlertut I'nrifirum. itimhie. ft mriieon m Onucf 
Jacobs, Anth. Cnue. xiii. 8.14.) fC. P. M.] 

AE'SCHRION, a (Jret-k writer on agricuhurp, 
of whom nothing more is known. (Varr. dt tie 
liiut. i, 1.) 

AE'SCHRION ("Aiffxptwr), a natiTC of Per- 
gnmus, and a physician in the second century after 
Chrirt. He was one of Galen's tut')rB, who says 
that he l)elonged to the sect of the Empirici, and 
that he had a great knowledge of Pharmacy and 
Materia Medica., AcMhrion was the inventor of a 
celebrated superstitious remedy for the bhe of a 
mai^dog, which is mentioned with approbation by 
Galen and (Jriliaxiu* (Syno/n. iii. p. 55), and of 
which the most important ingredient was powdered 
crawfish. These he directs to be caught at a time 
when the sun and moon were in a particular relatire 
podition, and to be baked alive. (Gal. De Simpl. 
Medic. Facull. xi. 'M, vol. xii. p. 356 ; C. G. Kiihn, 
Addilam. ad Klenck. Med. Vet. a J. A. Ftiltrte, 
in '*l!ild. fJr:' exhihU.) [ W. A. G.] 

AESCHY'LIDES (AiVxuA.'Jrjj), wrote a work 
on agriculture, entitled rtwpyiKA, which was at 
least in three books. (Athen. xiv. p. 650, d ; 
Aelian, de Anim. xvi. .32.) 

AE'SCH YLUS {KlaxiXot) was bom at Elenaia 
in Attica in b. c. 52.5, so that he was thirty-fira 
years of age at the time of the battle ofMaratben, 
and contemporary with Simonidea and Pindar. 
His father Euphorion was probably connected witb 
the worship of Demeter, from which Aeachjfoa 
may naturally be supposed to have received bia 
first religious impressions. He was himself^ ac- 
cording to some authorities, initiated in the mya- 
teries, with reference to which, and to his birth- 
place Eleusis, Aristophanes (Ran. 884) makes him 
pray to the Elensinian goddess. Pausanias (i. 21. 
§ 2) relates an anecdote of him, which, if true, 
shews that he was struck in very early youth with 
the exhibitions of the drama. According to thia 
story, " When he was a boy he was set to watch 
grapes in the country, and there fell asleep. In 
his slumbers Dionysus appeared to him, and 
ordered him to apply himself to tragedy. At day- 
break he made the attempt, and succeeded very 
easily." Such a dream as this could hardly have 
resulted from anything but the impression pro- 
duced by tragic exhibitions upon a warm imagina- 
tion. At the age of 25 (a. c. 499), he made his 
first appearance as a competitor for the prize of 
tragedy, against Choerilus and Pratinas, without 
however being successful. Sixteen years after- 
ward (b. c. 484), Aeschylus gained his first victory. 
The titles of the pieces which he then brought out 
are not known, but his competitors were most 
probably Pratinas and Phrynichus or Choerilus. 
Eight years afterwards he gained the prize witii 
the trilogy of which the Persae, the earUest of his 
extant dramas, was one piece. The whole number 
of victories attributed to Aeschylus amounted to 
thirteen, most of which were gained by him in the 



AESCHYLUS. 

interval of sixteen years, between b.c. 484, the 
year of his first traj?ic victory, and the close of the 
Persian war by Cinion's double victory at the 
Eurymedon, b. c. 470. (Bode, Gesch. der HeUen. 
Dichtkunst, iii. p. 212.) The year b. c. 4C8 was 
the date of a remarkable event in the poet's life. 
In that year he was defeated in a tragic contest by 
his younger rival Sophocles, and if we may be- 
lieve Plutarch {Cim. if), his mortification at this 
indignity, as he conceived it, was so great, that he 
quitted Athens in disgust the very same year, and 
went to the court of Hiero (Paus. i. 2. § 3), king 
of Syracuse, where he found Simonides the lyric 
poet, who as well as himself was by that prince 
most hospitably received. Of the fact of his hav- 
ing visited Sicily at the time alluded to, there can 
be no doubt ; but whether the motive alleged by 
Plutarch for his doing so was the only one, or a 
real one, is a question of considerable difficulty, 
though of little practicid moment. It may be, sis 
has been plausibly maintiiined by some authors, 
that Aeschylus, whose family and personal honours 
were connected with the glories of Marathon, and 
the heroes of the Persian war, did not sjnnpathise 
with the spirit of aggrandisement by which the 
councils of his country were then actuated, nor 
approve of its policy in the struggle for the 
supremacy over Greece. The contemporaries of 
his earlier years, MiltLides, Arisleides, and The- 
niistocles, whose achievements in the service of 
their country were identified with those of himself 
and his family, had been succeeded by Cimon : and 
the aristocraiical principles which Aeschylus sup- 
ported were gradually being supplanted and over- 
borne by the advance of democracy. From all 
this, Aeschylus might have felt that he was 
outliving his principles, and have felt it the more 
keenly, from Cimon, the hero of the day, having 
been one of the judges who awarded the tragic 
prize to Sophocles in preference to himself. (Plut. 
/. c.) On this supposition, Athens cuuld not have 
been an agreeable residence to a person like 
Aeschylus, and therefore he might have been dis- 
posed to leave it ; but still it is more than probable 
that his defeat by Sophocles materially intluenced 
his determinations, and was at any rate the proxi- 
mate cause of his removing to Sicily. It has been 
further conjectured that the charge of dxriSfta, or 
impiety which was brought against Aeschylus for 
an alleged publication of the mysteries of Ceres 
(AristoU Eth. iii. 1), but possibly from political 
motives, was in some measure connected with his 
retirement from his native country. If this were 
really the case, it follows, that the play or plays 
which gave the supposed offence to the Athenians, 
must have been published before B. c. 4t)8, and 
therefore that the trilogy of the Oresteia could 
have had no connexion with it. Shortly before 
the arrival of Aeschylus at the court of Hiero, that 
prince had built the town of Aetna, at the bottom 
of the mountain of that name, and on the site of 
the ancient Catana : in connexion with this event, 
Aeschylus is said to have composed his play of the 
Women of Aetna (b. c. 471, or 472), in which he 
predicted and prayed for the prosperity of the 
new city. At the request of Hiero, he also repro- 
duced the play of the Persae, with the trilogy of 
which he had been yictorious in the dramatic eon- 
tests at Athens, (b. c. 472.) Now we know that 
the trilogy of the Seven against Thebes was re- 
presented soon after the " Persians : " it follows 



AESCHYLUS. 



41 



therefore that the former trilogy must have been 
first represented not later than b.c. 470. (Welcker, 
7n%ic, p. 520; SchoL ad Aristopli. lian. Idb^.) 
Aristeides, who died in B. c. 468, was living at 
the time. (Plut. Ari^. 3.) Besides "The Women 
of Aetna," Aeschylus also composed other pieces in 
Sicily, in which are said to have occurred Sicilian 
words and expressions not intelligible to the Athe- 
nians. (Athen. ix. p. 402, b.) From the number of 
such words and expressions, which have been 
noticed in the later extant plays of Aeschylus, it 
has been inferred that he spent a considerable time 
in Sicily, on this his first visit. ^Ve must not 
however omit to mention, that, r ■ - '■■ - •-, some 
accounts, Aeschylus also visit*- .. t a c. 

488, previous to what we have » ;.i» first 

visit. (Bode, Id. iii. p. 215.) The ocauiuu uf this 
retirement is said to have been the rictory gained 
over him by Simonides, to whom the Athenians 
adjudged the prise for the best elegy on those who 
fell at Marathon. This tradition, hov.-- -, ■- ■■■■: 
supported by strong independent tt>: i 

accordingly its truth has been much 
Suidas indeed states that Aeschylus had viMied 
Sicily even before this, when he was only twenty- 
five years of age (b.c. 499), immediately after his 
first contest with Pratinas, on which occasion the 
crowd of spectators was so great aa to cause the 
fall of the wooden planks {txpui) or temporary 
scafiblding, on which they were accommodated 
with seats. 

In B. c. 467, his friend and patron king Hiero 
died ; and in B. c 4£8, it appears that Aeachylos 
was again at Atheaa book Hm fiut that tl>e trilogy 
of the Oresteia was producod in that year. The 
conjecture of Biickh, that this might have been a 
second representation in the absence of the poet, 
is not supported by any probable maanns, for we 
have no intimation that the Oreeteia erer had been 
acted before. (Henoanii, Opiue. iL p. 137.) In the 
same or tka fottswing Tear (b. c. 457), Aeschylus 
again Tiated Sicily mr the last time, and the 
reason aasigned for this his second or as others 
coneeiTO his fourth visit to this iiJand, is both pro- 
bable and sufficient. The foct is, that in his play 
of the Eumenides, the third and last of the three 
plays which nade up the Onstean trilogy, Ae»- 
chjlaa piwfod hiwsnlf • decided supporter of the 
aneioBt digaidee and power of that " watchful 
guardian" of Athens, the aristocratical court of the 
AreiopaguB, in opposition to Pericles and his de- 
mocratical coadjutors. With this trilogy Aeschylus 
was indeed successful as a poet, but not as a poli- 
tician : it did not produce the effects he bad wished 
and intended, and he found that he had strivea 
in vain against the opinions and views of a gene- 
ration to which he did not belong. Accordingly it 
has been conjectured that either from disappoint- 
ment or fear of the consequences, or perhaps from 
both these causes, he again quitted Athens, and 
retired once more to Sicily. But another reason, 
which if founded on truth, perhaps oj>erated in 
conjunction with the former, has been assigned fur 
his last sojourn in Sicily. This rests on a state- 
ment made more or less distinctly by various 
authors, to the effect that Aeschylus was accused 
of impiety before the court of the Areiopagus, and 
that he would have been condemned but for the 
interposition of his brother Ameiiiias, who had 
distinguished himself at the battle of Sabuuia. 
(Aelian, V. H. v. 19.) According to some authois 



42 



AESCHYLUS. 



thin nccuwtion wu« preferred n(piiii»t him, for 
liiiviiig ill Kdiiio of hi» playi eitlier (livulf^ed or 
profaiic'ly spokt'ii of tlio iiiyKterieii of Citp*. Ac- 
cording to otlicTH, tiic charge originntcd from hi* 
Iiitviiig iiitrodiicrd on the ittiige the dreiid god- 
detHCH, tlic Kuiiioiiidc», which he hud done innuch 
a way as not only to do violcricc to popular pre- 
judice, but also to excite tiie grcate»t olurtii among 
tiie spcctatori. Now, tiic Kiimcnidcs containit no- 
thing which can be considered as a i)ublicuti<m of 
the mytiteri(>» of CercH, and therefore we are in- 
clined to think that h'm political enemies availed 
themwdves of the unpopularity he liad incurred by 
his " ChoruH of Furiew," to gut up ngaiiiHt him a 
ciiarge of impiety, which they supported not only 
by what was objectionable in the I'Jumcnides, but 
also in other pbiys not now extant. At any rate, 
from the number of authoriticB all conlirming this 
conduKion, there can be no doubt that towards the 
end of hiH life Aeschylus incurred the serious dis- 
pleasure of a strong |>arty at Athens, and that 
after the exhibition of the Orestcaii trilogy he 
retired to fiela in Sicily, where he died U. c. 4.'>(), 
in the (iDth year of his age, and three years after 
the representation of the Kumenides. On the 
manner of his dciith the ancient writers are unani- 
mous. (Suidas, g. V. Xt\wyr]fiimv,) An eagle, say 
they, mistaking the poet's bidd head for a stone, 
let n tortoise fall upon it to break the shell, and 
BO fulfilled an oracle, ncconling to which Aeschylus 
was fated to die by a blow from heaven. The 
inlmbitiints of Gela shewed their regard for 
his character, by public solemnities in liis honour, 
by erecting a noble monument to him, and inscrib- 
ing it with an epitaph written by himself. (Pans, 
i. 14. <J4; Athen. xiv. (i'27. d. Hrf. Anrm.) In it 
Gela is mentioned as the phcc of his burial, and 
the field of Marathon as the place of his most 
glorious achievements ; but no mention is made of 
his poetry, the only subject of commemoration in 
the later epigrams written in his honour. At 
Athens also his name and memory were holden in 
especial reverence, and the prophecy in which he 
(Athen. viii. 347, e. f.) is said to have predicted his 
own posthumous fame, when he was hrst defeated 
by Sophocles, was amply fulfilled. His pieces 
were frequently reproduced on the stige ; and by 
a special decree of the people, a chorus was pro- 
vided at the expense of the state for any one who 
might wish to exhibit his tragedies a second time. 
(Aristoph. Ac/tar. 102; Aeschyl. vita.) Hence 
Aristophanes {Iia?i. 892) makes Aeschylus say of 
himself, that his poetry did not die with him ; and 
even after his death, he may be said to have 
gained many victories over his successors in Attic 
tragedy. (Hermann, Opusc. ii. p. 158.) The plays 
thus exhibited for the first time may either have 
been those which Aeschylus had not produced 
himself, or such as had been represented in Sicily, 
and not at Athens, during his lifetime. The in- 
dividuals who exhibited his dramatic remains on 
the Attic stage were his sons Euphorion and Bion : 
the former of. whom was, in b. c. 431, victorious 
with a tetralogy over Sophocles and Euripides 
(Argum. Eurip. Med.), and in addition to this is 
said to have gained four victories with dramatic 
pieces of his father's never before represented, 
(Blomfield, ad Argum. Again, p. 20.) PhUocles 
also, the son of a sister of Aeschylus, was victo- 
rious over the King Oedipus of Sophocles, probably 
with a tragedy of his uncle's. (Argtun. Soph. Oed. 



AE8CHYLU& 

Tyr.) From and by bmsm af IImm p«MM WMt 
what waa called the Tn«k BA—I ti A«wk]rkM» 
which continned for Um tft€» of 125 ymn. 

We have IdtlMrte iMkco of Aeocky liu m s poot 
only ; but it moat not M fofgoUon that ki WMoIm 
highly renowned as ■ warrior. Hi* fint Mii»» 
menu as a soldier were in the bottU of MMthw, 
in whicit hii brothor CyMogeinio watk UaHolf ■• 
highly dia«iii|«falMd tlnBttohro^ that tlHir oxpUito 
were rniMimnnHid with • doMripdw fawrif is 
the tlMUn of AtWa^ irtikk «m tlnidrt !• U 
much oldor thaa tko itotae thaw mmIoI m hmmm 
of Aeschylus. (Pans. i. 21. $ '2.) Tko opitOfh 
which he wrote on himself^ proves that ko OMK 
kidered bis share in that battle M the Boot ^0- 
rious achievement of his life, tkoogk k« «•■ 
also engaged at Arkmisium, SaUmis, aad Pl^ 
toea. (Pans. L 14. $ 4) All his family, iadoad, 
were distinguished for bravery. His yooofor 
brother Ameiuias (Hero<I. viii. 84 ; I>iod. xi. 25) 
was noted a* having commenced the attack on 
the Persian ships at Salami*, and at Marathon no 
one was so pcrscveringly brave as Cynaofoina. 
(Herod. tL 114.) lieuco we may not nnr M eon 
ably nqipoio, thnt tko mtitndo of the Atheoiana 
for rock lerTioea eootrUNitad Mnewhat to a dna 
appreciation of the poet*a Befits, and to the tiagie 
victory which he gained toon after the battle of 
Marathon (a c. 484) and bcfcn that of Salaaua. 
Nor can we wonder at tko poeoliar viridneto and 
spirit with which he portray* the ** pomp and cir> 
cumstance" of war, as in the Persae, and the 
** Seven against Thebes,'' describing its inddenta 
and actions as one who had really been an actor 
in scenes such as he paints. 

The style of Aeschylus ia bold, cnetgetic, ad 
sublime, full of gorgeous imagery, and nagniiHat 
expressions such as became the elevated ckanetcn 
of his dramas, and the ideas he wished to ezprcsa. 
(Aristoph. Uun. 934.) This sublimity of diction 
was however sometimea carried to an extreme, 
which made his language turgid and inflated, to 
that as Quintilian (x. 1) says of him, ** be ia 
grandiloquent to a fault.'' In the turn of his ex- 
pressions, the poetical predominates over the tyn- 
tactical. He was peculiarly fond of metaphorical 
phrases and strange compounds, and obsolete lan- 
guage, so that he was much more epic in his 
langimgc than either Sophocles or Euripides, and 
excelled in disphiying strong feelings and impulses, 
and describing the awful and the terrible, rather 
than in exhibiting the workings of the human 
mind under the influence of complicated and various 
motives. But notwithstanding the general eleva- 
tion of his style, the subordinate characters in his 
plays, as the watchman in the Agamemnon, and 
the nurse of Orestes in the Choephoroe, are made 
to use language fitting their station, and less re- 
moved from that of common life. 

The characters of Aeschylus, like his diction, 
are sublime and majestic, — they were gods and 
heroes of colossal magnitude, whose imposing aspect 
could be endured by the heroes of Marathon and 
Salamis, but was too awful for the contemplation 
of the next generation, who complained that 
Aeschylus' language was not human. (Aristoph. 
Ran. IO06.) Hence the general impressions pro- 
duced by the poetry of Aeschylus were rather of a 
religious than of a moral nature : his personages 
being both in action and suflering, superhuman, 
and therefore not always fitted to teach practical 



AESCHYLUS. 

lessons. He produces indeed a sort of religious 
awe, and dread of the irresistible power of the 
gods, to which man is represented as being entirely 
subject ; but on the other hand humanity often 
appears as the sport of an irrevocable destiny, or 
the victim of a struggle between superior beings. 
Still Aeschylus sometimes discloses a providential 
order of compensation and retribution, while he 
always teaches the duty of resignation and sub- 
mission to the will of the gods, and the futility 
and fatal consequences of all opposition to it. Sue 
Quarterly Review, No. 112, p. 315. 

With respect to the construction of his plays, 
it has been often remarked, that they have 
little or no plot, and are therefore wajiting in 
dramatic interest : this deficiency however may 
strike us more than it otherwise would in conse- 
quence of most of his extant plays being only parts, 
or acts of a more complicated drama. Still we 
cannot help being impressed with the belief, that 
he was more capable of sketching a vast outline, 
than of filling up its ports, however bold and 
vigorous are the sketches by which he portrays 
and groups his characters. His object, indeed, ac- 
cording to Aristophanes, in such plays as the 
Persae, and the Seven against Thel>es, which are 
more epical than dramatical, was rather to animate 
his countrymen to deeds of glory and warlike 
achievement, and to inspire them with generous 
and elevated sentiments, by a vivid exhibition of 
noble deeds and characters, than to charm or 
startle by the incidents of an elaborate plot {lian. 
lOUO.) The religious views and teneta a[ Aes- 
chylus, so far as they app<-ar in hit writingBt wen 
Homeric. Like Homer, he repreaents Zeua m 
the supreme Uuler of the Universe, the source and 
centre of idl things. To him all the other divini- 
ties are subject, and from him all their powers and 
authority are derived. Even Fate itself is some- 
times identical with his will, and the result of his 
decrees. He only uf all the beinn in heaven and 
earth is free to act as he pleases. (/Vom. 40.) 

In Philosophical sentiments, there was a tradi- 
tion that Aeschylus was a Pythagorean (Cic. Ths. 
Dif-ju ii. 10) ; but of this his writings do not 
furnish any conclusive proof, though there certaiiJy 
was some similarity between him and Pythagoras 
in the purity and elevation of their sentiments. 

The most correct and lively description of the 
character and dnunatic merits of Aeschylus, and of 
the estimation in which he was held by his con- 
temporaries and inuuediate successors, is given by 
Aristophanes in his "Frogs." He is there de- 
picted as proud and impatient, and his style and 
genius such as we have described it. Aristophanes 
was evidently a verj' great admirer of him, and 
sympathised in no common degree with his pobti- 
cal and moral sentiments. He considered Aes- 
chylus as without a riviil and utterly unapproachable 
as a tragic poet; and represents even Sophocles 
himself as readily yielding to and admitting his 
superior claims to the tragic throne. But few if 
any of the ancient critics seem to have altogether 
coincided with Aristophanes in his estimation of 
Aeschylus, though they give him credit for his 
excellences. Thus Dionysius (Zfe Poet. Vet. ii. 9) 
praises the originality of his ideas and of his ex- 
pressions, and the beauty of his imagery, and the 
propriety and dignity of his characters. Longinus 
(15) speaks of his elevated creations and imagery, 
but condemns some of his expressions as harsh and 



AESCHYLUS. 



43 



OTeri'trained ; and Quintilian ( x. 1 ) expresses 
himself much to the same eifect. The expression 
attributed to Sophocles, that Aeschylus did what 
was right without knowing it (Atheu. x. p. 4'28,f ), 
in other words, that he was an unconscious genius, 
working without any knowledge of or regard to 
the artistical laws of his profc- -' • f 

note. So also is the observati' . 
tureiv.), that " Generally consid ^ j 

of Aescliylus are an example amongst many, iliat 
in art, as in nature, gigantic prodm-tions pretede 
those of regulated symmL: 
away into delicacy and 

poetry in her first """'f*^'-- ^ 

nearest to the awfiilnii of sdig i 
the hitter may aaaone among t i 

men." Aeschylus himself used lu say uf his 
dramas, that they were fragments of the great 
banquet of Homer's table. (Atheu. viii. p. 347, e.) 
The alterations made by Aeschylus in the compo- 
sition and dnunatic representation of Tragedy 
were so great, that he was considered by the 
Athenians as the father of it, just as Homer was 
of Epic poetry and Herodotus of History. (Philostr. 
Vit. ApoU. vL 11.) As the ancients themselves 
remarked, it was a greater advance from the 
elementary productions of I'hespis, Choerilus, and 
Phrynichus, to the stately tragedy of Aeschylus, 
than from the h»tter to the perfect and refined 
fonus of Sophocles. It was the advance firom 
iufitucy if not to uuiturity, at lea*t tu a youthful 
and ^igorou• manhood. Even the improvements 
and alterationa introdneed bj hia tmumman were 
tiM mtanJ MHiIts Hd iMnrtiMi of Ummi of 
AMchylua. Hm fint and principal alteration 
which he made was the intruductiou of a second 
actor (S*t/r«pa7*N'umit, Aristot. Poet. 4. § 16), 
and the eenaeqwat Connatian of tho dialogue pro- 
perly BO ealled, and the limitation of the chwal 
parta. 8a groat vaa th« o&el of this change that 
Aristatk dmrntea it by aying. that ha aade the 
dialogne, the prindiial part of the >'<»v' (T,\y 

the choral part, which was now becom v 

and leoondar^. This innovation wsu ut luaiM.- 
adopted by hu eontemnonriea, just as Aesihvlus 
himself (g. g. in the Ckatpkant 665— 71 1>)' fol- 
io wed the example of Sophudea, in subsequently 
introducing a third actor. The characters in his 
plays were sometimes represented by Aestlivlus 
himselt (Atheu. i. p. 39.) In the early p;ut uf 
his career he was supported by an actor named 
Cleandrus, and afterwards by Mvniscus of Chal- 
chis. (Vita apud Robert, p. lb' 1.) The dialogue 
between the two principal characters in the plays 
of Aeschylus was generally kept up in a strictly 
sjTumetrical form, each thought or sentiment of 
the two speakers being expressed iu one or two 
unbroken lines : e. g. as the dialogue betweeu 
Kraios and Hephaestus at the beginning of the 

Prometheus. In t'- ■ «■ in the Seven 

aguinst Thebes, Et> eioea fciiMolf 

in thive lines betwev ; ~ ,jf the chorus. 

This arrangement, difiering as it does frvva the 
forms of ordinary conversation, gives to the dialogue 
of Aeschylus an elevated and stately character, 
which bespeaks the conversation of gods and he- 
roes. But the improvements of Aeschylus were 
not limited to the composition of tragedy : he added 
the resources of art in its exhibitioiu Thus, he is 
said to have availed himself of the skill of Aga- 



44 



AESCHYLUS. 



thnreuti, wlio pnintod for him the firtit tce.na whicli 
h;i<l ever licoii dniwn nccordiiif^ to the principle* of 
liiiL'iir pornp(!Ctiv(). (Vitriiv. I'rtwf. lib. vii.) Ik- 
aUo funiiithcd hiit actoi-K with more Huitiihln and 
maffiiitifciit dressi'H, with »i(<niticant mid varioii* 
mahks, and witii the thick-soled cothuniun, to niiiM! 
their hlatiu) to the heiKht of hcrocfc Hu niorcovfr 
U'stowcd so much attention on the chorul dance*, 
that he i» Kiid to have invented varioun tijpiren 
himself, and to have inntrucled the chorinlerM in 
them without the aid of the regular l>ullet-nia»iter». 
(Allien, i. p. 21.) So great wa» Aeitchylu*' nkili a» 
a tt^acher in thin respect, that Tele»tei, one of hit 
choristem, was able to express by doiice alone the 
various incidents of the play of the Seven against 
Theljcs. (Athen. /. r.) The removal of all deeda 
of bloodshed and nuirder from the public view, in 
confonnity with the rule of Horace {A. I'. IKA), 
is also Biiid to have l)een a practice intnxlutjrd by 
Aeschylus. (IMiilos. Vii.Ajiol. vi. 11.) With him 
also iirosc the usage of representing at the same 
time a triloiiy of phiys connected in subject, so that 
each formed one act, as it were, of a gratt whole, 
which might be compared with some of Shako- 
speare's historical plays. Even before the time of 
Aeschylus, it had been customary to contend for 
the prize of tragedy with three phiys exhibited at 
the same time, but it was rcscrred for him to shew 
how ciich of three tragedies might be complete in 
itHolf, and independent of the rest, and neverthe- 
less form a, part of a harmonious and connected 
whole. The only example still extant of such a 
trilogy is the Orestein, as it was called. A Saty- 
rical play commonly followed each tragic trilogy, 
and it is recorded that Aeschylus was no less a 
master of the ludicrous than of the serious drama. 
(Pans. ii. 13. § 5.) 

Aesciiylus is said to have written seventy trage- 
dies. Of these only seven are extant, namely, the 
"Persians," the "Seven against Thebes," the 
"Suppliants," the "Prometheus," the "Agamem- 
non," the "Chocphoroe," and " Eumenidcs ;" the 
last three fonning, as already remarked, the trilogy 
of the " Oresteia." The " Persians" was acted in 
B. c. 47-, and the "Seven against Thebes" a year 
afterwards. The "Oresteia" was represented in 
B.C. 4.58 ; the "Suppliants" and the "Prometheus" 
were brought out some time between the "Seven 
against Thebes" and the "Oresteia." It has been 
suppcsed from some allusions in the "Suppliants," 
that this play was acted in b. c. 461, when Athens 
•was allied with Argos. 

The first edition of Aeschj'lus was printed at 
Venice, 1518, 8vo.; but parts of the Agamemnon 
and the Choephoroe are not printed in this edition, 
and those which are given, are made up into one 
play. Of the subsequent editions the best was by 
Stanley, Lond. 1663, fo. with the Scholia and a 
commentary, reedited by Butler. The best recent 
editions are by Wellauer, Lips. 1823, W. Dindorf, 
Lips. 1827, and Scholefield, Camb. 1830. There 
are numerous editions of various plays, of which 
those most worthy of mention are by Blomfield, 
Miiller, Klausen, and Peile. The principal Eng- 
lish translations are by Potter, Harford, and Med- 
win. (Petersen, De Aeschyli Vita et Fabulis, 
Havniae, 1814; Welcker, Die Aeschyl. Trilogie 
Prometheus, Darmstadt, 1824, Nachtrag zur Tri- 
logie, Frankf. 1826, and Die Griech. Tragodien, 
Bonn, 1840 ; Klausen, Tlteologumena Aesdiyli 
Tragici, BeroL 182D.) - [R. W.] 



AES(:ULAPIU8. 

AK'.SCHYLi:s(Ai. . i.iA, 

an e]iic p<M-t, who nm 1I14 

end of the secoinl 

Athenaetu call* ' 

p<K-mt bora the t;: 

" MeMeniacBi'* A Ira^iiH-iii ul the funi> 

served in Athenai-us. (xiii. y.hU'.t.) 

to Zenobius (v. tt.i), he hod alitu wii' 

proverbs. ( n</>l naf>oi>iu2i' ; com|i.i: 

I'rurfnt. I'aritfiif ■■ ' ' > 

AK'.SCHVLl 
Cicero, and one 1 ■ 
in Akui Minor. (Lie. Jtrut. 'j\, ii,'j.) 

AK'.SCHYL('S (Ai^xi/Aot), of Uiiooic, wm 
appointad by Alexander the (irrat on* of the in- 
■pw tow of the governors of that country ■ftw its 
eoiH|tiMt in B.C. 332. (Arrian, A nab, iii. ft ; eoap. 
Curt. ir. 8.) He is not spoken of again till It, c. 
319, when he is mentioned as conveying in four 
ships six hundred talents of silver from Cilicia to 
Macedonia, which were detained at Ephcsus bj 
Antiflonna, in order to pay his foreign mercenaries. 
(Diod. xriii. .',•>.) 

AESCULA'PIUS CAaitXnwidi). tl„. l..,<1 ..( t\u, 
medical art. In the Homeric po< iu« 

does not appear to be considered an . i<ut 

merely as a human being, which i» uidaaicd by 
the adjective d^/uvf, which is never given to a 
god. No allusion ia made to his descent, and be 
it merely mentioned aa the Ivrrip unuimty, and the 
father of Macbaon and Podaleirius. (II. iL 731, 
iv. 194, xi. 518.) From the fact that llomer (6k/. 
iv. 232) calls all those who practise the healing 
art descendants of Paeeon, and that Podaleirius 
and Macbaon are called the sons of Aestculapiua, 
it has Ijcen inferred, that Aesculapius and Paeeon 
are the same being, and consequently a divinity. 
But wherever Homer mentions the h^ing god, it 
is always Paeeon, and never Aesculapius ; and aa 
in the poet''s opinion all physicians were descended 
from Paeeon, he probably considered Aesculapina 
in the same light. This supposition is corrobocated 
by the fact, that in later times Paeeon was identi- 
fied with Apollo, and that Aenculapius is uni- 
versally described as a descendant of Apollo. The 
two sons of Aesculapius in the Iliad, were the 
physicians in the Greek army, and are described 
as ruling over Tricca, Ithome, and Oechalia. (//. 
ii. 729.) According to Eustathius {ad Horn. p. 
330), Lapithes was a son of Apollo and Stilbe, and 
Aesculapius was a descendant of Lapithes. This 
tradition seems to be based on the same ground- 
work as the more common one, that Aesculapius 
was a son of Apollo and Coronis, the daughter oS 
Phlegyas, who is a descendant of Lapithes. 
(Apollod. iii. 10. § 3; VmA.Pt/th. iiL 14, with 
the SchoL) 

The common story then goes on as follows. 
When Coronis was with child by Apollo, she 
became enamoured with Ischys an Arcadian, 
and Apollo informed of this by a raven, which 
he had set to watch her, or, according to Pindar, 
by his own prophetic powers, sent his sister 
Artemis to kill Coronis. Artemis accordingly de- 
stroyed Coronis in her own house at Lacereia in 
Thessaly, on the shore of lake Baebia. (Comp. 
Horn. Ht/mn. 27. 3.) According to Ovid {Met. iL 
605, &c.) and Hyginus {Poet. Astr. ii. 40), it was 
Apollo himself who killed Coronis and Ischys. 
\\ hen the body of Coronis was to be burnt, Apollo, 
or, according to others (Paus. ii. 26, § 5), Hermes 



AESCULAPIUS. 

saved the child (Aesculapius) from the flames, and 
carried it to Cheiron, who instructed the boy in 
tlie art of healing and in hunting. (Pind. Fyih. 
iii. 1, &c.; ApoUod. iii. 10. § 3 ; Pans. /. c.) Ac- 
cording to other traditions Aesculapius was boni 
at Tricca in Thessaly (Strab. xiv. p. G47), and 
others again related that Coronis gave birth to him 
during an expedition of her fiather Phlegyas into 
Peloponnesus, in the territory of Epidaurus, and 
that she exposed him on mount Tittheion, which 
was before called Myrtion. Here he was fed by a 
goat and watched by a dog, until at last he was 
found by Aresthanas, a shepherd, who saw the boy 
surrounded by a lustre like that of lightning. 
(See a different account in Pans. viii. 'J5. § G.) 
From this dazzling splendour, or from his having 
been rescued from the flames, he was called by the 
Dorians ai-yKa-Zip. The truth of the tradition that 
Aesculapius was bom in the territory of Epi- 
daurus, and was not the son of Arsinoe, daughter 
of Leucippus and bom in Messenia, was attest- 
ed by an oracle which was consulted to decide the 
question. (Pans. ii. 26. § G, iv. 3. § 2 ; Cic. De 
Nat. Deor. iii. 22, where three ditfen»nt Aescula- 
piuses are made out of the difl'erent local traditions 
about him.) After Aesculapius had grown up, 
reports spread over all countries, that he not only 
cured all the sick, but called the dead to life again. 
About the maimer in which he acquired this latter 
power, there were two traditions in ancient times. 
According to the one (ApoUod. /. f.), he had re- 
ceived from Athena the blood which had flowed 
from the veins of Uorgo, and the blood which had 
flowed from the veins of the right side of her body 
possessed the power of restoring the dead to life. 
According to the other tradition, Aesculapius on 
one occasion was shut up in the house of Glaucus, 
whom he was to cure, and while he was standing 
absorbed in thought, there came a ser[>ent which 
twined round the statT, and which he killed. 
Another serpent then came carrying in its mouth 
a herb with which it retailed to life the one that 
had been killed, and Aesculapius henceforth made 
use of the siune herb with the same effect upon 
men. (Ilygin. Poet. Antr. ii. 14.) Several per- 
sons, whom Aesculapius was believed to have re- 
stored to life, are mentioned by the Scholiast on 
Pindar {I't/tA. iii. 9G) and by ApoUodorus. (/. c.) 
When he was exercising this art upon Gkucus, 
Zeus killed Aesculapius with a flash of lightning, 
as he feared lest men might gradually contrive to 
escape death altogether (Apollod. iii. 10. § 4), or, 
according to others, because Pluto had complained 
of Aesculapius diminishing the number of the dead 
too much. (Diod. iv. 71 ; comp. Schol. ad I'ind. 
I'yth. iii. 102.) But, on the request of Apollo, 
Zeus phiced Aesculapius among the stars. (Hygin. 
Poet. Astr. ii. 14.) Aesculapius is also said to 
have taken part in the expedition of the Argonauts 
and in the Calydonian hunt. He was married to 
Epione, and besides the two sons spoken of by 
Homer, we also find mention of the following chil- 
dren of his: Janiscus, Alexenor, Aratus, Hygieia, 
Aegle, laso, and Panaceia (Schol. ad Pind. Pi/th. 
iii. 14 ; Pans. ii. 10. § 3, i. 34. § 2), most of whom 
are only personifications of the powers ascribed to 
their father. 

These are the legends about one of the most in- 
teresting and important divinities of antiquity. 
Various hypotheses have been brought forward to 
explain the origin of his worship in Greece ; and, 



AESCULAPIUS. 



45 



while some consider Aesculapius to have been 
originally a real personage, whom tradition had 
connected with various marvellous stories, others 
have explained all the legends about him as mere 
personifications of certain ideas. The serpent, the 
perpetual sj'mbol of Aesculapius, has given rise to 
the opinion, that the worship was derived from 
Egypt, and that Aesculapius was identical with 
the serpent C'nuph worshipped in Egypt, or with 
the Phoenician Esmun. (Euseb. Praep. Evang. 
i. 10 ; comp. Paus. viL 23. § G.) But it does not 
seem necessary to have recourse to foreign countnea 
in order to explain the worship of this god. His 
story is undoubtedly a combination of real events 
with the results of thoughts or ideas, which, u ia 
so many instances in Greek mythology, are, like 
the former, considered lu facts. The kernel, out 
of which the whole myth has grown, is perhaps 
the account we read in Homer ; but gradually the 
sphere in which Aesculapius acted Mras so extend- 
ed, that he became t' "tative or the per- 
sonification of the hi - of nature, which 
are naturally enough as the son (the 
effects) of Helios, — Apollo, or the Sun. 

Aesculapius was worshipped all over Greece, 
and many towns, as we have seen, claimed the 
honour of his birth. His temples were usually 
built in healthy pbces, on V'"- ■■"•--i.e the town, 
and near wells which \\ I to hare 

healing powers. These i< ■ :<• not only 

places of worship, but were frequented by great 
numbers of sick persons, and may therefore be 
compared to modem botpitala. (PluL (^muL Rom. 
p. 286, D.) The prineipel seat of Us wonhip in 
Greece was Epidaunu, wlMie he hi"! « t.-nit.lf» »ur. 
RMUided with an extenaive froTe, !i no 

one was allowed to die, and no woi pirth 

to a child. His sanctuary contaiucd a ui.i^uificent 
statue of ivory and gold, the work of Thrasymedes, 
in which he was repreauited as a handsomw and 
manly figore, weamhliiig that «£ Zeoa. (Puia. uL 
2G and 27.) He was seated on a throne, holding 
in one hand a staff, and with the other re«ting 
upon the head of a dragon (serpent), and by his 
side lay a dog. (Pans. ii. 27. § 2.) Serpents 
were everj'whMe eonnected with the worship of 
Aesculapius, probably because they were a symbol 
of prudence and renovation, and were believed to 
have the power of discovering herbs of wondrous 
powers, as is indicated in the story about Aescula- 
pius and the serpents in the house of Glaucus. 
Serpents were further believed to be guardians of 
wells with salutary powers. For these reasons a 
}>eculiar kind of tame serpents, in which Epidaurus 
abounded, were not only kept in his temple (Paus. 
ii. 28. § 1), but the god himself frequently ap- 
peared in the form of a serpent. (Paus. iiL 23. 
g 4 ; VaL Max. i. 8. § 2 ; Liv. Eyit. 1 1 ; compare 
the account of Alexander Pseudomantis in Lucian.) 
Besides the temple of Epidaums, whence the wor- 
ship of the god was transplanted to various other 
pans of the ancient world, we may mention those 
of Tricca (Strab. ix. p. 437), Celaenae (xiil p. G03), 
between Dyme and Patrae (viiL p. 386), near 
Cyllene (viii. p. 337), in the island of Cos (xiiL 
p. 657 ; Paus. iii. 23. § 4), at Gereuia (Strab. viiL 
p. 360), near Cans in Arcadia (Steph. Byz. $. v.\, 
at Sicyon (Paus. ii. 10. § 2), at Athens (L 21. § 7), 
near Patrae (vii. 21. § 6), at Titane in the terri- 
tory of Sicyon (^^i. 23. § 6), at Thelpusa (viiL 25. 
§ 3*), in Messene (iv. 31. § 8), at Phlius (ii. 13t 



46 



AESON. 



§ 3), Artfos (il. 23. § 4), Aeginm (ii. 23, § A), 
I»ollene (vii. 27. § 5), A«opu» (iii. 22. « 7), 
Perjfamum (iii. 2(). § 7), I^)>ene in Crpt<", 
Sinj'm.'i, HiiliiKmc (ii. 2(i. S 7), Ambracia (Li v. 
xxxviii. ."i), at Koiiir nnd otlicr placp*. At Home 
tlic worHliip of Acnc\ilapiu« wnH iiitriMliiccd from 
Kpiiluiirus at liie coniniaiid of the Delphic onicle 
or of the fjibyllino book*, in B. c. 293, for the 
purpose of averting a pontilence. Re«pccting the 
niraciilous manner in which thi« was effected see 
ValeriiiR Maximus (i. 8. <; 2), and Ovid. {Met. 
XV. ()'20, &c. ; comp. Niebuhr, J/itt. of Home, 
iii. p. 408, &c. ; Liv. x. 47, xxiz. 11; 8uet. 
Clatul. '2h.) 

The siclt, who visited the temple* of Aescula- 
pius, had usually to spend one or more nights in 
nis sanctuary (»foS«u8fii', itwu/xire, I'aus. iL 27 
§ 2), during which they observed ccrUtin rules 
prescribed Ity the priests. The god then usually 
revealed the remedies for the disease in a dream. 
(Aristoph. I'/til. G(i-', tie. ; Cic. JM; iJiv. iL .19 ; 
Pliilostr. Vita Apollim. i. 7 ; Janibl. JJe Mytt. iii. 
2.) It was in allusion to this inniljoiio that many 
temples of AesculajMus contained statues repre- 
Bcnting Sleep nnd Dream. (Pans. ii. 10. §2.) 
Those whom the god cured of their diseaae ofibred 
a sacrifice to }iim, generally a cock (Plat Pkaed. 
p. 1 18) or a goat (Faus. x. 32. $ 8 ; Senr. ad Virg. 
Gfory. ii. 380), iind hung up in his temple a 
tablet recording the name of the sick, the diseas)', 
nnd the manner in which the cure had been 
eftl'cted. The temples of Kpidaunis, Trices, and 
Cos, were full of such votive tablets, and iCTeral of 
them .ire still extant. (Paus. ii. 27. § 3 ; Strab. 
viii. p. 374 ; comp. Did. of Ant. p. 673.) Re- 
specting the festivals celebrated in honour of Aes- 
culapius see Diet, of Ant. p. 10.3, fee. The various 
surnames given to the god partly describe him as 
the healing or saving god, and are partly derived 
from the places in which he was worshipped. 
Some of his statues are described by Pausanias. 
(ii. 10. § 3, X. 32. § 8.) Besides the attributes 
mentioned in the description of his statue at Kpi- 
daurus, he is sometimes represented holding in one 
hand a phial, and in the other a staff ; sometimes 
also a boy is represented standing by his side, who 
is the genius of recovcrj', and is called Telesphonis 
Euamerion, or Acesius. (Paus. ii. 11. § 7.) We 
still possess a considerable number of marble 
statues and busts of Aesculapius, as well as many 
representations on coins and gems. (Bcittiger, 
AmaWtea, i. p. 282 ; ii. p. 361 ; Ilirt. MytAol. 
Bilderh. i. p. 84 ; M'uller, Handb. der Arch'dol. 
p. 597, &c. 710.) 

There were in .intiquity two works which went 
imder the name of Aesculapius, which, however, 
were no more genuine than the works ascribed to 
Orpheus. (Fabricius, BiU. Graec. i. p. bb, &c.) 

The descendants of Aesculapius were called by 
the patronj-mic name Asclepiadae. ('A(j-»cA.ijirui5oi.) 
Those writers, who consider Aesculapius as a real 
personage, must regard the Asclepiadae as his real 
descendants, to whom he transmitted his medical 
knowledge, and whose principal seats were Cos 
and Cnidus. (Plat, de lie Publ. iii. p. 405, &c.) 
But the Asclepiadae were also regarded as an 
order or caste of priests, and for a long period 
the practice of medicine was intimately connected 
with religion. The knowledge of medicine was 

J;egarded as a sacred secret, which was transmitted 
rom father to son in the families of the Asclepia- 



AEBOPU& 

dae, and we still p ot sen th« Mtk which tvwjr mm 
was obliged to take when he WM pat in poMHsbn 
of the medical secrets. (GiImi, Amut, ii. f. I2t( 
Aristid. Orat. L p. HU ; comp. K. 8|iWftl, fmnl. 
der Mi-dicin. vol. i.) [L. &] 

AKSKKNi'M'S. [MAiu:BLLft.1 
AK'.SION (Aiff/wi'), an Athenian •imtor, was % 
contemporary of Dcm»it}ii-n<-s, with whom b« wm 
educated. (Suidaa, i. v, Arit*oo0inii.) To what 
party h« beloMsd duing Um MaMdoaka thn* k 
uncertain. Vntea ha wm aaked what he thaaght 
of the onion at hia tkM, ha aid, thai whM ha 
heard the oth« onrtan, ha adaind thair hwatilal 
and Rubltme eearenatkoa with tha pwphi, hat 
that the speeches of DwaBethwua, whM lead, as* 
colled all others by their 



their p<jwer. (Uena iff m, am. FtmL Dmm. 10.) 
Aristotle (lOu-t. iii. 10) ■witiiai • hiatifal as- 
prcMion of Aesion. [I* 8^1 

A KSON (Aiffwu), a ion of CretheM, tha haaiia 
of Iolcul^ and of Tjn, the daiuhtef of Salaneaa. 
He was excluded 1^ hi* etep-farotber Pdiae froai 
his share in the hufdam of Tboaalj. He wae 
father of Jasan aad PfbbiAm, bat the waa* 
of hia wifi ie diftMrtly alMad, at PoivMda, 
Alcialed^ Aaiph fa oa w, Po l y phemr , Pelyieie, 
Ame, and Bcarphe. (ApoUod. L 9. 1 1 1 aad f I« ; 
Horn. Od. xL 258 ; TceU. ad LfeopJkr. 873 ; Died. 
ir. &0 ; Schol. ad ApoUtm. L 45 ; Schol. ad Horn. 
Od. xii. 70.) Pelias endcaroured to secure the 
throne ts hiaiaelf bj ■sodiag Jason away with the 
A i y au ti^ hat whm ana day he was suptised 
and frightened by Am news elf the retnm of the 
Ai]^nauts, he attempted to get rid of Aeson by 
force, but the latter pat an end to his own life. 
(Apollod. i. 9. § 27.) According to an aeooont in 
Diodorus (ir. .50), Pelias compelled Aeaon to kill 
himself by drinking ox's blood, for he had reeeired 
intelligence that Jason and his companions had 
perished in their expedition. According to Orid 
{Afel. viL 163, 250, &c), Aeson sorriTed tha 
return of the Argonauts, and was made Jtmag 
again by Medeia. Jason as the son of Aeson is 
called Aesonides. (Orph. Arp. 55.) [L. S.] 

AES0'NIDF:S. [Akson.] 

AESO'PUS (AJiranrof), a writer of Fables, a 
species of composition which has been defined 
"■ analogical narratives, intended to convey seme 
moral lesson, in which irrational animals or objects 
are introduced as speaking." (PhiUJog. Aftueum, L 
p. 280.) Of his works none are extant, and of 
his life scarcely anything is known. He appears 
to have lived about B.C. 570, for Herodotus (ii. 134) 
mentions a woman named Rhodopis as a fellow- 
slave of Aesop's, and says that she lived in the 
time of Amasis king of Egypt, who began to reign 
B. c. 569. Plutarch makes him contemporary with 
Solon {Sept. Sap. Conv. p. 152, c), and Laertins 
(i. 72) says, that he flourished about the 52th 
Olympiad- The only apparent authority against 
this date is that of Suidas (s. v. Afo-snroj); but 
the passage is plainly corrupt, and if we adopt the 
correction of Clinton, it gives about B. c. 620 for 
the date of his birth ; his death is placed b. c. 564, 
but mav have occurred a little later. (See Clinton, 
Fast. Hdl. vol. L pp. 213, 237, 239.) 

Suidas tells us that Samos, Sardis, Mesembria 
in Thrace, and Cotioeum in Phrjgia dispute the 
honour of having given him birth. We are told 
that he was originally a slave, and the reason of 
his first writing fables is given by Phaedrus. (iii. 



AESOPUS. 
Prolog. 33, &c.) Among his masters were two 
Samians, Xanthus and ladmon, from the latter of 
whom he received his freedom. Upon this he 
visited Croesus (where we are told that he re- 
proved Solon for discourtesy to the king), and 
afterwards Peisistratus at Athens. Plutarch (de 
sera Num. Vind. p. 55G) tells us, that he was sent 
to Delphi by Croesus, to distribute among the 
citizens four minae a piece. But in consequence 
of some dispute arising on the subject, he refused 
to give any money at all, upon which the enraged 
Delphians threw him from a precipice. Phigues 
were sent upon them from the gods for the oflence, 
and they proclaimed their willingness to give a 
compensation for his death to any one who could 
claim it. At length ladmon, the grandson of his 
old master, received the compensjition, since no 
nearer connexion could be found. (Herod, ii. 134.) 

There seems no reason to doubt this storj' about 
the compensation, and we have now stated all the 
circumstances of Aesop's life which rest on any au- 
thority. But there are a vast variety of anecdotes 
and adventures in which he bears the principal jxirt, 
in a life of him prefixed to a book of Fables puri>ort- 
ing to be his, and collected by Maximus Planudes, 
a monk of the 14th century. This life repre- 
sents Aesop as a perfect monster of ugliness and 
deformity ; a notion for which there is no authority 
whatever. For he is mentioned in passages of 
classical authors, where an lUlusion to such pei^ 
Boiial peculiarities would have been most natural, 
without the slightest trace of any such allusion. 
He appears for instance in Plutarch's Convirium, 
where though there are many jokes on his fonuer 
condition as a slave, then- u his a\>- 

pcarance, and we need not . it the an- 

cients would be restrained fiu.,. ., — , ..c» by any 
feelings of delicacy, since the nose of Socrates 
fimiishes ample matter for miilerj' in the Sj-mpo- 
sium of Plato. Besides, the Athenians caused 
Lysippus to erect a statue in his honour, which 
had it been sculptured in accordance with the 
above description, would have been the rcTerse of 
ornamentiil. ■ 

The notices however which we possess of Aesop 
are so scattered and of such doubtful authority, 
that there have not been wanting persons to deny 
his existence altogether. " In poetical philosophy," 
says \'ico in his Scieiiza Kuoixi, " Aesop will be 
found not to be any particular and actually exist- 
ing man, but the abstraction of a class of men, or 
a poetical character representative of the companions 
and attendants of the heroes, such as certainly 
existed in the time of the seven Sages of (Jreece." 
This however is an excess of scepticism into which 
it would be most unrejisonable to plunge : whether 
Aesop left any written works at all, is a question 
which atlords considerable room for doubt, and to 
which Bentley inclines to give a negative. Thus 
Aristophanes ( Veif>. \'259) represents Philocleon as 
learning his Fables t« eonrersution and not out of a 
book, and Socrates who turned them into poetry 
versitied those that " he knew, and coidd most 
readily remember." (Plat. I'Juted. p. 61, b; Bent- 
ley, Uissertation on the FuUes of Aesof; p. 130".) 

However this may be, it is certain that fables, 
bearing Aesop's name, were popuLir at Athens in 
its most intellectual age. We tind them frequently 
noticed by Aristophanes. One of the pleasures of 
a dicast ( Vesp. So'tJ) was, that among the candi- 
dates for his protection and vote some endeavoured 



AESOPUS. 



47 



to win his favour by repeating to him £ibles, and 
some Aifforrov ri ytKoiov. Two specimens of 
these 7tA.o!a or drolleries may be read in the 
Vespae, 1401, &c., and in the Aves, C51,&c. The 
latter however is said by the Scholiast to be the 
composition of Archilochus, and it is probable that 
many anecdotes and jests were attributed to 
Aesop, as the most popular of all authors of the 
kind, which really were not his. This is favour- 
able to Bentley 's theorj-, that his fcibles were not 
collected in a written form, which also derives 
additional probubility from the ^t that there is a 
Tariation in the manner in which ancient authors 
quote Aesop, even though they are manifestly 
referring to the same fiible. Thiu Aristotle {De 
Part. Anim. iiL 2) cites from him a complaint of 
Momus, '" tltat the bull's honu were not placed 
about his shoulders, where he might make the 
strongest push, but in the tflodareat part, his 
head," whilst Lucian (A'^. 32) make* the fivilt 
to be *' that his horns were not pkeed atnught 
before his eyes." A written eelhrtun wwld iMiTa 
prevented such a diversity. 

Besides the droUeriet abets ■entjnned, there 
were probably &blea of a grarar de auiptiwi, aiiiee, 
as we have Men, Socratea condai w aaed to turn 
them into Terte, of which a ■ptfimiw kaa been 
preserved by DioMoea Laertioa. Afun* Plata, 
though he exdaoed HoiMr^ peana from hie 
imaginary R^mUie, ptaiaes the writage of Aesopi 
By him they ire called im$Oi (Pkaad. pp. 60, til), 
though an able writer in the Philological Muiteuiu 
(L p. 281) thinks that the men aaeiaiit nana fiir 
such fictions was oZmt, • won! t^q^>il^n^ by 
Buttmanu {Lmiiegm^ pi, 60, Eif. taaaL), ** a 
speech full of ■■aniiig, or eoHuagly inagioed'* 
(Horn. Od. xiv. 508), whence UlyMOs is chIM 
veAvcuKttt in reference to the particular > 
speeches which mark his ^aracter. in ii . 
(£^ «t Diet, aOC^ it has paved into the leuse uf 
amofal&ble. Tm airet or fw^M of Aesop wen 
certainly in prose : — they are called by Aristo- 
phanes A^yos and their author (Herod, ii. 134) is 
AttrsMTor i XofyimoiOf, X070S being the peculiar 
word for Pros«, as twri was for verse, and includ- 
ing both fable and history, though afterwards 
restricted to oratory, when that became a tepante 
branch of composition. 

Following the example of Socratea, Demetriaa 
Phalereus (a c. 3'JU) turned Aesop** fiihles into 
poetry, and collected them into a book S and after 
him au author, whose name is unknown, pub- 
lished them in EUegiacs, of which some fragments 
are preserred by^ Suidas. But the only Greek 
versifier of Aesop, of whose writings any whole 
fitbles are preserved is Babrius, an author of no 
mean powers, and who may well take his place 
amongst Fabulists with Phaedrus and La Fon- 
taine. His version is in Choliambics, (. e. lame, 
haltimg iambics {j(i>kos, Xa^iSos), verses which fol- 
low in all respects the laws of the Iambic Tri- 
meter till the sixth foot, which is either a spondee 
or trochee, the fifth being proj)erly an iambus. 
This version was made a little before the age of 
Augustus, and consisted of ten Books, of which a 
few scattered fables only are preserved. Of the 
Latin writers of Aesopean Cables, Phaedrus is the 
most celebrated. 

The fables now extant in prose, bearing the name 
of Aesop, are unquestionably spurious. Of these 
there are three principal coUectioos, the one con- 



4H 



AES0PU8. 



taiiiinp; 130 fiil)!i'«, puUi»hp(l first A. n. IGIO, from 
MSS. at JlcidcllxTj,'. 'J'liiB in no cluniKy a forxcry, 
thnt it niiMitioiiH tlu; orutor Dcniadei, who lived '200 
years uftr-r Acitop, nncl coiitaiiiH a whole »entcnce 
from the h<mk of Job {yvuvol yip ij\6ofi*v ol 
irdvrts, yv/ivol ovv d.Tr*Ktva6ti,tOa). Some of the 
paHHajfe* Hcntley han bIicwii to be fnif,'Tiient« of 
('hoiianibic verses, and hag made it tolerably cer- 
tain that they were stolen from Habrius. llio 
other collection was made by the above mentioned 
monk of Constantinople, Maxinms I'ianndes. 
'J'hese contain at least one llebniism ($oiiv iv rfj 
Kaf)^la,: compare c, if. Kccles. xi. 1, tlirov iv r-p 
KapSia fJ-ov), and amon(( them are words entirely 
modern, as /SuuroXii a bird, fiovvtvpov a )>cast,nnd 
also tnices of the Choliambics of liabriui. The 
third collection was found in a MS. at Florence, 
and ])iiblished in 1)!09. Its date is aliout a cen- 
tury before the time of Planudo*, and it contains 
the life which was prefixed to hit collection^ and 
commonly supposed to be hit own. 

Hentley'g dissertation on Aesop is appended to 
thosi; on Phalaris. The genuineness of the existing 
forfferies was stoutly mainUiined by his Oxford 
aiitagonists (Preface' to Aciuijiictirum Fttlmlarum 
JMirtuSy Oxford ltj'28); but there is no one in our 
day who disputes his decision. 

It remains to notice briefly the theory which 
assigns to Aesop's fables an oriental origin. Among 
the writers of Arabia, one of the most fiunoua is 
Lukman, whom some traditions make contcmpo- 
niry with David, others the son of a sister or 
aunt of Job, while again he ho* been represented 
as an ancient king or chief of the tribe of Ad. 
" Lukman 's wisdom" is proverbial among the 
Arabs, and joined with Joseph's beauty and 
David's melody. [See the Thousand and One 
Nights (line's translation), Story of Prince 
Kamer-ez-Zeman and Princess Budoor, and Note 
59 to chapter x.] The Penian accounts of this 
Lukman represent him as an ugly black slave, and 
it seems probable that the author of the Life en- 
grafted this and other circumstances in the Oriental 
traditions of Lukman upon the classical tales re- 
specting Aesop. The fables ascribed to Aesop have 
in many respects an eastern character, alluding to 
Asiatic customs, and introducing panthers, pea- 
cocks, ond monkeys among their dramatis persoiue. 
All this makes it likely that the fables attri- 
buted both to Lukman and Aesop are derived from 
the same Indo-Persian source. 

The principal editions of Aesop's Fables are, 
1. The collection formed by Planudes with a 
Latin translation, published at Milan by Buono 
Accorso at the end of the 15th century. 2. An- 
other edition of the same collection, with some 
additional fables from a MS. in the Bibliotheque 
du Roi at Paris, by Robert Stephanus, 1546. 
3. The edition of Nevelet, 1610, which added to 
these the Heidelberg collection, published at Frank- 
fort on the Main. These have been followed by 
editions of all or some of the Fables, by Hudson at 
Oxford (1718), Hauptmann at Leipzig (1741), 
Heusinger at Leipzig (1756), Emesti at the 
same place (1781), and G. H. Schaefer again at 
Leipzig (1810, 1818, 1820). Francesco de Furia 
added to the above the new fables from the Flo- 
rentine MS., and his edition was reprinted by 
Coray at Paris (1810). All the fables have been 
put together and published, 231 in number, bv J. 
G. Schneider, at Breslau, in 1810. [G. E. L.'C] 



AF.80PU8. 

AESO'PUB, a (ire<k hi«(«ri«i, «1m wrote • 
life of Alexander the (iroat. TIm t/MatX U liMt, 
but there is a I>atin translation of It by JolUM 
Valerius [Valkhilh], of whurh Francims JmtM 
had, he says {ad Symtnach. /■'• ' '-4^, a BUUIB- 
kcript. It was first publikhic: y A. Mai 

from a M.S. in the Ambn>kiiii. ^ an, 1817t 

4 to., reprinU'd Frankfurt, lUlii, ti«u. Tba tUk M 
"• Itinerarium od C'onstantinum Augnatom, eta. : 
occedunt Julii Valerii H«a ge«tM Aleuadii Mm*. 
donis," etc. I'he time wbMl Aaiopw Uvvd k as- 
certain, and even his exiftence hat bcMl <o« b t«d. 
( itarth, Advermr. ii. 10.) Mai, in Um fnhet to 
his edition, contended that the work wm wiitte* 
before 38.0, a. d., becauM tbo temple of 8enpia at 
Alexandria, which wm dectroyed bj order of 
Theodokius it tp^MB of is the trwrfeli'nw (JvL 
Valcr. L 31 ) at Hffl HiailH JkA mi^tm •faja»> 
tiont to thit inftwce have been rmited by LetrMino 
(yowni. dM JbcoM, 1818, p. C17), who refen it 
to the MTenth or eighth century, which the weight 
of internal evidence would rath<-r point to. The 
book it full of the most extravairant ttoriet and 
glaring mittakea, and it a wor'r ' ' ' ' ' A.] 

AKSCyPUS, CLAU'DIl the 

mott celebrated tiagic actor a ; < ice- 

ronian period, prolnbly a freedman of the Clodia 
gent. Horace {Kf. iL I. 82) and other authors 
put him on a level with Kotcint. (Fmnto, Ob 
44, ed. Niebuhr.) Each was preeminent in bit 
own department ; Rotcius in comedy, being, with 
respect to action and delivery (fn-Miunliatut), more 
rapid (citatior, QuintiL Intt. (Jr. xi. 3. §111); Ae- 
topus in tragedy, being more weighty (yrurtor, 
QuintiL Lc). Aetoput took great paint to perfect 
himtelf in his art by rariout methods. He dili- 
gently studied the exhibition of character in real 
life ; and when any important trial waa going oo, 
especially, for example, when Hortenaina was to 
plead, he was constantly in attendance, that be 
might watch and be able to represent the more 
truthfully the feelings which were actually dis- 
played on such occasions. (VaL Max. viii. 10. g 2.) 
He never, it is said, put on the mask for the cha- 
racter he had to perform in, without hrst looking 
at it attentively from a distance for some time, 
that so in performing he might preserre hit voice 
and action in perfect keeping with the appearance 
he would have. (Fronto, de Eloq. 5. 1, p. 37.) 
Perhaps this anecdote may confirm the opinion 
(Du^. of Ant. t.v. Persona), that masks had only 
lately been introduced in the regular drama at 
Rome, and were not always used even for leading 
characters ; for, according to Cicero (rfe Div. L 37), 
Aesopus excelled in power of face and fire of eav 
pression (tantum ardorem vultuum atque motuum), 
which of course would not have been visible if 
he had performed only with a mask. From the 
whole passage in Cicero and from the anec- 
dotes recorded of him, his acting would seem to 
have been characterised chiefly by strong emphaaia 
and vehemence. On the whole, Cicero calls him 
summus artifat, and says he was fitted to act a 
leading part no less in real life than on the stage. 
{Pro Sext. 56.) It does not appear that he ever 
performed in comedy. Valerius Maximus (viii. 
10. § 2) calls Aesopus and Roscius both "ludicrae 
artis peritissimos viros," but this may merely de- 
note the theatrical art in general, including tragedy 
as well as comedy. (Comp. 'ludicrae tibiae, Plin. H. 
N. xvi. 36.) Fronto calls him (p. 87) Tragicus Ae- 



AESYMNETES. 

topus. From Cicero's remark, however, {de Of. 
i. 114), it would seem that the character of Ajax 
was rather too tragic for him. (Comp. Tu»c. Quaest. 
iL 17, iv. 25.) 

Like Roscius, Aesopus enjoyed the intimacy of 
the great actor, who calls him noster Aenopus {ad 
Fam. vii. 1), noster familiaris {ad Qu. Fnd. i. 2, 
4) ; and they seem to have sought, from one an- 
other's society, improvement, each in his re- 
spective art. During his exile, Cicero received 
niiiny valuable marks of Aesopus's friendship. On 
one occasion, in particular, having to perform the 
part of Telanion, banished from his country, in one 
of Accius's plays, the tragedian, by his manner and 
skilful emphasis, and an occasional change of a 
word, added to the evident reality of his feelings, 
and succeeded in leading the audience to apply the 
whole to the case of Cicero, and so did him more 
essential service than any direct defence of himself 
could liave done. The whole house applauded. 
{Pro SeJit. 56.) On another occasion, instead of 
'"'• Drulus qui libertatem civium stabiliverat," he 
substituted Tulliiis, and the audience gave utter- 
ance to their entliusiasm by encoring the passage 
" a thousiuid times " {millies reiKtcatum ett. Pro 
Seai. 58). The time of his death or his age ain- 
not be fixed with certainty ; but at the dedication 
of the theatre of Ponipey (n. c. 55), he would seem 
to iiave been elderly, for he was understood previ- 
ously to have retired from the stage, luid we do 
not hear of his being particularly delicate : j'et, 
from the passage, ill-health or age would appear to 
have been the reason of his retiring. On that oo- 
casion, however, in honour of the festival, he ap- 
peared again ; but just as he was coming to one 
of the most emphatic parts, the beginning of u 
oath. Si mi'/u /alio, etc., his voice failed him, and 
he could not go through with the speech. He was 
evidently unable to proceed, so tliat any one 
would readily have excused him : a thing which, 
as the passage in Cicero implies {aJ Fam. vii, 1), 
a lioniaii audience would not do for ordinary per- 
formers. Aesopus, though far from frugal (I'lin. 
//. A'. X. 72), realized, like Roscius, an immense 
fortune by his profession. He left about 200,U(tU 
sesterces to his son Clodius, who proved a foolish 
spendthrift. (Vjil. Max. ix. 1. §2.) It is said, for 
instiince, that he dissolved in vinegar and drank a 
pearl worth about 18000, which he took from the 
ear-ring of Caeeilia Metella (Hor. Sat. ii. 3, 239 ; 
Val. Max. ix. 1. § 2; Maerob. Sat. ii. 10.; Pliiu 
//. A'', ix. 59), a favourite feat of the extra- 
vagant monomania in Rome. (Compare Suet. 
C'u/ijf. 37; Mucrob. Sat. ii. 13.) The connexion 
of Cicero's son-in-law Dolabella with the siime 
ladj- no doubt increased the distress which Cicero 
felt at the dissolute proceedings of the son of his 
old friend. {Ad Att. xi. 13.) [A. A.] 

AKSYMNE'IES {hl<xv^LV■ffn]s\ a surname of 
Dionysus, which signifies the Lord, or Ruler, and 
under which he was worshipped at Aroe in Achaia. 
The story about the introduction of his worship 
there is as follows : There was at Troy an ancient 
image of Dionysus, the work of Hephaestus, which 
Zeus had once given as a present to Dardanus. 
It was kept in a chest, and Cassandra, or, accord- 
ing to others, Aeneas, left this chest behind when 
she quitted the city, because she knew that it 
would do injury to him who possessed it. When 
the Greeks divided the spoils of Troy among them- 
selves, this chest fell to the share of theTbessalian j 



AETHER. 



49 



Eiuypylus, who on opening it suddenly fell into a 
state of madness. The oracle of Delphi, when 
consulted about his recovery, answered, "^ Where 
thou shiilt see men performing a strange sacrifice, 
there shalt thou dedicate the chest, aud there shall 
thou settle." When Eurj'pylus came to Aroe in 
Achaia, it was just the season at which it« in- 
habitants offered every year to Artemis Triclaria a 
human sacrifice, consisting of the fairest youth and 
the fairest maiden of the place. This sacritice was 
offered as an atonement for a crime which had 
once been committed in the temple of tlie guddeiw. 
But an oracle had declared to them, that they 
should be released from the necessity of making 
this sacrifice, if a foreign divinity should be 
brought to them by a foreign king. This oraicle 
was now fulfilled. Eurypylus on seeing the vic- 
tims led to the altar was cured of his luaduetM aud 
perceived tliat this was the place poiuted out tu 
him by the oracle ; aud the Aroeans also, ou see- 
ing the god in the chest, remembered the old 
prophecy, stopped the sacrifice, and instituted a 
festival of Dionysus Aesymnetes, for this was the 
name of the god in the chest. Nine men and nine 
women were appoiuted to attend to his wondiip. 
During oue night of this festival a priest car- 
ried the chest outside the town, aud all the 
children of the place, adorned, as formerly the 
victims used to be, with garlands of coni-ears, 
went down to the banks of the river Meilichius, 
which had before been called Ameilichius, hmi^ 
up their gariauds, purified theniM-lves, aud theu 
put on other gariauds of i^ ich they re- 

turned to the sauctuary I'l vcsymueteii. 

(IWa. vii. 19 and 2U.) i u.^ i..iu.ii>ju, though 
otharwiw vciy obaeure, evideutly poinu to a time 
when hiuian nerifioes were abolished at Aroe by 
the introduction of a new worvhip. At Patrae iu 
Achaia there was likewise a temple dedicated to 
D: :. 21.§12.)[L.S.J 

. a sou of Hermes 
ai.^ ..i.f........w.», c. >i..ui..i.w ..i Myrmidon. He 

was the herald of the Argonauts, aud liad received 
from his father the faculty of remembering everj'- 
thing, even in Hades. He was farther allowed to 
reside alternately iu the upper aud iu the lower 
world. As his soul could not iatweX anything eveu 
after death, it reneabend that m»n the body of 
Aethalides it had suecessiveljr migrated into those 
of Euphorbus, Hermotimus, Pyrrhus, and at last 
into that of Pythagoras, iu whom it still retained 
the recollection of its former migrations. (Apollon. 
Rhod. L 54, 640, &c.; Orph. Argon. 131 ; llygin. 
Fab. 14 ; Diog. Laert. viiL 1. § 4,&ci VaL Flacc. 
L437.) _ [I^S.J 

AETHER (A«^p), a personified idea of the 
mythical cosmogonies. According to that of Hy- 
ginus {Fab. Pnf. p. 1, ed. Staveren), he was, to- 
gether with Night, Day, and Erebus, begotten by 
Chaos and Caligo (Darkness). According to that 
of Hesiod {T/ieoff. 124), Aether was the sou of 
Erebus and his sister Night, and a brother of 
Day. (Comp. Phoruut. De Nat. IM/r. 16.) The 
children of Aether and Day were Land, Heaven, 
and Sea, and from his connexion with the Earth 
tliere sprang aU the vices which destroy the humau 
race, aud also the Giants and Titaus. (Hygia. 
Fab. Pref. p. 2, inc.) These accounts shew that, 
in the Greek cosmogonies, Aetiier was considered 
as one of the elementary substances out of which 
the Universe was formed. Iu the Orphic hymns 



50 



AETHICUS. 



(•1) Aether npponrn a* the iwiil of th« world, from 
which nil Vik: t-mannti-ii, an idea whirh was alio 
adopted by Home of th« early philotophem of 
Oreocc. In Liter tirni-it Aether Wiut re^unled ait 
the wide Hpiice of lli'UV(!n, the reiiidenco of the 
goiU, and Zcuh tin the Lord of the Aether, or Aether 
itself pemonified. (Pacur. ap, Ck. de S'at. Ihtir. 
ii. 36, 40; Lucret t. 499; Virg. Atn. xii. 140, 
Chorg. ii. »2.5.) [L. S.] 

A'KTHK'KIK. fFlKMAOKS.] 

AETHICUS, HISTKK or ISTKR, a Roman 
writer of the fourth century, a native of iMtria ac- 
cordinf? to hi» surname, or, according to IUiIkuiiik 
MuiiruH, of Scythia, the author of a geo>;niphical 
work, called Aethici Cosmographia. We learn 
from the preface that a meanurcment of the whole 
Roman world wa» ordered by Juliu» Ca<?iiar to be 
nuwlo by the moHt able men, that this measurement 
was begun in the consuUhip of Julius Caesar and 
M. Antonius, i. e. b. v.. 44; that three (ireeks were 
appointed for the purjxtse, /enodoxus, 'I'heodotu*, 
and Polyclitus ; that Zeno<lozut measured all the 
eastern pjirt, which occupied him twenty-one yean, 
fire months, and nine days, on to the third consul- 
ship of Augustus and Crassus ; that Theodotut 
measured the northern part, which occupied him 
twenty-nine years, eight months, luid ten days, on 
to the tenth consulship of Augustus ; and that 
Polyclitus moiisured the southern part, which oc- 
cupied him thirty-two yean, one month, and ten 
days; that thus the whole (Roman) world wa« 
gone over by the measurers within thirty-two (?) 
years ; and that a report of all it contained was 
uiid before the senate. So it stands in the edd. ; 
but the numbers are evidently much corrupted : 
the contradictoriness of Polyclitus's share taking 
viore than 3*2 years, and the whole measurement 
being made 'm. less than (intra) 32 years is obvious. 
It is to be observed that, in this introductfiry 
statement, no mention is made of the western part 
(which in the work itself comes next to the east- 
ern), except in the Vatican MS., where the eastern 
part is given to Nicodomus, and the western to 
Bidymus. 

A census of all the people in the Roman subjec- 
tion was held under Augustus. (Suidas, g. v. 
ASyouarot.) By two late writers (Cassiodorus, 
far. iii. 5"2, by an emendation of Huschke, p. 6", 
uber den zur Zeit der Geburt Jesu Christi gehaltenen 
Cfe/«(«, Breslau, 1840 ; and Isidorus, Ori/. v. 36. § 
4), tliis numbering of the people is spoken of as 
connected with the measurement of the land. This 
work in fact consists of two separate pieces. The 
first begins with a short introduction, the substance 
of which has been given, and then proceeds with 
an account of the measurement of the Roman world 
under four heads, Orientalis, Occidentalis, Septen- 
trionalis, Meridiana pars. Then come series of 
lists of names, arranged under heads, Maria, Insu- 
lae. Monies, Provinciae, Oppida, Flumina, and 
Gentes. These are bare lists, excepting that the 
rivers have an account of their rise, course, and 
length annexed. This is the end of the first part, 
the Expositio. The second part is called Alia to- 
tius orbis Descriptio, and consists of four divisions: 
( I.) Asiae Provinciae situs cum limitibus et populis 
suis ; (2.) Europae situs, &c. ; (3.) Afrieae situs, 
&c.; (4.) Insulae Nostri Maris. This part, the 
Descriptio, occurs with slight variations in Orosius, 
i. 2. In Aethicus what looks like the original 
commencement, Majores nostri, &c., is tacked on | 




AETHIOPS. 

to tha pwwtog port, the Kxpoutio, by the words 
//aw qtudripartUam tiM$us Urrae oum lime mtiam hi 
ipii dimenti tttnl. From this it would i 
Aethicus iKirrowcd it from Ortwiua. 

Tb* work aboaada in amm. 
some BSBM oeem is diftiwit liau i at, far i 
pie, Cypnu and RhodM botk ia tJi* aortii aad fai 
the ctut ; Corsica both in the wr«t aud in tha 
touth ; or a country is put a* a town, aa AraliMi 
Noricum is put anong the iahndaL Miafkaa cf 
this kind would cMiljr ba mmi» k «anria( Um^ 
eii|M.-cLilly if in doahi* wi l Mmi i Bat ma athar 
reaitonii and from ^MMImh fivMI kjT DftaM, • 
writer of the 9th eaotarjr, friaa tlw CoMMpipUat 
dilTering from the text u wa have it, the whola 
appears to bo very corrupt. The whole ia a vcfT 
meagre pradaetion, bat piWBti a brm ytimJm 
points Many aaeeaadU «eailat<M>i bare bam 
made by Sahnaeitu in hie ExerritatioBM Pbilot^ 
gicae, nd there i* a very valuable caaajr oa tba 
whole Mibieet by Hitachi in the liknmkdm* Mtmmm 
(1842), i. 4. 

The tourcea of tbe ConMftwUa appear to have 
been the aMaaanaMBla above Mcnbed, other oA> 
dal liats aad dacaaMBtiiaad alaa, ia aQ pntfaafailttj, 
Agrippa'a Ceanaentarii, wbicb are eonataatly i^ 
ferrcd to by Pliny [llitt. N<U. iii. iv. r. vL) aa aa 
authority, and hi* Chart of the World, which vat 
founded on bis CoouBaatariL (Plin. UiM. Sat. iii 

Cassiodonu {de imdiL dwim. 25) deacribea a 
coamographical work by Julioa Uonorias Cialor 
in term* which suit exactly the work of Aethieas ; 
and Salmasius regards Julius Ilonorius as tbe real 
author of this work, to which opinion Ritiichl seenM 
to lean, reading Ethnicus inttejid of Aethicus, and 
considering it as a mere appellative. In some 
MS.S. the appellatives Sophista and Philosophoa 
are found. 

One of the oldest MSS., if not tbe oldest, is the 
Vatican one. This is the only one which speaka 
of the west in the introduction. But it is caii»- 
lessly written : eonrndibua (e. g.) is several tiaiea 
put for considatmm. Smi* ia found as a contra^ 
tion (?) for tuprxuariptk. The introduction is very 
different in this and in the other MSS. 

The first edition of the Cosmogiaphia was by 
Simler, Basel, 1575, together with the Itineiariom 
Antonini. There is an edition by Henry Stephens, 
1577, with Simler''s notes, which also contains 
Dionysius, Pomponius Mela, and Solinus. The 
last edition is by Gronovius, in his edition of Pom- 
ponius Mela, Levden, 1722. [A. A.] 

AETHILLA*(Ar<JiAAa or AMuAAo), a daughter 
of Laomedon and sister of Priam, Astyoche, and 
Medesicaste. After the fail of Troy she became 
the prisoner of Protesilaus, who took her, together 
with other captives, with him on his voyage home. 
He landed at Scione in Tlirace in order to take in 
fresh water. While Protesilaus had gone inland, 
Aethilla persuaded her fellow-prisoners to set fire 
to the ships. This was done and all remained on 
the spot and founded the town of Scione. (Tzetz. 
ad Lycophr. 921, 1075 ; Conon, NarraL 13 ; com- 
pare P. Mela, iL 2. § 150 ; StepL Byz. i. r. 
2k(«itj.) [L. S.] 

AE'THIOPS(Ai0iH), the Glowing or theBL-ick. 
1. A surname of Zeus, under which he was wor- 
shipped in the island of Chios. (Lycophron, Cass, 
537, with the note of Tzetzes.) 

2. A son of Hephaestus, from whom Aethiopia 



AETHUSA. 

was believed to have derived its name. (Plin. 
H. N. vi. 35 ; Nat. Com. ii. 0'.) [L. S.] 

AE'TIILIUS {'AfOMos), the first king of Elis. 
(Pans, v, 1. § 2.) He was a son of Zeus and 
Protogeneia, the daughter of Deucalion (Apollod. 
i. 7. § 2 ; Hygin. Fab. 1 55), and was married to 
Calyce, by whom he begot Endymion. According 
to some accounts Endymion was himself a son of 
Zeus and first king of Elis. (Apollod. i. 7. § 5.) 
Other traditions again made Aethlius a son of 
Aeolus, who was called by the name of Zeus. 
(Pans. v. 8. § 1.) [L. S.] 

AE'TIILIUS {'Aiexios), the author of a work 
entitled "Samian Annals" {"Upoi idfiiot), the fifth 
book of which is quoted by Athenaeus, although 
Jie expresses a doubt about the genuineness of the 
work. (xiv. p. U50, d. 6'53, f.) Aethlius is also 
referred to by Clemens Alexaudrinus (J'rotr. p. 
30, a), Eustathius {ad Od. vii. 120, p. 1573), and 
in the Etymologicura Magnum (». v. viwttrai), 
where the name is written Athlius. 

AETIIRA (AWpa). 1. A daughter of king 
Pittlieus of Troezen. Bellerophon sued for her 
hand, but was banished from Corinth b«'fore the 
nuptials took place. (Paus. ii. 31. § 12.) She 
was surprised on one occasion by Poseidon in the 
isknd of Sphaeria, whither she had gone, in con- 
sequence of a dream, for the purpose of oiTering a 
siicrifiee on the tomb of Sphaerus. Aethra there- 
fore dedicated in the island a temple to .\theiia 
Aptituria (the Deceitful), and called the island 
Hiera instead of Sphaeria, and also introduced 
among the maidens of Troezen the custom of dedi- 
cating their girdles to Athena Apaturia on the day 
of their marriage. (Paus. ii. 33. § 1 1.) At a later 
time she became the mother of Theseus by Aegeiu. 
(Plut. Tluii. 3; Hygin. Fab. 14.) In the night 
in which this took place, Poseidon also was be- 
lieved to have been with her. (.\pollod. iii. 15. 
§ 7 ; Hygin. Fab, 37.) According to Plutarch 
( Thes. 6) her father spread this report merely that 
Theseus might be regarded as the son of Poseidon, 
who was much reven^d at Troezen. This opiiiiuu, 
however, is nothing else but an attempt to strip 
tlie genuine story of its marvels. After this event 
she appears Uving in Attica, from whence she was 
carried off to Liu-edaemon by Castor and Poly- 
deuces, and became a shive of Helen, with whom 
slie was tiiken to Troy. (Plut Tlut*. 34; Horn. 
It. iii. 144.) At the talking of Troy the came to 
the ciunp of the Cireeks, where she was recogniaed 
by her gi-andsons, and Demophon, one of them, 
asked Agamemnon to procure her liberation. 
Agimiemnon accordingly sent a messenger to Helen 
to request her to give up Aethra. This was 
granted, and Aethra became free again. ( Paus. x. 
25. §3; Diet. Cret. v. 13.) According to Hj-- 
ginus f^Fab. 243) she afterwards put an end to her 
own life from grief at the death of her sons. The 
history of her bondage to Helen was represented 
on the celebrated chest of Cypselus (Paus. iv. 19. 
§ 1 ; Dion Chrysost. Oral. 11), and in a painting 
by Polygnotus in the Lesche of Delphi (Paus. x. 
25. §2.) 

2. A daughter of Oceanus, by whom Atlas be- 
got the twelve Hvades, and a son, Hyas. (Ov. 
Fast. v. 171 ; Hygin. Fab. 192.) [L. S.j 

AETHU'SA (AtOouao), a daughter of Poseidon 
and Alcyone, who was beloved by Apollo, and 
bore to him Eleuther. (Apollod." iii. 10. § 1; 
Paus, \x. 20. § 2.) [L. S.] 



AETIUS. 



51 



AETHYIA (AliSvia), a surname of Athens, 
under which she was worshipped in Megaria. 
(Paus. i. 5. § 3; 41. § 6; Lycophr. Cass. 359.) 
The word aWuio signifies a diver, and figuratively 
a ship, so that the name must have reference to 
the goddess teaching the art of ship-buildiug or 
navigation. (Tzetz. ad Lyeufjkr. L c) [L. S.] 
AE'TION. [CvPSKLfs.] 
AE'TION (*A«Tf«i/). 1. A «'•—-'' — Vitor of 
Amphipolis, mentioned by Calli: .. Gr. 

ix. 330') and Theocritus (ii/rt(/r. • ,, whom 

we learn that at the request of NiciaB, a iamous 
physician of Miletuii, he executed a statue of Aes- 
culapius in cedar wood. He Nourished about the 
middle of the third century b. c. There was an 
engraver of the same name ; but when he lived is not 
known. (K. O. IWiilvi, Ank.drr KuwU, p. 151.) 
2. A celebrated painter, spoken of by Luciaii 
{De Merced. Cvnd. 42, Hcmd. or Aititm, 4, 
&C., Jmaij. 7), who gives a description of one of 
his pictures, representing the maitiage of AlexaD- 
der and Uoxana. This painting exdtad Hch 
admiration when exhibited at the Olympic gunea, 
that Proxenidas, one of the judges, gave the artist 
his daughter in marriage. Aetion seems to hare 
excelled particukrly in the art of mixing and lay- 
ing on his colours. It has commonly been sup- 
posed that he lived in the : ' '< xander ths 

Great ; but the words of 1 d. 4) shew 

clearly that he must have » -i the tioie of 

Hadrian and the Antunines. (K. 0. MiUler, 
ArcL der KumM. p. 240 ; Kugler, KitmttjfeteUdUef 
p. 320.) [C. P. M.] 

AE'TIUS, a Roman genenU, who with his rival 
Boni£koe, has jnatly booB called by Pneopiua the 
last of the Rni— ■ Bm *M bom at Donotawi 
in Moesk (Joraandea, J» n^ Gti. 54), and his 
&thor Oandentius, a Scythian in the employ of 
the empire, having been killed in a mutiny, he 
was eany giveii at a hostage to Alaric, and under 
him leamt the aits of harfaamn war. (Phdostorgius, 
xiL 12.) After an inofiMlMl Mfport of the naiupef 
John with an army of M^QM ■(■■ (a. O. 424), Iw 
became the general of die Woman fianeo under 
Placidia, at that time guardian of her son, the 
emperor Valentiuian 111. In order to supphiut in 
her &Tour his rival Boni&ce, by tieochofoas aora- 
aations <^ each to the other, Aetina oecaoioned hio 
revolt and the loM of Africa (Pracop. ML Vamd.L 
3, 4) ; the tmpnm, bowoTor, di a co w ed the fraud, 
and Aetius, after iMving met RowifiM-o at Ravenna, 
and killed him in single combat [Bun'ifacius], was 
himself compelled to retire in disgrace to the 
Huimish army which in 424 he had settled in 
Pannonia. (Prosper, and Marcellinus, in aimo 
432.) 

Restored with their help to Italy, he became 
patrician and sole director of the armies of the 
western empire. (Jomandes, de reb. Get. 34.) In 
this capacity, through his long acquaintance with 
the barbarian settlers, and chietly with the Huns 
and Attila himself, in whose court his son Carpilio 
was brought up, he checked the tide of barbarian 
invasion, and maintained the Roman power in 
peace for seventeen years (433-450) in Italy, Spain, 
Britain, and Gaul, in which List country especially 
he established his influence by means of his Hun 
and Alan allies and by his treaty with Theo- 
doric the Visigoth. (Sidon. ApolL Faneg. Aeit. 
300.) And when in 450 this peace was broken by 
the invasion of Attila, Aetius iu concert with 

b2 



S2 



AETIU8. 



Theodoric nrroRtod it first by the timely rt'li<»f of 
(^)rlciiii« aiid then by the victory of Chuloiiit 
((ircff. Turon. ii. 7; J<inuindei, de reh. (let. 
i{<)), and w(w only jin-vpiitcd from following; upliin 
BUcccHKcH in ItJily by want of Nupport both from 
Vul(Mitiiiiiui and hi* Imrhurian iillifii. (Idutiiu 
and Inidonis, in iinno 4.')().) [Attii.a.] The 
ffrfiitiK'si* uf hill poHJtion a« thu nole »tay of 
the cmpiro, and a« the Hole link Ixitween Ohri*- 
tcndoni nnd the |>afni>> iMirbiiriuiiii, niuy well have 
ffivcn rine to the belief, whether founded or not, 
thiit he deHifoied the imperiid throne for hiniiwdf 
and a hiirliarian throne for his son Carpiiio (Sid. 
ApoU. J'aneij. Arit. '204), and accordingly in 
454, be was murdered by Valentinian himiiclf in 
an occeM of je«louiiy and suHpicion (I'rocop. litll. 
Vaiul, i. 4), luid with him (to uhc the word» of the 
contcmpnmry chroiiicler Marcellinun, in anno 4.54), 
"cecidit lleHperium Iniperium, nee potiiit relevari." 

Ilia phyiical nnd moral activity w«U fitted him 
for the life of a soldier ((ircgor. Turon. ii. 8), and 
though destitute of any high principle, he iKdong* 
to the cloM of men like AugUHtu» and Cromwell, 
whoso early crime* are obdcured by the lueAilneH 
nnd glory of later life, nnd in whom a gnat and 
trying portion reidly colia out new and unknown 
excellenceg. 

( Ilcnntus Frigeridui, in Oregor. Turon. ii. 8. ; 
Procop. Jkll. Vaiul. i. .3, 4 ; Jonuindet, de litit. 
CM. ;U, 'Mi ; Gibbon, Jiecliius ami Fall. c. 'A\ .'J5 ; 
Herbert's Attila, p. 3-J'i.) [A. I'. S.] 

AK'TIUS ('A^Tioi), Humamed the AtAeixt, from 
his dcnml of the Ood of llevclation (St. Athanait. 
de Synwl. § 6, p. 83, of the transktion, Oxf. 1842 ; 
Socr. llUi. lied. ii. 35 ; Sozoni. IlUt. EocL iv. 29), 
was bom in Code Syrin (Philostorg. Ilitt. K<rl. 
iii. 15 ; St. llasil, adr. Kunom. i. p. 10) at Antiwh 
(Soc. ii. 35 ;* Suidas, «. r. 'Atruts), and became 
the founder of the Anomocnn (dvOfwiov) form of 
the Arijin heresy. He was left fatherless and in 
poverty when a child, nnd became the slave of a 
vine-dresser's wife (St. Gregory 'Saziwuz. c. Euaom. 
p. 292, c, D ; but see Not. Valesii ad Plulost. iiL 
15), then a travelling tinker (S. Or. ibid.) or a 
goldsmith. (PhU. ibid.) Conviction in a ftaud or 
ambition led him to abandon tliis life, and he ap- 
plied himself to medicine under a quack, and soon 
eet up for himself at Antioch. (Soc. iii. 15.) 
From the schools of medicine being Arian, he ac- 
quired a leaning towards heresy. He frequented 
the disputatious meetings of the physicians (S. Gr. 
p. 293, d) and made such progress in Eristicism, 
that he became a paid advocate for such as wished 
their own theories exhibited most advantageously. 
On his mother's death he studied under Paulinus 
II., Arian Bishop of Antioch, a. d. 331 ; but his 
powers of disputation having exasperated some in- 
fluential persons about Eulalius, the successor of 
Paulinus, he was obliged to quit Antioch for 
Anazarbus, where he resumed the trade of a gold- 
smith, A. D. 331. (PhiL iii. 15.) Here a profes- 
sor of grammar noticed him, employed him as a 



* After the iirst reference, the references in this 
article are thus abbreviated : — St. Athanasius, 
de Sraodis [S. Ath.] ; St. BasU, adv. Eunomianos 
£S. Bas.]; St. Gregory Nazianzen adv. Eunomian. 
fS. Gr.] The Histories of Socrates, Sozomen, 
Theodoret, and Philostorgius, the Arian panegyrist 
of Aetius [Soc, Soz., Thdt., PhiL]; S. Epiphanius, 
edv. Haereses [S. Ep.]. 



ACTIU8. 

scn'ant, nnd imtruct^-d him ; Imt Imvm < 
in diiHfnice un publicly dtafwliiif apiinrt kia 
niantrr'* int«rprrtiition uf tha Hct^laM. Tka 
Arian Hiohop of the city, naaad AUMMMiaa, Tf 
ci'ivid him and read with him the Oa tft U, After- 
wuril* he nad the Kiiutlf with AntuniuA, a priMt 
of 'i'arou* till thi^ proniutioii uf tlie lait«r Xu tka 
Epiiicoitate, when he retumad to Aatiocb and 
litudicd the J'ri,i>ltfli with tha prieat Laoatwa. 
llix obtrunive irreligion obliged him afaia ta quit 
Antioch, and he hxik refuge in Cilicia(Mfan A.Bi. 
348), where he wait defeated in argument by aoaa 
of the gnmneit (Borlwrian) (inonticn. He return- 
ed to Antioch, but soon left it fur Alrxiuidria, 
being led thither by the fame uf the Maiiicbee 
Aphthonius, againnt whom he recovered the fiuii« 
for disputation which he had Utely lost He now 
resumed the study of medicine under Soprjiis and 

tractiscd gratuitounly, earning money by followinf^ 
is former trade by night (PhiL iii. 15) or living 
upon others. (Theodoret, llitl. EocL ii. 23.) His 
chief aapknTment, however, was an irreverent ap- 
plicataOD Of logical figures and geometrical diar 
grams to the Nature of the Word of Ood. (S. 
Kpiphan. adr. Ilufrrs. f 2, and corap. 8 C, p. 920.) 
He returned to Antioch on the clcTation of his 
former maater Laotttina to that See, a. d. 348, and 
was by bira ofdainod Deacon (S. Ath. 8 38, transL 
p. I '.Ml]), though ha declined the ordinary datiea of 
the I>iai:oiuitc and accepted that of iweiuM^ x. n. 
350. (PhiL iii. 17.) The CathoUe kymen, 
Ditxlorus and Fkvian, proteeted against this or- 
dination, and Lcontius was obliged to depose him. 
(Thdt. iL 19.) His dispute with Jksil of An- 
cyra, a. d. 351 (fin.), is the first indication of the 
future schim in the Arian heresy. (PhiL iiL 15.) 
liobil incensed Oallna (who became Caesar, March, 
A. i>. 351) against Aetius, and Leontius' interces- 
sion only saved the latter from death. Soon 
Theophilus Blemmys introduced him to Gallus (S. 
Or. p. 294), who made him his friend, and often 
sent him to his brother Julian when in danger of 
apo«tacy. (PhiL iiL 17.) There is a letter from 
Gallus extant, congratulating Julian on bis ad- 
hesion to Christianity, as he bad beard from 
Aetius. (Post Epist Juliatti, p. 158, ed. Boisson. 
Mogunt 1828.) Aetius was implicated in the 
murder of Domitian and Montius (see Gibbon, 
c. 19), A. D. 354 (S. Gr. p. 294, b), but his 
insignificance saved him from the vengeance of 
Constantius. However, he quitted Antioch for 
Alexandria, where St. Athanasius was maintain- 
ing Christianity against Arianbm, and in a. d. 355 
acted as Deacon under George of Cappadocia, the 
violent interloper into the See of St Athanasius. 
(St Ep. 76. § 1 ; Thdt ii. 24.) Here Eunomiua 
became his pupil (PhiL iiL 20) and amanuensis. 
(Soc iL 35.) He is said by Philostorgius (iii. 19) 
to have refused ordination to the Episcopate, be- 
cause Serras and Secundus, who made the offer, 
had mixed with the Catholics ; in a. d. 358, when 
Eudoxius became bishop of Antioch (Thdt iL 23), 
he returned to that city, but popular feeling pre- 
vented Eudoxius from allowing him to act as Deacon. 
The Aetian (Eunomian, see Arius) schism now 
begins to develop itself. The bold irreligion of 
Aetius leads a section of Arians (whom we may call 
here Anti-Aetians) to accuse him to Constantius 
(Soz. iv. 13); they allege also his connexion with 
Gallus, and press the emperor to summon a general 
Council for the settlement of the Theological 



AETIUS. 
question. The Aetian interest with EusebiuB 
(Soz. i. IG), the powerful Eunuch, divides the in- 
tended council, but notwithstanding, the Ai'tian* 
are defeated at Seleucia, A. D. 359, and, dissolving 
the council, hasten to Constantius, at Constanti- 
nople, to secure his protection against their op- 
ponents. (S, Ath. transl. pp. 73, 77, 88, 163, 
164.) The Anti-Aetians (who are in fact the 
more respectable Semi-Arians, see Arius) follow, 
and charge their opponents with maintaining a 
Dijf'erence in Subntattce ((repoovffioy) in the Trinity, 
producing a paper to that eifect. A new schism 
ensues among the Aetiaus, and Aetius is aban- 
doned by his friends (called Eusebians or Aca- 
cians, see Arius) and banished (S. Bas. i. 4), 
after protesting against his companions, who, 
holding the same principle with himself (viz. that 
the Son was a creature, Kriff/JM), refused to ac- 
knowledge the necessary inference (viz. that He 
is (/ utUike substance to the Fat/ier, (b-fJ^ojov). 
(Thdt. ii. 23; Soz. iv. 23; S. Greg. p. 301, D. ; 
Phil. iv. 12.) His late friends would not let him 
remain at Mopsuestia, where he was kindly re- 
ceived by Auxentius, the Bishop there : Acacius 
procures his banishment to Amblada in Pisidia 
(Phil. T. 1), where he composed his 300 blas- 
phemies, captious inferences from the sjTnbol of 
his irreligion, viz. that Jnyenerateness {drytvyrfaia) 
is the essence (oi)(r/o) of Deity ; which are refuted 
(those at least which St. Epiphanius had seen) in 
S. Ep. adv. Huer, 76. He there calls his op- 
ponents Chronites, i,e. Temporals, with an apparent 
allusion to their courtly obsequiouiu)e«s. (Pnteiat. 
up. S'. Kp.; comp. c. 4.) 

On Constantius's death, Julian recalled the 
various exiled bishops, as well as Aetiua, whom 
be invited to his court (Ep. Juliani, 31, p. 52, 
ed. Buisson.), giviug him, too, a farm in Les- 
bos. (Phil. ix. 4.) EuzoVus, heretical Bishop of 
Antioch, took off the ecclesiastical condemnation 
from Aetius (PhiL vii. 5), and he was made 
Bishop at Constantinople. (S. Ep. 76. p. 992, c.) 
He spreads his heresy by fixing a bishop of his 
own irreligion at Constantinople (PhiL viii. 2) and 
by missionaries, till the death of Juviau, a. d. 364. 
Valens, however, took put with Eudoxiu*, the 
Acaciim Bishop of Constantinople, and Aetius re- 
tired to Lesbos, where he narrowly escaped death 
at the hands of the governor, placed there by 
Procopius in his revolt against Valens, a. D. 365. 
366. (See Gibbon, ch. 19.) Again he took refuge 
in Constantinople, but was driven thence by his 
former friends. In vain he applied for protection 
to Eudoxius, now at Marciimople with Valens ; 
and in a. d. 367 (Phil. ix. 7) he died, it aeems, at 
Constantinople, unpitied by any but the equally 
irreligious Euuomius, who buried him. (Phil. ix. 
6.) The doctrinal errors of Aetius are stated 
historically in the article on Arii's. From the 
Alanichees he seems to have learned his licentious 
morals, which appeared in the most shocking Soli- 
iidiauisni, and which he grounded on a Gnostic 
interpretation of St. John, xvii. 3. He denied, 
like most other heretics, the necessity of fasting 
and sclf-mortitication. (S. Ep. adv. Hai-r. 76. § 4.) 
At some time or other he was a disciple of Euse- 
bius of Sebaste. (S. Bas. Episi. 223 [79] and 
244 [82].) Socrates (ii. 33) speaks of several 
letters from him to Constantine and others. His 
Treatise is to be found ap. S. Epiphan. adv. Haer. 
76, p. 924, ed. Petav. Colon. 1682, [A. J. C] 



AETIUS. 



53 



AETIUS CA«TM)», Attius), a Greek medical 
writer, whose name is commonly but incorrectly 
spelt Aetius. Historians are not agreed about 
his exact date. He is placed by some writers as 
early as the fourth century after Christ ; but it is 
plain from his own work that he did not write till 
the very end of the fifth or the begiiming of the 
sixth, as he refers {teiruJb. iii. term. i. 24, p. 464) 
not only to St. Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria, who 
died A. u. 444, but also (tetrab. iL ktm. iii. 110, 
p. 357) to Petrus Archiater, who was physician 
to Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, and there- 
fore must have lived still later ; he is himself 
quoted by Alexander Trallianus (xii. 8, p. 346), 
who lived probably in the middle of the sixth 
centurj-. He was a native of Amida, a city of 
Mesopotamia (Photias, cod. 221) and studied at 
Alexandria, which was the most famous medical 
school of the age. He was probably a Christian, 
which may account perhaps for his being con- 
founded with another person of the tame name, a 
famous Arian of Antioch, who lived in the time of 
the Emperor Julian. In some manuscripts he has 
the title of Kiiinrii 6'^iKiov, comes ubtt^uii, which 
means the chief officer in attendance on the em- 
peror (see Du Cange, Gloss. Med. et Inf. Latin.); 
this title, according to Photius (/. r.), he attained 
at Constantinople, where he was practising medi- 
cine. Aetius seems to be the first Greek medical 
writer among the Christians who fives any speci- 
men of tlie spells and charms so much in vogue 
with the EgA-piiaus, such as that of St. Blaise 
(tetrali. iL strm. iv. 50, p^ 404) in removing a 
bone which sticks in the throat, and another in re- 
lation to a Fistula, (kitaik. ir. sfrt*. iiL 14, p. 762.) 
The diviakn of Us woric BiCAic 'lar/uKci 'EkkclI- 
ifica, ^ Sixteen Boaks on Medicine," into four 
tetrabibli {rerpaet^Kot) was not made by himself, 
but (as Fabricius obserrcs) was the invention of 
tome modem translator, as his way of qooting 
bis own work is according to the nunerieal tcrieo 
of the books. Although his work does not con- 
tain much original matter, it is aeTertheleaa one of 
the most valuable medical remains of antiquity, aa 
being a ver}' judicious compilation from the writ- 
ings of many authors whose works have been long 
since lost. The whole of it has never appeared 
in the original Greek ; one half was pubUsh- 
ed at Venice, 1534, foL "in aed. Aldi," with 
the title ** Aetii Amideui Librorum Medicinalium 
tomus primus ; primi scilicet Libri Octo nunc 
primum in lucem editi, Graece:" the second 
volume never appeared. Some chapters of the 
ninth book were published in Greek and Latin, by 
J. E. Hebenttreit, Lips. 4to. 1757, nnder the title 
" Tentamen Philologicum Medicum super Aetii 
Amideui Synopsis Medicorum Veterum,"&c.; and 
again in the same year, "Aetii Amideui AvckSJtwi' 

Specimen alterum." Another chapter of the 

same book was edited in Greek and Latin by J. 
Magnus a Tengstrdm, Aboae, 1817, 4to., with the 
title " Commentationum in Aetii Amideui Medici 
'AyfKSora Specimen Primum," etc. Another ex- 
tract, also from the ninth book, is inserted by 
Mustoxydes and Schinas in their " SwAAcoi) 
'Z\\r)i>tKuv 'AvfKi6ru>v,'" Venet. 1816, 8vo. The 
twenty-fifth chapter of the ninth book was edited 
in Greek and Latin by J. C. Horn, Lips. 1654, 
4to. ; and the chapter {tetnib. i. serm. iii. 164) 
" De Significationibus Stellarura," is inserted in 
Greek and Latin by Petavius, in his " Uranoio- 



«4 



AETOLTJS. 



//tiwi," p. 421, ed. Parii. Six l>ook« (namely, 
from the niglith to the thirteenth, incluiiive), w<Te 
|>iihliHhe(l nt ItiitM'I, Ih'.V.i, fuL, translated into I^itin 
iiy .laniid (^onmriuH, with the title ** Aetii An- 
tiochcni Miidici de co)^oncendi» et ciirandi» Morbin 
Semnmc* Sex jiim primiim in lucem cditi," etc. In 
l.'iU'i, the ri'iiiiiiniiig ten book* were trsinnlatcd and 
piibliMlicd at Itiiwl, by J. It. Montaiiim, in two 
volunu's, HO thnt the tlircc volumcit fonn toK'-thcra 
compli^to and uniform edition of the work. In 
1.5;i4, 4to., a complete Latin translation was pub- 
liithed at Venice by the Juntas. In 1.54'2, Coma- 
riuH completed and jmblished a traniiiation of the 
whole work (Basil. f<)l.); which was reprinted at 
Hasel, l.')4f), »vo. ; Venice, 1.54.3, 1.544, «vo. ; 
LyouH, I.')4t), fol.; and in H. Stephens's " Me- 
dicao Artis I'rincipes," I'aris. 15()7, fol. Two 
useful works on Aetius deserve to be mentioned ; 
one by C. Orosi-ius (Horo/.co), entitled " Anno- 
Utidiies in Interprctes Aetii," Basil. l.')40, 4to. ; 
the other an academicsil dissertion by C. Weiffel, 
entitled " Aetiananun Kxercitationum Sj^cimen," 
Lips, l?.*)!, 4to. (See Freind's J/itl. of I'hytie, 
from whose work many of the preceding remarks 
have ))een taken ; Cagnati Variue (Jtofrvat. \i. 
U(; Ilaller, BiUwlh. Medic. Praei. vol. i. p. UOO ; 
Sprengel, Hist, tie la Midecine; Choulant, I land- 
bitch der Uuchcrkunde fur die Aeltfre Metltt-in.) 

[W. A. G,] 

AF/TIUS, SICA'MIUS {tiKifuot i'Kinoi), 
Fometimes allied Attiut .S'/WiniM or Sictdiu, the 
author of a treatise Utpl MtKayxo^tif, JM Afeltin- 
cholia, which is commonly printed among the 
works of Galen. (Vol. xix. p. 6.0.0, kc.) His date 
is uncertain, but, if he be not the same person as 
Aetius of Amida, he must have lived after him, as 
his treatise corresponds exactly with part of the 
lattcr's great medical work {tetrab. ii. germ. ii. 9 
— 11, p. 250, &c.): it is compiled from Galen, 
Rufus, Posidonius, and Marcellus. [\V. A.G.] 

AETNA {Atrtni), a Sicilian nymph, and accord- 
ing to Alcimus (ap. Schol. Theocrit. i. (J.'i), a daugh- 
ter of Uranus and Gara, or of Briareus. Simo- 
nides said that she had acted as arbitrator between 
Hephaestus and Demeter respecting the possession 
of Sicily. By Zeus or Hephaestus she became the 
mother of the Palici. (Ser>-. ad Aen. ix. 584.) 
Mount Aetna in Sicily was believed to have de- 
rived its name flora her, and under it Zeus buried 
Typhon, EnceLidus, or Briareus. The mountain 
itself was believed to be the place in which He- 
phaestus and the Cyclops made the thunderbolts 
for Zeus. (Eurip. Ci/cL 296 ; Propert. iii. 15. 21 ; 
Cic. De Divinat. ii. 19.) [L. S.] 

AETNAEUS (AiVvaToi), an epithet given to 
several gods and mj^thical beings connected with 
Mount Aetna, such as Zeus, of whom there was a 
statue on mount Aetna, and to whom a festival 
was celebrated there, called Aetnaea (Schol. ad 
Pind. 01. vi. 162), Hephaestus, who had his work- 
shop in the mountain, and a temple near it (Aelian, 
Hist. An. xi. 3 ; Spanheim, ad Callim. hymn, in 
Dian. 56), and the Cyclops. (Virg. Aen. viiL 440, 
xi. 263, iii. 768 ; Ov.'^lr Pont. ii. 2. 115.) [L. S.] 

AETO'LE (A«TiB\7j'), a surname of Artemis, by 
•which she w,as worshipped at Naupactus. In her 
temple in that town there w-as a statue of white 
marble representing her in the attitude of throwing 
a javelin. (Paus. x. 38. § 6.) [L. S.] 

AETO'LUS (AtTojAo's). 1. A son of Endj-mion 
and the nymph Neis, or Iphianassa. (Apollod. i. 7. 



A FRAN 1 A. 

S 6.) Accordinpf to Pautania* (v. L | 2), kk a^ 
ther was called Akt<>r<Mli«, Chromia, or \\jytAfft. 
He wBi married \n Pronor, by whom he nad t«« 
sons, Pleurr)n and Calydon. Hi* brother* wen 
Pa<'on, Kfx-ius, and othem. (St<-ph. Byx. •. r. Ni{«f ; 
Conim. S'arrat. 14 ; .Schol. ad Pttul. hi. i. 28.) Hia 

fathrr " ■' '• ' '■ '•■•'•'■ni P«««i 

and ! i|>kM t« 

wliii I ' ' iigJuw of 

Elis. Kpciu* gainr<i the victor}, ami u c cil| lh4 tk* 
throne after hi* father, and on hit Atmim bt WW 
succeeded by Aetolu*. During Um AoMnl pMM 
which were celebrated in honour of Amt Iw IMI 
with his chariot over Apis tho MQ of Jnon or 
Salmoneus, and killed him, whoraopoa bo wm ex* 
{Milled by the son* of Api*. (ApoDod. (.&; Pauiw t. 
1. § 6 ; Strab. viii. p. 357.) After leaving Priopon. 
nesus, ho went to the country of the Cun-t^"*, be- 
tween the Achelou* and the Corinthian ^ilf, whero 
he »i!ew I)oni«, Ij!um1(k-uii, and PolyjKx-t/'o, the sono 
of Helios and Phthia, and gave to the country tbo 
name of Aetolia. (.\p0ll04L Pau*. //. <r.) TbU 
story i* only a mythical account of the coloniMtion 
of Aetolia. (Strab. x. p. 463.) 

2. A son of Oxylus and Pieria, and brother of 
Laias. He died at a tender age, and hia poiVBU 
were enjoined by an oracle to bury him neitber 
within nor without the town of ?'li«. They aeeord* 
ingly buried him under the gate at which the mod 
to Glympia commenced. The gymnaaiarch of Elia 
u«ed to offer an annual sacrifice on hia tomb aa lata 
aa the time of Pau*aniaa. (t. 4. § 2.) [L. 8.] 

AFER, DOMI'TIUS, of Nemanaai fNiamea) 
in Gaul, was praetor a. d. 25, and gMBoa tbo &- 
vour of Tiberiu* by accusing Cisndki Pnlcbra, tho 
consobrina of Agrippina, in a. d. 26. (Tac Ann. 
iv. 52.) From this time he became one of the 
most celebrated orators in Rome, but sacrificed hia 
character by conducting accusations for the govern- 
ment In the following year, a. d. 27, he it again 
mentioned by Tacitus aa the accuser of Vanu 
Quintilius, the son of Claudia Pulchra. {Ann. ir. 
66.) In consequence of the accusation of Claudia 
Pulchra, and of some offence which he had given 
to Caligula, he was accused by the emperor in the 
senate, but by concealing his own skiU in speak- 
ing, and pretending to be overpowered by the 
eloquence of Caligula, he not only escaped the 
danger, but was made consul suffectus in a. d. 39. 
(Dion Cass. lix. 19, 20.) In his old age Afer lo«t 
much of his reputation by continuing to speak in 
public, when his powers were exhausted. (QuintiL 
xii. 11. § 3; Tac. Ann. iv. 52.) He died in the 
reign of Nero, a. d. 60 (Tac. Ann. xiv. 19), in 
consequence of a surfeit, according to Hieronymoa 
in the Chronicon of Eusebius. 

Quintilian, when a young man, heard Domitius 
Afer (comp. Plin. Ep. iL 14), and frequently speaks 
of him as the most distinguished orator of his age. 
He says that Domitius Afer and Julius Africanns 
were the best orators he had heard, and that he 
prefers the fomier to the latter, (x. 1. § 118.) 
Quintilian refers to a work of his "On Testimony" 
(y- 7. § 7), to one entitled "Dicta" (vi. 3. § 42), 
and to some of his orations, of which those on be- 
half of DomitiUa, or Cloantilla, and Volusenua 
Catulus seem to have been the most celebrated, 
(viii. 5. § 16, ix. 2. § 20, 3. § 66, 4. § 31, x. 1. 
§ 24, &c.) Respecting the will of Domitius Afer, 
see Plin. Ep. viii. 18. 

AFRA'NIA, CAIA or GAIA, the \vife of the 



AFRANIUS. 

senator Licinius Buccio, a very litigious wo- 
man, who always pleaded her own causes before 
the praetor, and thus gave occasion to the publish- 
ing of the edict, which forbade all women to postu- 
late. She was perhaps the sister of L. Afranius, 
consul in b. n. 60. She died b. c. 48. (Val. Max. 
viii. 3. § 1 ; Dig. 3. tit. 1. s. 1, § 5.) 

AFRA'NI A GENS, plebeian, is first mentioned 
in the second century B. c. The only cognomen 
of tills gens, which occurs under the republic, is 
Stellio : those names which have no cognomen 
are given under Afranius. Some persons of this 
name evidently did not belong to the Afrania Gens. 
On coins we find only S. Afranius and M. Afra- 
nius, of whom nothing is known. (Kckliel, v. p. 
132, &c.) 

AFRA'NIUS. 1. L. Aphamuk, a Roman 
comic poet, who lived at the beginning of the first 
century b. c. His comedies described Roman 
scenes and manners (Coinoediae hM/utae), and the 
subjects were mostly taken from the life of the 
lower classes. {Comoediae tuberttariae.) They were 
frequently polluted with disgraceful amours, which, 
according toQuintilijin, were only a n-presentation of 
the conduct of Afranius. (x. 1. § 100.) He depicted, 
however, Roman life with such accuracy, that he 
is classed with Menander, from whom indeed he 
borrowed largely, (llor. Ay>. ii. 1. 67 ; Macrob. 
Sat. vi. 1 ; Cic. de Fin. i. 3.) lie imitated the 
style of C. Titius, and his language is praised by 
Cicero. {Brut. 45.) His comedies are spoken of 
in the highest terms by the ancient writers, and 
under the empire they not only continued to be 
read, but were even acted, of which an example 
occurs in the time of Nero. (Veil. Pat i. 17, ii. 19; 
Gell. xiii. 8 ; Suet. Ner. 11.) They seem to have 
been well known even at the latter end of the 
fourth century. (Auson. Epiyr. 71.) Afranius 
must have written a great many comedies, as the 
names and fragments of between twenty and thirty 
are still preserved. These fragments have been 
published by Bothe, Poet. Lut. Sitnic. Fraytneiita, 
and by Neukireh, DejXtbtUa Un/uta Roman. 

2. L. Afranius, appears to have been of ob- 
scure origin, as he is called by Cicero in contempt 
"the son of Aulus," as a person of whom nobody 
had heard. (Cic. ad Att. L 16, 20.) He was first 
brought into notice by Pompey, tuid was always 
his warm friend and partizan. In b. c. 77 he was 
one of Ponipey's legates in the war against Serto- 
rius in Spiiin, and also served Pompey in the same 
capacity in the Mithridatic war. (Plut. Sert. 19. 
Pomp. 34, 36, 39 ; Dion Cass, xxxvii. 5.) On 
Pompey's return to Rome, he was anxious to ob- 
tain the consulship for Afranius, that he might the 
more easily carry his own plans into effect ; and, not- 
withstanding the opposition of a powerful party, 
he obtained the election of Afranius by influence 
and bribery. During his consulship, however, 
(b. c. 60), Afranius did not do much for Pompey 
(Dion Cass, xxxvii. 49), but probjibly more from 
want of experience in political affairs than from 
any want of inclination. In b. c. 59 Afranius had 
the province of Cisalpine Gaul (com p. Cic. ad Att. 
i. 1 9), and it may have been owing to some advan- 
tages he had gained over the Gauls, that he ob- 
tained the triumph, of which Cicero speaks in his 
oration agiiinst Piso. (c. 24.) 

When Pompey obtJiined the provinces of the 
two Spains in his second consulship (b. c. 55), 
he sent Afranius and Petreius to govern fpain 



AFRICAN US. 



.56 



in his name, while he himself remained in Rome. 
(Veil. Pat. ii. 48.) On the breaking out ot 
the civil war, B. c. 49, Afranius was still in 
Spain with three legions, and after uniting his 
forces with those of Petreius, he had to oppose 
Caesar in the same year, who had crossed over 
into Spain as soon as he had obtained posses- 
sion of Italy. After a short campaign, in which 
Afranius and Petreius gained some advantages at 
first, they were reduced to such straits, that they 
were obliged to sue for the mercy of Caesar. Tliis 
was granted, on condition that tiieir troo(i« should 
be disbanded, and that they should not serve 
again»t him again. (Caes. B. C i. 38-8C ; Appian, 
B. C. ii. 42. 43; Dion Cass. xlL 20-23; Plut. 
Pomp. 65, Cae*. 66.) Afranius, however, did not 
keep his word ; he imme<lialely joined Pompey at 
Dyrrhacium, where he was accused by some of the 
aristocracy, though certainly without justice, of 
treacherj' in Spain. After the battle of Dyrrha- 
cium, Afranius recommended an inmiediate return 
to ItJily, especially as Pompey was master of the 
sea; but this advice was overruled, and the baiiie 
of Pharsalia followed, B. c. 48, in which Alnimu!. 
had the charge of the camp. (Appian, B. C. li. tj ">, 
76 ; Plut. Pomp. 66 ; Dion Cass. xli. 52 ; \elL 
Pat. ii. 52.) As Afranius was one of those who 
could not hope for pardon, he fled to Africa, .1 
joined the Pompeian annj under Cato suid > 
(Dion Cass. xlii. 10.) After the defeat ui :;.^ 
Pompeian* at the battle of Thapsus, b. c. 46, at 
which he was present, he attempted to fly into 
Mauritania with Faustus Sulla and about 1500 
horsemen, but «-as taken priaoDer by P. Sittius, 
and killed a few days afterwarda, according to 
some aeconnta, in a Mdition «f tka Mldkn, and 
according to others, bj the ceww a n d of Caesar. 
(Hirt. Bell Afrie. 95 ; Suet Cat*. 75 ; Dion Casa. 
xliii. 12; Floras, iv. 2. § 90; Liv. Eyit. 114; 
Aur. Vict de Vir. lU. 78.) 

Afranius seems to have had MHne taknt for war, 
but little for civil affiurt. Dim Caiauu ■ays " that 
he was a better dancer than a rtatr— an " (xuviL 
49), and Cicero speaks of him with the greatest 
contempt during his consulship {ad. Att. L l>i, Jn;, 
though at a later time, when Afhuiias was oppi.M a 
to Caesar, he calls him mmmmM dtut. {^Piui. xiii. 14.) 

3. L. Afranius, too «rf the preceding, negotiated 
with Caesar in Spain through Sulpicius fur his own 
and his Other's preservatioiu He iilterwards went 
as a hostage to Caesar. (Caes. B. V. i. 74. 84.) 

4. Afranius Potitus. [Potitub.] 

5. Afranius Burrus. [Burrus.] 

6. Afranius Quinctianus. [(juinctianos.] 

7. Afranius Dbxtkr. [Dkxtkr.J 

8. T. AfraMUs or T. Afhknius, not a Roman, 
was one of the leaders of the Italian contedenitts 
in the Marsic war, b. c. 90. In conjunction n ith 
Judacilius and P. Ventidius he defeated tlie legate 
Pompeius Strabo, and pursued him into Fimiuui, 
before which, however, he was defeated in his 
turn, and was killed in the battle. (Appian, B. C 
L 40, 47 ; Florus iii. 18.) 

AFRICA'NUS. [SciPio.] 

AFHICA'NUS ('A<^pi(coj'oy), a writer on vete- 
rinary surgerj-, whose date is not certainly known, 
but who may very probably be the same person as 
Sex. Julius Africanus, whose work entitled K«rT04 
contained information upon medical subjects. 
[Africanus, Skx. Julius.] His remains were 
published in the Collection of writers ou Veterinary 



£6 



AFRICANUS. 



Modicine, first in a I^tin tniimlntion by J. Rucl- 
liiiH, I'ar. l.^.'U), fol., and iifUTwardB in (jreek, Hai. 
1.037, 4t(). cditt'd by (irvimcuM. (VV. A. «}. | 

AFRICA'NIJS, SKX. CAKCI'LIUS, « da*- 
m'cftl Udiiian juriHcoimult, who livod undi;r Aiilo- 
iiiiiiiH I'iiu. lie wiiM probably n pupil of Salviu* 
.lulianuH, the celebrated refonner of the Kdict 
under Hadrian. [Jimanoh, Salviih.] He con- 
Aulted Julian on le^l Hubject* (Dip;. 2h. tit. 3. a. 3. 
§ 4), and there in n controverted jKixMige in the 
l)i>(est {Africunuii lihro rricenmo Kjnututarum aj>ud 
Jitlitinum <iiuu'ril, &c. Dig. 30. tit. i. n. 39), which 
hnH been explained in voriotis way* ; either that 
he ]iublii4licd a legal correftpondence which p il e d 
between him and .luliantis, or that he cominented 
upon the (^)iiitolary opinion* given by Julianiu in 
niiMwer to the lettem of clientu, or that be wrote a 
coninientJiry upon .lulianu* in the form of letters. 
()n the other hand, Julianu* "ex Sexto" ii quoted 
by CiaiiiR (ii. 21 ti), which ithewii that .lulianut an- 
notated ScxtUB, the formuhi "ex Sexto" being 
•ynonyniou* with "ad Sextam." (Neuber, die 
jurui. Kldnsih-r, 8. 9.) Who wa* Sextu* but 
AfricaniiH? Africanus wn« the author of " Libri 
IX (^MiaeHtionuin," from which many pim- extract* 
are made in the Digeiit, a* may lie seen in Ilom- 
inel'H " l'alingene«ia Foiidectarum," where the ex- 
tracts from each juriit aro brought together, and 
thoftc tluit are token from Afhcanua occupy 26 
out of about 1 800 paget. 

From hi* remains, thus prc*erval in the Digest, 
it is evident that he waH intimately acquainted 
with the opinions of Julianus, who is the {x-rson 
alluded to when, without any expressed nominative, 
he uses the words ait, Mustimtwit, ntyarit, putavit, 
im/uii, re.ipondit, j>lacct, noiai. This is proved by 
Cujas from a comparison of some Greek scholia on 
the Hasilica with pandlel extracts from Africanus 
in the Digest. I'auUus and Ulpian have done 
Africanus the honour of citing his authority. He 
wa« fond of antiquarian lore (Dig. 7. tit. 7. s. 1, pr. 
where the true reading is 6'. Caecilius, not S. Adius),, 
and liis "Libri IX Quaestionum," from the con- 
ciseness of the style, the great subtlety of the rea- 
soniug, and the knottiuess of the points discussed, 
60 puzzled the old glossators, that when they came 
to an extract from Africanus, they were wont to 
exclaim A/ricani lex, id est difficUis. (Heinecc. Hist. 
Jur. Horn. § cccvi. n.) Mascovius (de Sectis Jur. 
4. § 3) supposes that Africanus belonged to the 
legal sect of the Sahiiiiani [Capito], and as our 
author was a steady follower of Salvius Julianus, 
who was a Sabinian (Gaius, ii. 217, 218), this 
supposition may be regarded as established. In 
the time of Antoninus Pius, the distinction of 
schools or sects had not yet worn out. 

Among the writers of the lives of ancient law- 
yers (Pancirollus, Jo. Bertrandus, Grotius, &c.) 
much dispute has arisen as to the time when Afri- 
canus wrote, in consequence of a corrupt or erro- 
neous passage in Lompridius (Lamp. Alex. &r. 68), 
which would make him a friend of Severus Alex- 
ander and a disciple of Papinian. Cujas ingeniously 
and satisfactorily disposes of this anachronism by 
referring to the internal evidence of an extract 
from Africanus (Dig. 30. tit. 1. s. 109), which as- 
sumes the validity of a legal maxim that was no 
longer in force when Papinian wTote. 

For reasons which it would be tedious to detail, 
we hold, contrary to the opinion of Menage (Amoen. 
Jur. c. 23), that our Sextus Caecilius Africanus is 



AFRICANUS. 

identical with Um jnmt loimtttti ■■■tioixd ia 
the I)if>-«t bv the nane CmcUmi* or & f'Mrillin. 
i.at 8. CmcjUm wham ifafw li with 



iialMwliMifci 



Fav 

iuil. .. : — Vttkae. (O^ ub 1.) (MHIm Mr> 
hop* dnm to wornt ezlMit Vfan hit own infMiuoB, 
but, at all erenta, the kwjerii dafawa of tJM XII 
'I'aljle* againat the attack* of the phikwophw U 
"ben trovato." There i* Mcaotliiaf h iimo w rij r 
cruel in the eoadnding ■trak* of tko cwTonMioB, 
in the pedaatit wnr b wUch Mr JMiwwMill vfa^ 
dicatc* tbo doc— wi ml kw afainct ithUm—fmrHt 
m e am l o, &c— by tbo example of Metiu* Fuurtiut, 
and the harah leotinient of Virgil : 

**At tu dicti*, Aibone, manerec" 

The renaint of Africanus have been admirablr 
exptiunded by Cujaa (cui A/ricanum traeUUuM 1 X. 
in Cojac. Opp. toI. 1 ), and have also been annotated 
by Hcipio Gentili. (Scip. (ientilia, ZAml /-/JTo^ 
Africunum, 4to. AltdorC 1602-7.) 

(StnuKhia*, ViUu ali^/ufjt reltrum jaritnmml 
turum, 8va Jen. 1723 ; I. Zimmem, Horn. Rtekt^ 
getkithU, g 94.) [J. T. O.) 

AFRICA'S' U», JU'LIU.S a celehntod onlar 
in the reign of Nero, teem* to have been the aoo 
of Julius Africanus. of the Gallic state of the Saii' 
toni, who was condemned by Tibenus, a. o. 32. 
(Tac. Ann. tL 7.) (juintiliao, who had heaid 
Julius Africanus, speaks of him and DomitiM 
Afcr as the best orator* of their time. The elo- 
quence of Africanus was chiefly charactcrijK-d bj 
vehemence and energy. (Quintil. x. 1. §118, 
xii. 10. § II, comp. viii. 5. § 15 ; Dial, de (JraL 
\h.') Pliny mentions a grandson of this Julius 
Africanus, who was abo an advocate and was 
op[)o*ed to him upon one occasion. {Ep. viL 6.) 
lie was consul suffectus in a. d. 108. 

AFRICA'NU.S, SEX. JULIUS, a Christian 
writer at the beginning of the third century, ia 
called by Suidas a Libyan (i. r. 'A^unu'^f), but 
passed the greater part of hi* life at Emmaus in 
Palestine, where, according to some, he was bom. 
(Jerome, de Yir. III. 63.) When Emmaus waa 
destroyed by fire, Africanus was sent to Flisgabalnt 
to solicit its restoration, in which mission he ■iio> 
cceded : the new town was called Nicopolis. (a. O. 
221, Eusebius, Ckron. sub anno ; S^'ncellus, p. 
359, b.) Africanus subsequently went to Alexan- 
dria to hear the philosopher Heraclas, who was 
afterwards bishop of Alexandria. The later Syrian 
writers state, that he was subsequently made 
bishop. He was one of the mo«t learned of the 
early Christian writers. Socrates (//irf. Ecd. iL 
35) classes him with Origen and Clement ; and it 
appears from his letter on the History of Susanna, 
that he was acquainted with Hebrew. 

The chief work of Africanus was a Chronicon 
in five books {TtfvrdStSMov xpoyoAoywtcJi'), from 
the creation of the world, which he placed in 
5499 B. c. to A. D. 221, the fourth year of the 
reign of Elagabalus. This work is lost, but a con- 
siderable part of it is extracted by Eusebius in his 
" Chronicon," and many fragments of it are also 
preserved by Georgius SynceUus, Cedrenus, and in 
the Paschale Chronicon. (See Ideler, HandJ/uuh 
d. Chronol. voL ii. p. 456, inc.) The fragments of 
this work are given by Gallandi {Bill. Pat.), and 
Routh (^Reliquiae Sacrac). 

Africanus wrote a letter to Origen impugning 
the authority of the book of Susanna, to which 



AGAMEDE. 

Origen replied. This letter is extant, and has 
been published, toj^ether with Origeu's answer, by 
Wetstein, Basle, 1(J74, 4to. It is also contained 
in De la Hue's edition of Origen. Africanus also 
wrote a letter to Aristeides on the genealogies of 
Christ in Matthew and Luke (Phot, BiU. 34 ; 
Kuseb. Hist. Eccl. vi. 23), of which some extracts 
are given by Eusebius. (i. 7.) 

There is another work attributed to Africanus, 
entitled Ktaroi, that is, embroidered girdles, so 
allied from the celebrated KtOT^y of Aphrodite. 
Some modem writers suppose this work to have 
been written by some one else, but it can scarcely 
be doubted that it was written by the same Afri- 
canus, since it is expressly mentioned among his 
other writings by I'hotius (/. c), Suidas (/. c), 
Syneellus (/. c), and Eusebius. (vi. "23.) The 
number of books of which it consisted, is stated 
variously. Suidas mentions twenty-four, Fhotius 
fourteen, and Syneellus nine. It treattKl of a vast 
variety of subjects — medicine, agriculture, natural 
history, the military art, &c., and seems to have 
been a kind of common-place book, in which the 
author entered the results of his reading. Some 
of the books are sjiid to exist still in nmnuscnpt. 
(Fabricius, BM. Graec. vol. iv. pp. '240, &c.) 
Some extracts from them are published by Theve- 
not in the " Mathematici Veteres," Paris, 1693, 
fo., and also in the Geoponica of Cassiaiius Busiu. 
(Needhaui, Proleiiom. ad Geopon.) The part re- 
lating to the military art was translated into 
French by Guichard in the third volume of " Mt- 
moires crit. et hist, sur plusieurs Points d'Anti- 
quit^s militeires," Berl. 1774. Compare Dureau 
de la Malle, " Poliorcetique des Anciens," Pahs, 
1819, 8vo. 

AFHICA'NUS, T. SE'XTIUS, a Roman of 
noble rank, was deterred by Agrijipina from mar- 
rying Silana. In a. u. ti"2, he took the census in 
the provinces of Gaul, together with Q. Volusius 
and Trebellius Maximus. (Tac. Ann. xiii. 19, 
xiv. 46,) His nsime occurs in a fragment of the 
Fnitres Arvales. (Gruter, p. 119.) There was a 
T. Sextius Africanus consul with Trajan in a. u. 
112, who was probably a descendant of the one 
mentioned above. 

AGA'CLYTUS {'fiiywcXmSs), the author of a 
work about Olympia (ir«/>l 'OKvuwlai), which is 
referred to by Suidas and Photius. (». r. Kin/xA*- 
Swv.) 

AGA'LLIAS. [Agallis.] 

AGALLIS ('A7oAAis) of Corcyra, a fenude 
grammarian, who wrote upon Homer, (Athen. i. 
p. 14, d.) Some have supposed from two passages 
in Suidas (s. v. 'AydyaXMs and 'Opx''l<''**)» that 
we ought to read Anagallis in this passage of 
Athenaeus. The scholiast upon Homer and Eu- 
stathius (ad 11. xviii. 491) mention a grammarian 
of the name of Agallias, a ])upil of Aristophanes 
the grammarian, also a Corey raean and a commen- 
tator upon Homer, who may be the same as Agal- 
lis or perhaps her father. 

AGAWE'DE (•A7aMTi8r)). 1. A daughter of 
Angelas and wife of Mulius, who, according to 
Homer (7/. xi. 739), was acquainted with the heal- 
ing powers of all the plants that grow upon the 
earth. Hyginus {Fab. 157) makes her the mother 
of Relus, Actor^and Dictys, by Poseidon. 

2. A daughter of Macaria, from whom Agamede, 
a place in Lesbos, was believed to have derived its 
name. (Steph. Byi;, *, i\ 'K-yan^Zi).) [L, S.] 



AGAMEMNON. 



57 



AGAME'DES ('A7a^^5i7s), a son of Straphalua 
and great-grandson of Areas. (Pans. viiL 4. § 5, 5. 
§ 3.) He was father of Cercyon by Epicaste, who 
also brought to him a step-son, Trophonius, who 
was by some believed to be a son of Apollo. Ac- 
cording to others, Agamedes was a son of Apollo 
and Epicaste, or of Zeus and locaste, and father of 
Trophonius. The most common storj' however is, 
that he was a - '' ' " : . us, king of Orchomenus, 
and brother ot . These two brothers are 

said to Imve d;^: ,. themselres as architects, 

especially in building temples and palaces. Among 
others, they built a temple of Apollo at Delphi, and 
a treasury of Hyrieus, king of Hyria in Boeotia. 
(Paus. ix. 37. § 3 ; Strab. ix. p. 421'.) The scholiast 
on Aristoplianes ( Sub. 508) gives a somewhat diffe- 
rent account from Charax, and makes them build the 
treasury for king Augeias. The story about this 
treasury in Pausanias bears a great resemblance to 
that which HerodotU8(ii. 121) relates of the treasury 
of the Eg\'ptian king Uhampsinitus. In the con- 
struction of the treasury of Ilyrieus, Agamedes and 
Trophonius contrived to place one stone in such a 
nuiuner, that it could be taken away outside, and 
thus fonned an entrance to the treasury, without 
any body perceiving it. Agamedes and Trophoniua 
now constantly robbed the treasury ; and the king, 
seeing that lodu and seala were uninjured while his 
tniMurea were eaiutantly decreasing, s^t traps to 
fj,...i. .1... .i.:..c A runedes was thus ensnared, and 
'1 : IS head to avert the dibi-overy. 

A". us was immediately swallowed 

up by liic mriii. Uu this spot tlvra was afterwwda, 
in the grove of I^l>adeia, the so-called care of Ap^ 
medea w/ 'ot'ii. Here alio 

waa the d those who ooo- 

tulted ii ..... ....v.. \ '••- ' ">- 

voked him. (Paus. 
AtU. p. 673.) A t: 
(7W. QuaetL L 47 
ApoUom. 14), states 
nius, after hu\ 
Delphi, prayi- 

for their labou; ^ -. ... ....... ^..^ ^--A 

promised to do so on a certain day, and when the 
day came, the two brothers died. The question as 
to whether the story about the Egyptian treasury 
is derived from Greece, or whether the tireek story 
was an import.: ' ■\ ' " i 

by modem ^^ 

{Qrchom. p. t'l,>Vv.y ..„i .^..v.w>. .. .v._, y.~..,...,.^ 
that the tradition took its rise among the Minyans, 
was transferred from them to Angelas, and was 
known in Greece long before the reign of Psammi- 
tichus, during which the intercourse between the 
two countries was opened. [L. S.] 

AGAMEMNON ('K-yatunyw). 1, A son of 
Pleisthenes and grandson of Atreus, king of My- 
cenae, in whose house Agamemnon and Menelaus 
were educated after the death of their father, 
( ApoUod. iii. 2. § 2 ; Schol. ad Eurip. Or. 5 ; Schol. 
ad Iliud. ii. 249.) Homer and several other writers 
call him a son of Atreus, grandson of Pelops, and 
great-grandson of Tantalus. (Horn. //. xi. 131 ; 
Eurip. Iltleti. 396 ; Tzetz. ad Lycvphr. 147 ; Hygin. 
Fah. 97-) His mother was, according to most ac- 
counts, Aerope ; but some call Eriphyle the wife 
of Pleisthenes and the mother of Agamemnon. 
Besides his brother Menelaus, he had a sister, who 
is called Anaxibia, Cyndragora, or Astyocheia. 
(SchoL Eurip. Or. 5; Hygin. Fab. 17.) Aga- 



68 



AGAMEMNON. 



memnon and McnclAuii were liroiipfht up tofjethcr 
with Ai-^iHtliiiH, tliu Roii of 'J'liyeaU!*, in the hnuiie 
of AtriruM. When tln-y liiul grown to manhood, 
Atri'UH M:nt A){;tni(!Minon and Monchius to M-rk 
Thycdtcn. Tlicy found liini at Di-lphi, and carried 
him to AtruiiH, wlio throw bini into a dungeon. 
Angisthni wan aftttrwnrds coninianded to kill him, 
but, rccogniiting hiii f.ither iii him, he abdtained 
from the cruel deed, slew Atrcui, and after having 
cx|)elled Agamemnon and Mcnelaus, he and hii 
father occupied tho kingdom of Mycena*?. [Akuii^ 
TiiUM.J The two brother* wandered about for a 
time, and at last cninc to Sparta, wheru Agiimem- 
non miirricd Clytemncrstni, the daughter of Tynda- 
reus, by whom he became tho father of Iphianaiwa 
(Iphigenria), Chryuotliemis, Ljiodice (Klectra), and 
On;i(tei«. (Horn. //. ix. 145, with tho note of Ku»- 
tath. ; Lucret. i. Bfi.) The manner in which Aga- 
memnon came to the kingdom of Myceiuu-, ii dif- 
ferently related. From Homer (//. iL 108; comp. 
PauH. ix. 40. § 0), it ap(>carB a» if be bad peaceably 
■ucccteded ThycHtes, while, accordinff to otben 
(AeHciiyl. A</am. 1(J05), he expelled Tfiyattct, and 
ti8ur])ed bin throne. Afa-r he had becooM king of 
Mycenae, be rendered Sicyon and its king subject 
to liimHelf (I'aus. ii. ti. § 4), and Ixicaroe the most 
powerful prince in Greece. A catalogue of bit 
dominions is given in the Iliad. (iL 5G'J, &c.; 
comp. Strab. viiu p. 377 ; Thucyd. L 9.) When 
Homer (//. ii. lOtt) attributes to Agamemnon the 
sovereignty over all Argos, the name Argos here 
signifieB i'cloponneuus, or the greater port of it, 
for the city of Argos was governed by Diomedcs. 
(//. ii. fi59. Ace.) Stnibo (/. c.) has also shewn 
that the name Argos is sometimes used by the tra- 
gic poets as synonymous with Mycenae. 

When Helen, the wife of Meneiaus, was carried 
off by I'aris, the son of I'rijim, Agamemnon and 
Mcnelaus called upon oil the Greek chiefs for as- 
sistance against Troy. (Ot/yw. xxiv. 115.) The 
chiefs met at Argos in tlie palace of Diomedcs, 
where Agamemnon was chosen their chief com- 
mander, either in consequence of his superior power 
(Eustath, ad II. ii. 108 ; Thucyd. L 9), or because 
he had gained the fiivour of the assembled chiefs 
by giving them rich presents. (Dictys, Cret. i. 15, 
16.) After two years of preparation, the Greek 
anuy and fleet assembled in the port of Aulis in 
Boeotia. Agamemnon had previously consulted 
the oracle about the issue of the enterprise, and 
the answer given was, that Troy should fall at the 
time when the most distinguished among the Greeks 
should quarrel. (CW. viiL 80.) A similar prophecy 
was derived from a marvellous occurrence which 
happened while the Greeks were assembled at 
Aulis. Once when a sacrifice was offered under 
the boughs of a tree, a dragon crawled forth from 
under it, and devoured a nest on the tree containing 
eight young birds and their mother. Calchas in- 
terpreted the sign to indicate that the Greeks 
would have to tight against Troy for nine years, 
but that in the tenth the city would fall. (//. iL 
303, &c.) An account of a different miracle por- 
tending the same thing is given by Aeschylus. 
(J (/am. 110, &c.) Another interesting incident 
happened while the Greeks were assembled at 
Aulis. Agamemnon, it is said, killed a stag which 
was sacred to Artemis, and in addition provoked 
the anger of the goddess by irreverent words. 
She in return visited the Greek army with a pes- 
tilence, and produced a perfect calm, so that the 



AGAMEMNON. 

Greeks were unable to leave the port 
M.-ers dechired that the 
not be loodMd onlew 



Wlien til* 



the anger of the godd«M c<wld 
w Ipk^Bom, tW «lMfbt«r at 



kacrifiee, DiomodM aad OdjrwMM ««M mtA %• 

fetch her to the camp under llMpntMt that the 
was to be rnarrird to Achillea. 8m tmmm ; bat at 
the moment when she was to be sacrificed, ike 
was carried off by Artemis herself (aecsocdiag to 
othem by Achilles) to Taoria, and ai i ot k er vktia 
was subntituted u her plaee. (Hygia. Fnk. M| 
Kurip. Iphuj. AmL 90, Ipiug. Tamr. lA; Bophad. 
J-JUct. 6«5 ; Find. J'yth. xL 35 ; Or. Met. xtl SI j 
L)ict. Cret. L 10; HcboL ad Lympkr. 183; Antoaio. 
Lib. 27.) Afu-r this the calm ceased, and tha 
aruiy nailed to the coaat of Trojr. AffMeaaaa 
alone had one hundred shipa, iodependcnt of sixtj 
which be had lent to the Aitadiaoak (//. ii &7o» 
CI 2.) 

In the U>ntb year of the siege of Troy — for it ie 
in this year that the Iliad opens — we find Agar 
memnoD inTolred in a qoanei with AdiiUae iv 
•pectinc the possee ei oa oi Briarita, wham AeUllea 
waa obliged to give op to Agaweninnn Achilka 
withdrew from the field of battle, and the Oradw 
wen Tiahed bjr ■aeceasire diMatera. {Acmixaa] 
Zeus sent a dream to AgaBcanon to persoade hiai 
to lead the Greeks to battle against the Trqaaa. 
(//. iL 8, dec) The king, is order to try the 
Greeks, commanded them to ntam heoM, villi 
which they readily conplied, aatil their cisunige 
was revived by Odysseus, who persuaded them to 
prepare for battle. (//. iL 55, &c.) After a MOgla 
combat between Paris and Mendaos, a baule 
followed, in which Agamemnon killed several of 
the Trojans. When Hector dialleMed the bnTcat 
of the Greeks, Agaffleomea oAfad to fight with 
him, but in his stead Ajax waa dioeen by lot. 
Soon after this another battle took pLice, in which 
the Greeks were worsted (//. viiL), and Agamen* 
non in despondence advised the Greeks to take to 
flight and return home. {IL ix. 10.) But be 
was opposed by the other heroes. An attcn^ to 
conciliate Achilles failed, and AgBBeanon aaaeai- 
bled the chiefs in the night to ddibente about tha 
measures to be adopted. {IL x. 1, &.c) Odysaeoa 
and Diomedes were then sent out as spies, and on 
the day following the contest with the Trojana waa 
renewed. Agamemnon himself was again one of 
the bravest, and slew many enemies with his own 
hand. At last, however, he was wounded by Coon 
and obliged to withdraw to his tent. (//. xL 250, 
&c) Hector now advanced victoriously, and Aga>> 
memnon again advised the Greeks to save them- 
selves by flight. (//. liv. 75, &c.) But Odysseus 
and Diomedes again resisted him, and the latter 
prevailed upon him to return to the battle which was 
going on near the ships. Poseidon also appeared 
to Agamemnon in the figure of an aged man, and 
inspired him with new courage. (//. xiv. 125, &c.) 
The pressing danger of the Greeks at last induced 
Patroclus, the friend of Achilles, to take an 
energetic part in the battle, and hi* fall roused 
Achilles to new activity, and led to hi* reconcilia- 
tion with Agamemnon. In the games at the 
fiineral pyre of Patroclus, Agamemnon gained the 
first prize in throwing the speai. {IL xxiiL 890, 
&c.) 

Agamemnon, although the chief commander of 
the Greeks, is not the hero of the Iliad, and in 
chivalrous spirit, bravery, and character, altogether 



AGAMEMNON. 

inferior to Achilles. But he nevertheless rises 
above all the Greeks by his dignity, power, and 
majesty (//. iii. 16G, &c.), and his eyes and head 
are likened to those of Zeus, his girdle to that of 
Ares, and his breast to that of Poseidon. (//. ii. 
477, &c.) Agamemnon is among the Greek 
heroes what Zeus is among the gods of Olympus. 
This idea appears to have guided the Greek artists, 
for in several representations of Agamemnon still 
extant there is a remarkable resemblance to the 
representations of Zeus, The embfem of his power 
and majesty in Homer is a sceptre, the work of 
Hephaestus, which Zeus had once given to Hermet, 
and Hermes to Pelops, from whom it descended 
to Agamemnon, (//. ii. 100, &c.; comp. Pans. ix. 
40. § 6.) His armour is described iu the Hiad. 
(xL 19, &c.) 

The renuiining part of the story of Agamemnon 
is related in the Odyssey, and by several later 
writers. At the taking of Troy he received Cas- 
sandra, the daughter of Priam, as his prize {OJ. 
xi. 421 ; Diet. Cret. v. 13^, by whom, according 
to a tradition in Pausanias (ii. 16. §5), he had two 
sons, Telediinms and Pelops. On his return home 
he was twice driven out of his course by storms, 
but at last landed in Argolis, in the dominion of 
Aegisthus, who had seduced t'l)'temne8tra during 
the absence of her husband. He invited Agiuuem- 
non on his arrival to a repast, and had him and his 
compariions treacherously murdered during the 
feast (Oil. iii. "2G3) [AkgisthusJ, and ClyteomM- 
tra on the same occasion murdered Casiaiidot. 
{Ud. xi. 400, &c. 422, xxiv. 9(j, &c.) Odysseus 
met the shade of Agamemnon in the lower world. 
(Od. xi. 3^7, xxiv. 20.) Menekus erected a 
monument in honour of his brother on the river 
Aegjptus. (Od. iv. 584.) Pauhanias (ii. Iti. § 
5) states, that in his time a monument of Agamem- 
non was still extant at Mycenae. The tragic 
poets have variously modihed the story of the 
murder of Agimieninon. Aeschylus {Agam. 1492, 
&c.) makes Clytemnestra alone murder Agamem- 
non : she threw a net over him while he was iu 
the bath, and slew him with three strokes. Her 
motive is jiartly her jealousy of Ca&sandia, and 
piirtly her adulterous life with Aegisthus. Ac- 
cording to Tzetzes {ad Lycopkr. 1099), Aegisthus 
committed the murder with the assistance of Cly- 
temnestra. Euripides {Or. 26) mentions a gsir- 
ment which Clytemnestra threw over him instead 
of a net, and both Sophocles {Elect. 530) and Eu- 
ripides represent the sacritice of Iphigeueia as the 
cause for which she murdered him. After the 
death of Agamenmon and Cassandra, their two 
sons were murdered upon their tomb by Aegisthus. 
(Pans. ii. It). § 5.) According to Pindar {Pi/th. 
xi. 48) the murder of Agamemnon took place at 
Aniychie, in LKuronica, and Pausanias (/. c.) states 
that the inhabitants of this place disputed with 
those of Mycenae the possession of the tomb of 
Cassandra. (Comp. Paus. iiL 19. § 5.) In bier 
times statues of Agamemnon were erected in several 
pjirts of Greece, and he was worshipped as a hero 
at Amyclae and Olympia. (Paus. iii. 19. § 5, v. 
25. g 5.) He was represented on the pedestal of 
the celebrated Rhamnusian Nemesis (i. 33. ^ ''), 
and his tight with Coon on the chest of Cypselus. 
(v. 19. § 1.) He was painted in the Lesche of 
Delphi, by Polygnotus. (x. 2o. § 2 ; com- 
pare Plin. H. N. XXXV. 36. § 5 ; Quintil. iL 13. 
§ 13; Val. Max, viiL 11. § 6.) It should be re- 



AGAPETUS. 59 

marked that several Latin poets mention a bastard 
son of Agamemnon, of the name of Halesus, to 
whom the foundation of the town of F;Uisci or 
Alesium is ascribed. (Ov. FauL iv. 73; Amor. 
iiL 13. 31 ; comp. Serv. ad Aen. viL 695 ; SiL 
ItoL viii. 476.) 

2. A surname of Zeus, under which he was 
worshipped at Sparta. (Lycophr. 335, with the 
SchoL ; Eustath. ad //, iL 25.) Eustathius thinks 
that the god derived this name from tlie resem- 
blance between him and Agamemnon ; while 
others believe that it is a mere epithet signifying 
the Etenuil, firom d-ya» and tuvvv. [ L. S.J 

AGAMEMNO'NIDES (•A7aM«M''oi'.'8T|j). a 
patronymic form from Agamemnon, which is usi-d 
to designate his sou Orestes. (Horn. Od. i. 30 ; 
Juv. viiL 215.) [L. S.J 

AGAM'CE or AGLAONI'CE (*A7<u'j«»j or 
'AYAoofiin;), daughter of Hegetur, a Thesaaliau, 
who by her knowledge of Astronomy could foretell 
when the moou would disappear, and imposed 
upon credulous women, by aying that she could 
draw down the moon. (Piut. de Off, Coujmf. p. 145, 
de iM-fect. Orac. p. 417.) [L. S.] 

AGANIPPE ('Ayaj-itnTii). 1, A nymph of 
the well of the same name at the foot of Mount 
Helicon, in Boeotia, which was considered sacred 
to the Muses, and believed to have the power of 
inspiring those who drank of it. The nymph is 
called a daughter of the rivei^god Permessua. 
(Paust ix. 29. § 3; Virg. Edug. x. 12,) The 
Muses are Kunetimes called Aganippides. 

2. The wife of Acnsius, and according to some 
accounts the mother of Daiuie, although the latter 
is mure commonly called a daughtt^r of Eurydice, 
(Hvgiu. FuL. 63; SchoL ad ApoUoi. Hhud. ir. 
1091.) [L. S.] 

AGANIPPIS, u used by Ovid {Fast. v. 7) as 
an epithet of Hippocreue ; its meaning however is 
not quite clear. It is dt-i ..-, the 

well or nymph, and as A^ lo de- 

signate the Muses, Aguinpi-ia iii|)pvcivue may 
mean nothiug but ** Hippocreue, sacred to the 
Muses." [L. S.] 

AGAPE'NOR ('AyoBTjrs^), a ion of Ancaeus, 
and grandson of Lycurgus. He was king of the 
Arcadians, and received sixty ships from Aga- 
memnon, in which he led his Arcadians to Troy. 
(Horn. 11. ii. 609, &c. ; Hygin. Fab. 97.) He 
also occurs among the suitors of Helen. (Hygin. 
Fab. 81 ; ApoUod. iii. 10, § 8.) On his return 
from Troy he Wiu cast by a storm on the coast oi 
Cyprus, where he foimded the town of Paphiu, 
aitd iu it the fiimous temple of Aphrodite, (Paus. 
viiL 5. § 2, &c.) He also occurs iu the story of 
Harmonia. (ApoUod. iiL 7- § 5, &c. [L. S.J 

AGAPE'TUS ('A7a«-irro5). 1. Metropolitan 
Bishop of Rhodes, a. d. 457. AVheu the Em- 
peror Leo wrote to him for the opinion of his 
suffragans and himself on the council of Chalcedou, 
he defended it against Timotheus Aeluru&. iu a 
letter still extant in a Latin tnuislation, Couci- 
liorum Nova CoUectio a ManisL, voL viL p. 580. 

2. St, bom at Rome, was Archdeacon and 
raised to the Holy See a. a. 535, He was no 
sooner consecrated than he took off the anathemas 
pronounced by Pope Boniface II. against his de- 
ceased rival Dioscorus on a false cliarge of Simony. 
He received an appeal from the Catholics of Con- 
stantinople when Anthimus, the Monophysite, 
was made their Bishop by Theodora. [Anthi- 



60 



AOARISTA. 



Mi's.l Thn fi'nr of nn invnuion of Itnly by 
JuHtinian led tlie fioth Thcodntuii to oblif^c St. 
AKiip'tuit to go hitniH^lf to C'onntaiitinoplo, in hope 
that .IiiHtinian nii^ht Ix" divcrtod from liiii piir)Kiiie. 
(S(;(! Urerinrium S. lAhrriiti, n|(. Maiini, foiiri/ia, 
vol. ix. ]>.(')'.)!>.) Ah to thin laul object In* could 
niako no improHHion on tlir- cnijieror, but he »uo- 
cccdpd in jxTHuadin;; him to dcpowi Anthimua, 
and when Moniian wan chown to Miccced him, 
Agapctus laid hJH own hnndx upon him. Thn 
Council and the Synodal (intery)rct('d into Oreck) 
nont by Apapptus relating to thcw afTairs may be 
found ap. Manoi, vol. viii. pp. li'JD, TCil. Oom- 
pluintft were sent him from varioun quartern ngainH 
the Monophynitc Acephali ; but he died suddenly 
A. D. fi.lfi, April 'J2, and they were rend in a 
Council held on 2nd May, by Mennan. (Mnniti, 
tW. p. 074.) There are two letter* from St. 
AjpipetUK to .TuHtinian in reply to a letter from the 
emperor, in the latter of which he refu»e» to ac- 
knowledge the Orders of the Ariann; and there 
nro two othcrB: 1. To the DiiihopK of Africa, on 
the same subject ; 2. To Reparatus Bishop of 
Carthage, in answer to a letter of congratulation 
on his elevation to the Pontificate. (Mansi, Coft- 
cilia, viii. pp. 8tG— 850.) 

3. Deacon of the Church of St. Sophia, A. D. 
S27. There are two other Aijajx-ti mentioned in 
a Council held by Mennas at this time at Con- 
stantinople, who were Archimandrites, or Ablwts. 
Agapetus was tutor to Justinian, and, on the ac- 
cession of the latter to the empire, addressed to 
him Admonitions on the Duty of a Prince, in 
72 Sections, the initial letters of which form the 
dedication {ixOfais Kf<paKad<av irapatvtrucuv ffx*- 
itaa6t7ffa). The repute in which this work was 
held appears from its common title, viz. the Royal 
Sections ((Tx*^V ^affiXtKci). It was published, 
■with a Latin version, by Zuch. Callierg. Rvo., Ven. 
1509, afterwards by J. Drunon, 8vo., Lips. 16G9, 
Grohcl, 8vo., Lips. 1 733, and in Gallandi''8 BUJio- 
thcca, vol. xi. p. 255, &c., Ven. 1766, after the 
edition of Randurius (Benedictine). It was trans- 
lated into French by Louis XIII., 8vo. Par. 1612, 
and by Th. Pa}TieIl into English, r2mo., Lond. 
1550. [A. J. C] 

AGAPE'TUS ('Ayamrros), an ancient Greek 
physician, whose remedy for the gout is mentioned 
with approbation by Alexander Trallianus (xi. 
p. 303) and Paulus Aegineta. (iii. 78, p. 497, vii. 
11, p. 6C1.) He probably lived between the third 
and sixth centuries after Christ, or certainly not 
later, as Alexander Trallianus, by whom he is 
quoted, is supposed to have flourished about the 
beginning of the sixth century. [W. A.G.] 

AGA'PIUS ('A7o7r(os), an ancient physician of 
Alexandria, who taught and practised medicine at 
Byzantium with great success and reputation, and 
acquired immense riches. Of his date it can only 
be determined, that he must have lived before the 
end of the fifth century after Christ, as Damascius 
(from whom Photius, BiUioth. cod. 242, and Suidas 
have taken their account of him) lived about 
that time. [W.A.G.] 

AGARISTA ("AYop.'oTT,). 1. The daughter of 
Cleisthenes, tyrant of Sicyon, whom her fiither 
promised to give in marriaffe to the best of the 
Greeks. Suitors came to Sicyon from all parts of 
Greece, and among others Megacles, the son of 
Alcmaeon, from Athens. After tliey had been 
detained at Sicyon for a whole year, during which 



AGATHA0ETU8. 

time CleUtkaMt made trial of them in varioa* 
ways, he gare AgBri«t« to M<'gacle«. Frvai tkt* 
marriage came the CI<n»thene* who divided tb* 
Athenian* into ten tril)e«,and iiippocnte*. (Herod. 
vi. 126—130; comp. Athcn. tl p. 273, b. c, 
xii. 541, b. c.) 

2. The daughter of the above-inentioDed Hip- 
pocrates, and the gnind-duught«-r of the abov»- 
mentioned Agariate, married Xanthippu* and 
iK'c.-ime the mother of I'eritles. (Herod. vL ISO; 
Plut IWirl. 3.) 

AOA'SIAS {'Kycurias), a Stymphaliaa af Ar- 
cadia (Xen. Anah. ir. 1. g 27)« k AdfWMly 
mentioned by Xennnhon a* a bnvs and activ* 
officer in the army of the Ten Thousand. {Am^ 
iv. 7. § 11. ▼. 2. 8 15, &c.) H« waa wounded 
while fighting against Asidatea. (Anab. viii. 8, 

§19.) 

AGA'SIAS {'Ayofflai), mo of Doiillwaa, • 
distinguiiihrd sculptor of EphMoa. Ona of tha 
productions of his chisel, the atatne known by tbo 
name of the Itorghese gladiator, is still preserved 
in the gallery of the Louvre. This statue, as well 
as the Ap<illo Bolriderc, waa diacovend among 
the ruins of a palace of the Roma w np t f ora on tba 
site of the anri."' a ..•;..... ^/■'...-. -/* ^-ro). Fioa 
the attitude of : ■ tho atataa 

represents not >r contend' 

ing with a mount«;ti coiuUitaiit. Thiersch conjec- 
tures that it was intended to represent Achillea 
fighting with Penthesilea. The only record that 
we have of this artist is the inscription on tba 
pedestal of the statue ; nor are there any data fer 
ascertaining the age in which he lived, except the 
style of art displayed in the work itself, which 
competent judges think amnot have been prodnoed 
eariier than the fourth century, b. c. 

It is not quite clear whether the Agasiaa, who it 
mentioned as the father of Heraclidea, waa tho 
same as the author of the Borghese atatne, or a 
different person. 

There was another sculptor of the Mme name, 
also an Ephesian, the son of Menophilus. He is 
mentioned in a Greek inscription, from which it 
appears that he exercised his art in Dehjs while 
that island was under the Roman sway ; probably 
somewhere about 100, B. c (Thiersch, Epodten d. 
Old. Kuntt, p. 130 ; Miiller, Arch. d. KuntL, 
p. 155.) fC. P. M.] 

AGASICLES, AGESICLES or H P:GESICLES 
{'hyaaiKXrii, 'AyntnKXijt, 'Hyria-iKXijs), a king of 
Sparta, the thirteenth of the line of Procles. He 
was contemporary with the Agid Leon, and suc- 
ceeded his father Archidamns L, probably alx>ut 
B. c. 590 or 600. During his reign the Lacedae- 
monians carried on an unsuccessful war against 
Tegea, but prospered in their other wars. (Herod. 
L 65 ; Paus. iii. 7. § 6, 3. §. 5.) [C. P. M.] 

AGA'STHENES {'Ayaaefvvs), a son of An- 
gelas, whom he succeeded in the kingdom of Elis. 
He had a son, Polyxenus, who occurs among the 
suitors of Helen. (Horn. //. ii, 624 ; Paus. v. 3. 
§ 4 ; Apollod. iii. 10. § 8.) [L. S.] 

AGATHA'NGELUS, the son of Callistratus 
wrote the life of Gregory of Armenia in Greek, 
which is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, vol. viiL 
p. 320. There are manuscripts of it in the public 
libraries both of Paris and Florence. The time at 
which Agathangelus lived is unknown. (Fabric. 
BJ>1. Grace, vol. x. p. 232, xL p. 554.) 

AGATHAGE'TUS {^AyaJdiynror), a Rhodian, 



AGATHARCHIDES. 

"who recommended his state to espouse the side of 
the Romans at the beginning of the war between 
Rome and Perseus, B. c. 171. (Polyb. xxviL G. 
§ 3, xxviii. 2. ^ 3.) 

AGATHA'RCHIDES {'AyaOapxlSvs), or 
AGATHARCHUS {'Aydeapxos), a Greek gram- 
marian, born at Cnidos. He was brought up b)' 
a man of the name of Cinnaeus ; was, as Strabo 
(xvi. p. 779) informs us, attached to the Peripa- 
tetic school of philosophy, and wrote several 
historical and geographical works. In his youth 
he held the situation of secretary and reiulor to 
Ileniclides Lembus, who (according to Suidas) 
lived in the reign of Ptolemy Philometor. This 
king died u. c. \-l('>. He liimself informs us (in 
his work on the Erythraean Sea), that lie was sub- 
sequently guardian to one of the kings of Egypt 
during his minority. This was no doubt one of 
the two sons of Ptolemy Physcon. Dodwell en- 
deavours to shew that it was the younger son, 
Alexander, and objects to Soter, that he reigned 
conjointly with his mother. This, however, was 
the case with Alexander likewise. Wesseling 
and Clinton think the elder brother to be the one 
meant, as Soter II. was more likely to have Ijeen a 
minor on his accession in u. c. 117, than Alexan- 
der in M. c. 107, ten years after their father's 
death. Moreover Uodwell's date would leave too 
short an interval between the publication of Aga- 
tharchides's work on the Erj'thniean Sea (about 
B. c. 113), and the work of Artemidorus. 

An enumeration of the works of Agatharchide* 
is given by Photius (Cod. 213). He wrote a 
work on Asiii, in 10 books, and one on Europe, 
in 49 books ; a geogniphical work on the Ery- 
thraean Sea, in 5 books, of the first and fifth 
books of which Photius gives an abstract ; an 
epitome of the last mentioned work ; a treatiM on 
the Troglodytae, in 5 books ; an epitome of the 
AuSrj of Antimachus ; an epitome of the works of 
those who had written wtpl ttjs ffwayaryijs dav- 
Haa((jii> dvf/jLuv ; an historical work, frum the 
Pith and 30th books of which Athenaeus quotes 
(xii. p. 527, b. vi. p. 251, f.); and a treatise on 
the intercourse of friends. The first three of 
these only had been read by Photius. Agathar- 
cliides composed his work on the Erythraean Sea, 
as he tells us himself, in his old age (p. 1 4, ed. 
Iluds.), in the reign probi»bly of Ptolemy Soter II. 
It appears to have conUiiaed a great deal of valu- 
able matter. In the first book was a discussion 
resjK'cting the origin of the name. In the fifth 
he described the mode of life amongst the Sabaeans 
in Arabia, and the Ichtliyophagi, or fish-eaters, 
the way in which elephants were caught by the 
elephant-etiters, and the mode of working the gold 
mines in the mountains of Egypt, near the Red 
Seiu His account of the Ichthyophagi and of the 
mode of working the gold mines, has been copied 
by Diodorus. (iii. 12 — 18.) Amongst other ex- 
traordiniiry animals he mentions the camelopord, 
which was found in the country of the Troglo- 
dytae, and the rhinoceros. 

Agatharchides wrote in the Attic dialect. His 
stj'le, according to Photius, was dignified and per- 
spicuous, and abounded in sententious passages, 
vhich inspired a favourable opinion of his judg- 
ment. In the composition of his speeches he was 
an imitator of Thucydides, whom he equalled in 
dignity and excelled in clearness. His rhetorical 
talents also are highly praised by PhotiuSb He 



AGATHARCHUS. 



<ri 



was acquainted with the language of the Aethio- 
pians {de Rubr. M. p. 46), and appears to have 
been the first who discovered the true cause of the 
yearly inundations of the Nile. (Diod. L 41.) 

An Agatharchides, of Samos, is mentioned by 
Plutarch, as the author of a work on Persia, and 
one »«pJ tJiiiav. Fabricius, however, conjectures 
that the true reading is Agathyrsides, not Aga- 
tharchides. (Dodwell in Hudson's Geoyr. Script. O'r. 
Minoret; Clinton, Faati Ilell. iii. p. 535.) [C.P.M.] 

There is a curious observation by Agatharchides 
preserved by Plutarch {Sympos. viii. 9. § 3), of 
the species of worm called FUaria AfetimentU, or 
Guitufu Worm, which is the earliest account of 
it that is to be met with. See Justus ^Veihe, 
De Filar. AteJitu Cumtuekt., Berol. 1U32, 8vo.» 
and especially the very learned work by O. H. 
Welschius, Ue Veua MeJitiensi, <Jjv., August. 
Vindel. l«74, 4to. [W.A. G.] 

AGATHARCHUS {'Ayadapxof), a Syracusan, 
who was placed by the Syracusans over a fleet of 
twelve ships in b.c. 413, to visit their allies and 
harass the Athenians. He was afterwards, in the 
same year, one of the Syracusan commanders in 
the decisive battle fought in the harbour of Syra- 
cuse. (Thuc. vii. 25, 70; Diod. xiii. 13.) 

AGATHARCHUS {'Ayd0apxoi), an Athenian 
artist, said by Vitruvius {Frae/. ad lib. vii.) to 
have invented scene-painting, and to have painted 
a scene (scfmiiii /Wii) for a tragedy which Aeschylus 
exhibited. As this appears to contradict .\ristotle's 
assertion (Poi't. 4. § 16), that ic«n»-painting was 

introduced by Sophodea, tome scholars -" ' - * 

Vitruvius to meui merely, that AgatI 
ttructed a stage. (Coin|iare Hor. Ep. u 
et moJicit itutravH pulpita ti4/mit.) But the context 
shews clearly that perspective painting must be 
meant, tat Vitmnus goes on to say, that I>emocritus 
and Anazagonuk, carrying out the principles laid 
down in the treatise ol Agathaichus, wrote oo the 
same subject, ihewiiig how, in dnwiog, the linea 
ought to be made to correspond, according to a na- 
tural proportion, to the figure which would be traced 
out on an imaginary iuten'ening plane by a pencil 
of rays proceeding from the eye, as a fixed point 
of sight, to the several points of the object viewed. 

It was probably not till towards the end of 
Aeschylus's career that scene-painting was intro- 
duced, and not till the time of Sophocles tliat it 
was generally made use of ; which may account 
for what Aristotle says. 

There was another Greek painter of the name 
of Agatharchua, who was a native of the island of 
Samos, and the son of Eudemus. He was a con- 
temporary of Alcibuides and Zeuxis. ^\'e have no 
definite accounts respecting his perfonnances, but 
he does not appear to have been an artist of much 
merit : he prided himself chiefly on the ease and 
rapidity with which he finished his woiks. (Plut. 
Perid. 1 3.) Plutarch {Alcih. 1 6) and Andocides at 
greater length («'» Alcib. p. 31. 15) tell an anecdote 
of Alcibiades having inveigled Agatharchus to his 
house and kept him there for more than three 
mouths in strict durance, compelling him to adorn 
it with his penciL The s{>eech of Andocides above 
referred to seems to have been delivered after the 
destruction of Melos (b. c. 416) and before the 
expedition to Sicily (b. c. 415); so that from the 
above data the age of Agatharchus may be accu- 
rately fixed. Some scholars (as Bentley, Bottiger, 
and Meyer) have supposed him to be the same as 



62 AGATIIIAS. 

the coiit<>mponiry of Ae«chyluH, who, however, 
iinmt hiivo prcccMli-d liiin liy a good half century. 
(Mi.ll.T, Anh. d. Knn„t, l). 11(1.) | C. I*. M.) 

A(;.\THI';'.VIKIU;.S ( \yad-^tx»iH>s), th..- »on of 
Orthoii, and th<! author of a hiiuiII (fco^riiphicul 
work in two book*, entitled t^t ytiiiypa^'Mi i)iro- 
rvwcirrtit iu iiriro/x^ (" A Sketch of (Jeoj^raphy 
in epitome"), addressed to hin pupil Fhilon. i{iii 
aj{e cannot Im; fixed with much certainty, but he 
18 HuppoHed to have lived about the b<-Kinnin){ of 
the third century after Chriitt. Ho lived aft«!r 
Ptolemy, whom he often iiuotes and before the 
foundation of Conntantinoplu on the ititc of Byxan- 
tium in a. d. 3*28, an ho mention* only thu old 
city Hy/antium. (ii. 14.) Wendclin ha* attempt- 
ed to ithew that h« wroU; in the lx-f(inning of the 
third century, from the statement he givei of the 
ditttance of the tropic from the equator ; but Dod- 
well, who thinkn he lived nearer tho time of 
Ptolemy, contendu th.it the calcuLition cannot \ie 
deiKJnded on. From hi» upeaking of .\lbion if p 
(rr/iardirfSa 7Spi>rai, it hait Ix'en thought that he 
wrote not very long after tho erection of the wall 
of Severus. Tlii» is probably true, but the language 
is Haircely definite enough to ostabliiih tho point. 

His work consist* chiefly of extract* from 
Ptolemy and other earlier writcm. From a cou>- 
parison with Pliny, it appear* that Artcmidorus, 
of whose work a sort of compendium is contained 
in the first book, was one of his main outhoritie*. 
He gives a short account of tho various fomu 
assigned to the earth by earlier writers, treats of 
the divisions of the earth, seas, and islands, the 
winds, and the length and shortnes* of the days, 
and then lays down the most important distances 
on tho inhabited part of the earth, rackoned in 
st-idia. The surname Agathemerus fretjuently 
occurs in inscriptions. (Dod well in Hudson's Geo- 
ff raph. Scrijjtores Or. Afinores; Ukert, Geo<tr. der 
Grieelipn u. R'dmer, pt. i. div. 1 . p. 23«.) [C. P. M.] ' 

AO.\THK'MERUS, CLAUDIUS (KKaiZiot 
'Ayad-/ifjLfpoi), an ancient Greek physician, who 
lived in the first century after Christ. He wa« 
bom at Locedaemon, and was a pupil of the philo- 
sopher Conmtus, in whose house he became ac- 
quainted with the poet Persius about a. d. 50. 
(Pseudo-Sue ton. vita Persii.) In the old editions 
of Suetonius he is called Affaternua, a mistake 
which was first corrected by Reinesius (Si/ntayiiui 
Inscript. Antiq. p. 610), from the epitiiph upon 
him and his wife, Myrtale, which is preserved 
in the Marmora Ojconiensia and the Greek An- 
thology, vol. iii. p. 381. § '2"24, ed. Tauchn. 
The apparent anomaly of a Roman praenomen 
being given to a Greek, may be accounted for 
by the fact which we learn from Suetonius 
(Tiber. 6), that the Spartans were the hereditary 
clients of the Claudia Gens. (C. G. Kuhn, Ad- 
dilam. ad Elench. Medic. Vet. a J. A. Fabricio, in 
"■BiUioth. Graeca" exhibit.) [W. A. G.] 

AGA'THIAS ('A7aeios), the son of Mamno- 
nius, a rhetorician, was bom, as it seems, in 536 
or 537 A. D. (Hist. ii. 16, and Vita Agathiae in ed. 
Bonn. p. xiv.), at Myrina, a town at the mouth of 
the river Pythicus in Aeolia {Ai^athiae Prooemium, 
p. 9, ed. Bonn. ; p. 5, Par. ; p. 7, Ven.), and re- 
ceived his education in Alexandria, where he 
studied literature. In 554 he went to Constanti- 
nople {Hist. ii. 16), where his father then most 
probably resided, and studied for several years the 
Roman law. {Ejdgr. 4.) He afterward exercised 



AGATHIAS. 

with gmit sooeeM the proCnMon of an adTMata, 

though only for th« Mtkn of a livelihood* ki« b^ 
vourite occu[Kition boiuK Uw attidjr of 
|K>etry {Hut. iii. I ); and ha Hid MItfawfar Mt 
tion to hiittory. Hi* pfo fm alOB « • kw^ ' 
the cau»e of his sunuunc IxoKwrruc&t (Sauiaa,«.«. 
'KyaBia%), which word kiguilied wi advocate ia dM 
time of Aguthia*. Niebubr {Vita Ajfatk. ia ad. 
Wmix. p. XV.) l>elieTea, that ha diad dorim th« 
Kign of Ti>>eriui Thnu, a short tioM bifiM* iha 
death of this cmp<Tor and tha a cceaa i oa of Maari' 
tins in 58'J, at the age of oalx 44 or 45 jmm. 
Agathias, who was a Chriatian {Bpigr. 1, h, aad 
e*pocially 4), enjoyisd daring his lib Uw a rt sw af 
*everal great and distinguished mtn of Ua tina, 
such as Theodoras the decorio, Paahu SQestiariaa, 
Kutychianus the jroanfer, and Ma«wd a« i i i a tha cx- 
conitul. He shewed them hi* gratitada by dadioi^ 
ing in them several of hi* literary pwdttiaiia, aad 
ho paid particular homage to Paoiai 8Beatiafia% 



the win of Cyrus Florus, who was 
an old and illustrioos CHaiiy. {IFuL t. 9.) 
Agathias is tha autlMr of tha MlowiaK weeks : 

1. A w fria gd , a col l ectieB of soaall ma pnsas, 
divided into nine books ; the poeiaa are writtaa ia 
hexametrea. Nothing is extaot of this coUeetioa, 
which the author calls a juvenile easay. (Agath. 
ProoarJmm, p. 6, ed. Bonn. ; p. 4, Par. ; p. G, Ven.) 

2. Ki!«A«t, aa aatbolonr — »-'-'ig pooiM of 
early writers aad of eareiiil of hie MBteMfomioi* 
chiefly of soeh aawern hiapeoleelara,aBwagwhai 
were Paulus Silentiarius sind Maeedonius. This 
collection was divided into seven books, but nothing 
of it is extant except the introduction, which was 
written by Agathias himself. However, 108 epi- 
grams, which were in circdation either beCsra ho 
collected his KiicXof, or which ha iwmpnaiid at a 
later period, have come down to uai The hat 
seven and several others of these epigrams are ge- 
nerally attributed to other writers, such as Paulas 
Silentiarius, dec The epigrams are contained in 
the AnlkUoffia Gratca (iv. p. 3, ed. Jacobs), and 
in the editions of the historical work of Agathiaik 
Joseph Scaliger, Janns Dooza, and Bonaventm 
Vulcanius, have translated the greater part of 
them into Latin. The epigrams were written and 
published after the Aa^yuwca. 

3. 'Ayofltou 2xo^<x'~rucoG Mvptvcuou 'lirropUtv E. 
" Agathiae Scholastici Myrincnsis Historiarum 
Libri V." This is his principal work. It con- 
tains the history from 553 — 558 x, »., a short 
period, but remarkable for the important events 
with which it is filled up. The first book contains 
the conquest of Italy by Narses over the Goths 
and the first contests between the Greeks and the 
Franks ; the second book contains the continua- 
tion of these contests, the description of the great 
earthquake of 554, and the begimiing of the war 
between the Greeks and the Persians ; the third 
and the fourth books contain the continoation of 
this war until the first peace in 536 ; the fifth 
book relates the second great earthquake of 557, 
the rebuilding of St. Sophia by Justinian, the 
plague, the exploits of Belisarius over the Huns 
and other barbarians in 558, and it finish '^ 
abmptly with the 25th chapter. 

Agathias, after having related that he had 
abandoned his poetical occupation for more serious 
studies {Prooemium, ed. Bonn. pp. 6, 7; Par. p. 4; 
Ven. p. 6), tells us that soveral distinguished men 
had suggested to him the idea of writing the history 



AGATHINUS. 

of his time, and he adds, that he had nndertaken 
the task especially on the advice of Eutychiauus. 
(/6.) However, he calls Kutychianus the onia- 
ment of the family of the Flori, a family to which 
Eutychianus did not belong at all. It is therefore 
probable that, instead of Eutychianus, we must 
read Paulus Sileutiarius : Niebuhr is of this opi- 
nion, (lb. not, 19.) Agathias is not a great histo- 
rian ; he wants historical and geographical know- 
ledge, principally with regard to Italy, though he 
knows the \\&s,i better. He seldom penetrates into 
the real causes of those great events which form 
the subjects of his book : his history is the work 
of a man of business, who adonis his style with 
poetical reminiscences. But he is honest and im- 
partial, and in all those things which he is able to 
understimd he shews himself a man of good sense. 
His style is often bombastic ; he praises himself ; 
in his Greek the Ionic dialect prevails, but it is the 
Ionic of his time, degenerated from its classical 
purity into a sort of mixture of all the other Greek 
diidects. Nothwithstanding these deficiena's the 
work of Agiithias is of high value, beumse it con- 
tains a great number of important facts concerning 
one of the most eventful periods of Uoman history. 
Editions : 'Kyadiov 2xo^««rTWfo» irtpl t^i Boiri- 
Aci'as ^loudTiViavov, r6noi E., ed. lionaventura 
Yulcanius, with a I^atin transhttion, Lugduni, 1594. 
The Parisian edition, which is contained in the 
" Corpus Script. Byzant." was published in 1(>()0 ; 
it contJiins many errors and conjectural iiniova- 
tions, which have been reprinted and augmented 
by the editors of the Venetian edition. Another 
edition was published at Basel (in 1576.^). A 
Latin translation by Christophorus Persona was 
separately published at Home, 151 ti, fol., and 
afterwards at Augsburg, 1519, 4to. ; at liasel, 1531, 
fol., and at Ley den, 1594, Bvo. The best edition 
is that of Niebuhr, Bonn. 18*28, Bvo., which forms 
the third volume of the " Corpus Scriptorum 
Histori:ie Byz<intinae." It contains the Latin 
tnmslation and the notes of Bonaventura Vulcanius. 
The Epigrams form an appendix of this edition of 
Niebuhr, who has carefully corrected the errors, 
and removed the innovations of the Parisian 
edition. [W. P.] 

AGATHI'NUS (' K-^aBivos), an eminent an- 
cient Greek physician, the founder of a new 
metlical sect, to which he gave the name of Epi- 
ftinthetk-i. {Diet, of Ant. s. v. EPISYXTHKTICI.) 
He was born at Sparta and must have lived in the 
first century after Christ, as he was the pupil of 
Athenaeus, and the tutor of Archigenes. (Galen. 
Dffinit. Med. c. 14. vol. xix. p. 353 ; Suidas, ». r. 
'Apxiyii^i ; Eudoc. Violur. ap. Villoison, Aneed. 
Gi: vol. i. p. 65.) He is said to have been once 
seized with an attack of delirium, brought on by 
want of sleep, from which he was delivered by his 
pupil Archigenes, who ordered his head to be 
fomented with a great quantity of wann oiL 
(Aetius, tetr. i. senu. iii. 17-, p. 156.) He is 
frequently quoted by Galen, who mentions him 
among the Pneumatici. {De Dufaasc. I'ulg. i. 3, 
vol. viii. p. 787.) None of his writings ate now 
extimt, but a few fragments are contained in 
Matthaei's Collection, entitled XXI Veterum et 
Clarorum Medicorum Graemrum Variu Opuscula, 
Mosquae, 1808, 4to. See also Palladius, Coin- 
ment. in Hippocr. " De Morb. Popul. lib. vi." ap. 
Dietz, Sihotia in Ilippocr. et Galen, vol. iL p. 56. 
The particular opinions of his sect ore not einctly 



AGATHOCLES. 



63 



known, but they were probably nearly the same 
as those of the Eclectic!. (Diet, of Ant. s. r. 
EcLECTici.) (See J. C. Osterhausen, Histor. Sectae 
Pneumatic. Med. Altorf. 1791, 8 vo.; C. G. Kuhn, 
Additam. ad blench. Medic. VeL a J. A. Fubrido 
in " BiUioth. Graeca" exhibit.) [ W. A. G.] 

AGATHOCLE'A ('A7a6o(cA.f«a), a mistress of 
the profligate Ptolemy Philopator, King of Egypt, 
and sister of his no less profligate minister 
Agathocles. She and her brother, who both exer- 
cised the most unbounded influence over the king, 
were introduced to him by their ambitious and 
avaricious mother, Oenauthe. After Ptolemy had 
put to death his wife and sister Eurydice, Aga- 
thoclea became his favourite. On the death of 
Ptolemy (o. c. 205), Agathoclea and her fnends 
kept the event secret, that they might have an 
opportunity of plundering the royal treaaory. 
They also formed a conspiracy for setting Aga- 
thocles on the throne. He managed for uxna 
time, in conjunction with Socibius, to act aa 
guardian to the young king Ptolemy Epiphanea. 
At last the Egyptiana and the Macedoniana of 
Alexandria, exaapeiatad St Ua oatngea, roaa 
against him, and Tlepdemna pheed himself at 
their head. They surrounded the palace in tha 
night, and forced their way in. Agathocles and 
his sister implored in the moat abject manner that 
their lives might be spared, but in vain. Th« 
former was killed by hia frienda, that he might not 
be expoaed to a more crael fiUeu Agatho<.-lea with 
her aittera, and Oenanthe, who had taken refuge 
in a temple, were dragged forth, and in a state of 
nakedness exposed to the fury of the multitude, 
who literally ton them limb from limb. All their 
rehitions and thoae who had had any ahare in the 
murder of Eurydice were likewise put to death. 
(Polyb. V. 63, xiv. 11, xv. 25 — 34 ; Justin, xxx. 
1,2; Athen. vL p, 251, xiiL p. 576 ; Plut. t'Uoia. 
33.) There was another Agathoclea, the daughter 
of a man named Ariatomenea, who was by birth 
an Acamanian, and rose to gnat power in Egypt. 
(Polyb. /. c.) [C. P. M.] 

,^,:a'i ii,,.i >•< fATO^wtAn*), a Sicilian of 
su ty and energy, that he raised 

hii: -..'jn of a potter to that of tyrant 

of Syracuse anil king of Sicily. He flourished in 
the latter part of the fourth and the beginning of 
the third century, B. c, so that the period of his 
dominion is contemporary with that of the second 
and third Samnite wars, during which time his 
power must have been to Rome a cause of painful 
interest ; yet so entire is the loss of all Roman 
history of that epoch, that he is not once mentioned 
in the 9th and 10th books of Livy, though we 
know that he had Samnites and Etruscans in his 
service, that assistance was asked from him by the 
Tarentines (Strab. vL p. 280), and that he actually 
landed in Italy. (See Arnold's Rotitty c. xxxv.) 
The events of his life are detailed by Diodonis and 
Justin. Of these the first has taken his account 
from Timaeus of Tauromenium, a historian whom 
Agathocles banished from Sicily, and whose love 
for censuring others was so great, that he was nick- 
named Epitimueus (fiiult-finder). (Athen. vi. p. 272.) 
His natural propensity was not likely to be soft- 
ened when he was describing the author of his 
exile ; and Diodorus himself does not hesitate to 
accuse him of having calumniated Agathocles very 
grossly. {Fnu/m. lib. xxL) Polybius too charges 
him with wilMly perverting the truth (xi. 15), so 



64 



AOATIIOCLES. 



tlmt tlip account which ho has left mu»t Ik! rcceWed 
with much HUHpicion. MitrvcUoiii Htorick are re- 
lated of the early year* of Apithoclcii. IJoni at 
'I'hcriiiac, a town of Sicily nubjcct to Cartha;?!-, he 
in wiid to have been exj>o»(!<l when an infiC'^ hy 
hi» fatiier, Oarcinuh of Uhe^'iuiii, in conBCfpience of 
A itiicceHHioii of troubleHonie drcami, p:;rtcnding 
that he would he a source of much evil to Sicily. 
His niotlicr, however, secretly prencrved hiii life, 
and at seven years old he was rehtored to his fiv- 
tlu-r, who had long re|)cntcd of his conduct to the 
child. ISy him he was taken to Syracuse and 
brou){ht n[) tin a potter.' In his youth he led a 
life of extniva|u;ance and debauchery, but was re- 
markable for Htreni(th and personal beauty, qualities 
which recommended him to Damat, a noble Syra- 
cuKiin, under whoso auspices he wa> made first a 
soldier, then a chiliarch, and afterwards a military 
tribune. (Jn the death of Diunos, he married his 
rich widow, and so became one of the wtialthiest 
citi/.cns in Synicuxc. His ambitious schemes then 
developed themiu'lves, and he was driven into 
exile. After sevenil chan;?es of fortune, he col- 
lecte<l an anny which overawed both the Syractiaaiu 
and Ciirtha^inianii, and was re^tored under an oath 
that he would not interfen; with the domocracr« 
which oath he kept by murdering 4000 and banish- 
ing GOUU citizens. He was immediately declared 
sovereign of Synicuse, under the title of Autocrator. 
Hut Ilamilcnr, the Carthaginian general in Sicily, 
kept the field Buccessfully ogaiuHt him, after the 
whole of Sicily, which was not under the dominion 
of Carthaf.'e, had submitted to him. In the battle 
of Iliniera, the anny of Agathocles waa defeated 
with great slaughter, and immediately after, Syra- 
cuse itself was closely besieged. At this juncture, 
he fonned the bold design of averting the ruin 
which threatened him, by carrjing the war into 
Africa. To obtiiin money for this purpose, he of- 
fered to let those who dreaded the miseries of a 
protracted siege depart from Syracuse, and then 
sent a body of armed men to plunder and murder 
those who accepted his offer. He kept his design 
a profound secret, eluded the Carthaginian fleet, 
■which w;i8 blockading the harbour, and though 
closely pursued by them for six days and nights, 
landed his men in safety on the shores of Africa. 
Advancing then into the midst of his army, arrayed 
in a splendid robe, and with a crown on his head, 
he announced that he had vowed, as a thank-offer- 
ing for his escape, to sacrifice his ships to Demeter 
and the Kora, goddesses of Sicily. Thereupon, he 
burnt them all, and so left his soldiers no hope of 
safety except in conquest. 

His successes were most brilliant and rapid. Of 
the two Suffetes of Carthage, the one, Bomilcar, 
aimed at the tyranny, and opposed the invaders 
with little vigour ; while the other, Hanno, fell in 
battle. He constantly defeated the troops of Car- 
thage, and had almost encamped under its walls, 
when the detection and crucifixion of Bomilcar in- 
fused new life into the war. Agathocles too was 
summoned from Africa by the afikirs of Sicily, 
where the Agrigentines had suddenly indted their 
fellow-countrymen to shake off his yoke, and left 
his army under his son Archagathus, who was un- 
able to prevent a mutiny. Agathocles returned, 
but was defeated ; and, fearing a new outbreak on 
the part of his troops, fled from his camp with 
Archagathus, who, however, lost his way and was 
taken. Agathocles escaped ; but in revenge for 



AGATHOCLES. 

thi« desertion, the MidiMv mhUnd kit tmm, ami 
then made peace with Caitluga. Nr» tni^lM 

awaiU-d him in Sicily, where l>einocntea, a Hyn^ 
fitmn exile, wan at tiic hewl of a \ufe amy afaimt 
him. Hut he made a treaty with ti» CaWlMMMiaiM, 
defcatt-d the exilM, rMvired UeiaMOMM m» kr- 
vour, and then had no difficulty ia M^Mfalf th* 
ntvoltcd cities of Sicily, of which ialHld h* lad 
iKnne time before a«MUue<l Uie title of kiof. H« 
aftirwards croMcd the Ionian tea. Mid ddimdad 
Corcyra againat CMHuder. (Diod. xzL f^tfm.) 
He plundered the lAjpui idea, and abo caniad kb 
arms into Italy, ia oidtf to attack tha BrattM. 

But bit de«gna wen intemptod bj MVHa Ot 
neta accompanied by great anxiety of miad. ia 
consequence of family distresM>s. His graaaaoa 
Archagathus murdered his son Agat h o c laa, far tka 
sake of succeeding to the crown, and the old kiof 
feared that the ntt of hi* fiunily woold akai* kia 
&te. Aecordiagljr, ka laMtlved to aend kia wifi 
Texena and ker two difldrm to fkjfU ker nativa 
coantry ; they wept at tka thoagfata of hie dying 
thus uncared for and alone, and he at aecioc tk«B 
depart aa ezilea from tka dwaiwfaai wkkk M kad 
wonfartkea. Tkey left kfaa, aad kia dauk Al- 
lowed almoet ianaMtkldr. Far tkb taackiaf MV- 
nitire, Timaaai and Oiodona after kirn labematad 
a monstnma and boadihie atory of kia heiaf aoi- 
soned by Maeno, an aaaociate of Aickagatbaiu 
The poison, we are told, waa cooeealed in the onill 
witii • leant-d his teeth, and redoaed aiai 

to -^ I condition, that ke waa pkwed «■ 

tlie :„ ^..c and burnt whik yet Uviac. beiqf 

unable to gire any signs that be waa not dead. 

Tbetv is no doubt that Agathoelea waa a naa 
who did not hesitate to plunge into any excesaea 
of cruelty and treachery to further his own pur- 
poses. He persuaded OpheUaa, king of Cyrena, 
to enter into an alliance with him againct C a ith af a , 
and then murdered him at a banquet, and anxed 
the command of his army. He inrited the princi- 
pal Sj'racusans to a festival, plied them with wine, 
mixed freely with them, discoTered their aectct 
feelings, and killed 500 who aeemed oppoaed to kia 
views. So that while we reject the fictiona of 
Timaeus, we can as little understand the statement 
of Polybiua, that though he used bloody means to 
acquire his power, he i^rwards became most mild 
and gentle. To his great abilities we naye the 
testimony of Scipio Africanus, who when aaked 
what men were in his opinion at once the b(4deat 
warriors and wisest statesmen, replied, Agathodea 
and Dionysius. (Polyb. xv. 35.) He appears also 
to have possessed remarkable powers of wit and 
repartee, to have been a most agreeable companion, 
and to have lived in Syracuse in a security gene- 
rally unknown to the Greek tj-rants, unattended 
in public by guards, and trusting entirely either to 
the popularity or terror of his name. 

As to the chronology of his life, his landing in 
Africa was in the archonship of Hieromnemon at 
Athens, and accompanied bv an eclipse of the sun, 
i.e. Aug. 15, B. c. 310. (Clinton, Fati. HeU.) 
He quitted it at the end of b. c. 307, died B. c, 289, 
after a reign of 28 years, aged 72 according to 
Diodorus, though Lucian (Macrob. 10), gives his 
age 95. Wesseling and Clinton prefer the state- 
ment of Diodorus. The Italian mercenaries whom 
Agathocles left, were the Mamertini who after his 
death seized Messana, and occasioned the first 
Punic war. [G. E. L. C] 



AGATHOCLES. 

AGA'THOCLES {'AyajBoK\i}s). 1. The fa- 
ther of Lysimachus, was a Thessalian Penest, but 
obtained the favour of Philip through flattery, and 
was raised by him to high rank. (Theopompus, 
ap. At/ten. vL p. 259, £., &c. ; Arrian, AnaL vi. 
28. Ind. 18.) 

2. The son of Lysimachus by an Odrysian 
woman, whom Polyaenus (vi. 12) calls Macris. 
Agathocles was sent by his father against the 
Getae, about B. c. 292, but was defeated and taken 
prisoner. He was kindly treated by Droraichaetia, 
the king of the Getae, and sent back to his father 
with presents ; but Lysimachus, notwithstanding, 
marched against the Getae, and was taken prisoner 
himself. He too was also released by Dromichae- 
tis, who received in consequence the daughter of 
Lysimachus in marriage. According to some au- 
thors it was only Agathocles, and according to 
others only Lysimachus, who was taken prisoner. 
(Died. J'Jac. xxi. p. 559, ed. Wess. ; Pans. i. 9. 
§ 7 ; Strab. vii. pp. 302, 305 ; Plut. Lenu-tr. c. 39, 
de ser. num. vind. p. 555, d.) In B. c. 287, Aga- 
thocles was sent by his father against Demetrius 
Poliorcetes, who had marched into Asia to de- 
prive Lysimachus of Lydia and Caria. In this 
expedition he was successful ; he defeated Lysi- 
machus and drove him out of his father's pro- 
vinces. (Plut. Lkmetr. c. 40.) Agathocles was 
destined to be the successor of Lysimachus, and 
was popular among his subjects ; but his step- 
mother, Arsinoe, prejudiced the mind uf his father 
against him ; and after an unsuccessful attempt to 
poison liim, Lysimachus cast him into prison, 
where he was murdered (b. c. 284) by Ptulemaeus 
Ceraunus, who was a fugitive at the court of Lysi- 
machus. His widow Lysiindra tied with his chil- 
dren, and Alexander, his brother, to Seleucus in 
Asia, who made war upon Lysiuuichus in conse- 
quence. (Meninou, up. I'lwt. Cod. 124, pp. 225, 
22(), ed. Bekker; Paus. i. 10; Justin, xvij. 1.) 

AGA'THOCLES (*A-yoeo(cA^i); « Greek histo- 
rian, who wrote the history of Cyiicus (■'♦fl 
KufiKou). He is called by Athenaeus both a 
liabylunian (i. p. 30, a. ix. p. 375, a) and a Cyci- 
can. (xiv. p. G49, f.) He may originally have 
come from Biibylon, and have settled at Cyzicut. 
The first and third books are referred to by Athe- 
naeus. (ix. p. 375, f., xii. p. 515, a.) Tlve time at 
which Agathocles lived is unknown, and his work 
is now lost ; but it seems to have been extensively 
read in antiquity, as it is referred to by Cicero {de 
Div. i. 24), Pliny (//is/. Nut. Elenchus of books 
iv. v. vi), and other ancient writers. Agathocles 
also spoke of the origin of Rome. (Festus, s, r. 
Jiomain; Solinus, Puli/h. 1.) The scholiast on 
ApoUonius (iv. 76*1) cites Memoirs (iJiro/iiTJfioTo) 
by an Agathocles, who is usually supposed to be 
the same as the above-mentioned one. (Compare 
Schol. ad lies. Tieot/. 485 ; Steph. By «. s. v. Bea&KO j; 
Eti/moL M. s. V. Afjcrtj.) 

There are several other writers of the same 
name. 1 . Agathocles of Atrax, who wrote a work 
on fishing (oAit urncd, Suidas, s. r. KuciAioj). 2. Of 
Chios, who \vrote a work on agriculture. (Varro 
and Colum. de lie Rust. i. 1 ; Plin. //. A', xxii. 44.) 
3. Of Miletus, who wrote a work on rivers. (Plut 
de Fluv. p. 1153, c.) 4. Of Samos, who wrote a 
work on the constitution of Pessinus. (Plut. Ibid. 
p. 1159, a.) 

AGA'THOCLES, brother of Agathoclea. [ Aga- 

THOCLKA.] 



AGATHON. 



C5 



AG ATHODAEMON {'KyaeoSal^uav or 'hyaJB6f 
Stoi), the "Good God," a divinity in honour of 
whom the Greeks drank a cup of unmixed wine at 
the end of every repast. A temple dedicated to 
him was situated on the road from ^legalnpolis to 
Maenalus in Arcadia. Pausauias (viii. 3'J. § 3) 
conjectures that the name is a mere epithet of Zeus. 
(Corap. Lobeck, ad Fhryaick. p. (>03.) [L. S.] 

AGATHODAEMON {'KyoBoiaituiy), a uaUve 
fA Alexandria. All that is known of him is, that 
he was the designer of some maps to accompany 
Ptolemy's Geographj. Copies of these mapa are 
foujid appended to MTenl MSS. of Ptolemy. One 
of these is at Vienna, another at Venice. At the 
end of each of these MSS. is the following notice : 
'Ejc T»f KXavSiov IItoXc^ou T*vypQ^ucmti ^ 
SKltM> SicTU r^f o<Koi>^«i^i' Toiraf KyuHoiaifutf 
'AAtfovS^i)} ihrcrvTwo-* (Agath. of Alexandria 
delineated the whole inhabited world according to 
the eight books on Geography of CU Pto lemwu u). 
The Vienna MS. of Ptolemy is one of the nMMt 
beautiful extanC The map* attached to it, 27 in 
number, comprising 1 general map, lU maps of 
Europe, 4 of Africa, and 12 of Asia, are coloured, 
the water being green, the mountains red or dark 
yellow, and the land white. The climates, paral- 
lels, and the hours of the longest day, are marked 
on the East margin of the maps, and the meridiaiu 
on the North and South. We have no evidence 
as to when Agathodaemon lived, as the only notice 
preserved wafwrting him ia that quoted above. 
There waa • gwi— riii «f the aue name, to 
whim waM •stuit lettMS of Isidore of Pelusium 
are addbMMi. 8mm have thought him to be the 
AgrthHarmm ia qiMtlnn ileeren, however, 
considers the delineiOor of the maps to have been 
a contemporary of Ptolmy, who (viiL I, 2) meo- 
tions certain maps ar tahlea (vlvautct), which apee 
in number and anaacnMOt with thoee of Agft- 
thodaeuMo in the 118& 

N'arioqa erMM having in the eeaneof tune oepi 
into the copiM of the map* of Agathodaemon, 
Nicolaus DonLs, a Benedictine monk, who ilou- 
rished about a. D. 147U, restored and corrected 
them, substituting Latin for Greek names. His 
maps are appended to the Ebnerian ^IS. of 
Ptolemy. They are the same iu number and 
nearly the Hune in order with those of Agatho- 
daemon. (Heeien, CamwtemkUio de Funtitiu* 6'«o- 
ifrupA. PtoUmmd Takmlamrnque iU uuueuarum ; 
Kaidel, CnmmtmiaHaeniieo-tileraria de CI. Itulemaei 
6 '-istfite eodkHmt, p. 7.) [C P. M.] 

' N ('At^^sm'X t^^ ^*^ '^^ ^^^ Mace- 
doi...... . ....^uii, and the brother of Parmenion 

and Asander, was given as a hostage to Antigouus 
in B. c. 313, by his brother Asander, who waa 
satrap of Caria, but was taken back again by 
Asander iu a few days. (Diod. xix. 75.) Agathoa 
had a son, named Asander, who is mentioned in a 
Greek inscription. (Biickh, Corp. I user. 105.) 

A'GATHON ('A7oewi'), an Athenian tragic 
poet, was born about b. c. 447, and sprung from a 
rich and respectable family. He was consequently 
contemporary with Socrates and Alcibiades and 
the other distinguished characters of their age, 
with many of whom he was on terms of Intimate 
acquaintance. Amongst these was his friend 
Euripides. He w;is remarkable for the handsome- 
ness of his person and his various accomplishments. 
(Plat. Protay. p. 156, b.) He gained his first 
victory at the Lenaean festival in B. c. 416, when 



AOATHON. 

Ii<' was a littlo nbovo thirty y<rar» of a(,'(' : in honour 
of which I'hito r(')»r(Hciit)t thf Syrii|«>»iiim, or baii- 
(liu!t, to huM! Im-cii f,''^<'"i which ho him madi! thi* 
octaHion of his dialogue no cjiIIcmI. 'J'he Kcne in 
hiid lit Aj^athori'n houm*, and aniongtit the interlo- 
cutors arc, Ai)olio(loni«, Hocrati^ii, Ari»to|)hanfii, 
Diotiniit, and Aicibiadcii. FUU) wiu then fourttn-n 
yi-arH of aj,'i', and a ttjicctator at the trajjic eont*'i.t, 
in whitii A{{athon wan victoriou*. (Athi-n, v. p. 
'J 17, a.) When Af^thon wan about forty year* of 
Rifi! (b. n. 407), ho vinited thi; court of Archfiauis 
the king of Macedonia (Aelian, F. //. xiii. 4), 
where Iuh old friend Kuri|)ides wa* aUo a gTiest at 
the Kiiine time. From the expn'ssion in the Uunae 
(fl.'i), that he was g'*'"^ is fianapuy fvwx'O'', notliing 
certain can Ims determined a« to the time of hiii 
death. The phnwe admitH of two meanings, cither 
that he was then residing at the court of Archolaut, 
or that he was dead. The former, however, it the 
more prolwible inttrrpretation. (Clinton, Fast /fell. 
vol. ii. p. xxxii.) lie is generally supposed to 
have died about B. c. 400, at th« agv of forty- 
Bcven. (Bode, OttcUdUB der dram. DkUkmut, I 
p. .'>.5.').) fThe poetic merits of Affnthoii wan eoo- 
siderable, but his com]>ofiitionB were more ranurk- 
able for elegance and Howery ornament! than force, 
vigour, or bublimity. They alxiunded in anti- 
thesis and mebiphor, " with cheerful thoughts and 
kindly images," (Aelian, V. If. xiv. 13,) and he 
is said to have imitiited in verse the prose of Gor- 
gias the philosopher. The language which Plato 
puts into his mouth in the Symposium, is of the 
wune chanictor, full of harmonious words and softly 
flowing periods : an iKadov ptvita d'^o^ttrrl piorrot. 
The style of his verses, and especially of his lyrical 
compositions, is represented by Aristophanes in hit 
Tlu'smophoriazus'ie (191) as affected and effemi- 
nate, corresponding with his personal appearance 
and manner. In that play (acted b.c. 409), where 
lie a]){)oar8 as the friend of Euripides, he is ridiculed 
for his effeminacy, both in manners and actions, 
being brought on the stage in female dreaa. In 
the Kanae, acted live years afterwards, Aristophanes 
speaks highly of him as a poet and a nmn, calling 
him an dya66s iroirp-i)? Kcd irodftyds toTj <(>i\ois. 
In the Thesmophoriazusae (29) also, he calls him 
'Aydduv 6 KXetvoj. In some respects, Agathon 
was instrumental in causing the decline of tragedy 
at Athens. He was the first tragic poet, according 
to Aristotle (J'oet. 18. § 22), who commenced the 
practice of inserting choruses between the acts, the 
Kubject-matter of which was unconnected with the 
story of the drama, and which were therefore 
called fn€6\iij.a, or intercalarj', as being merely 
lyrical or musical interludes. The same critic 
(^Fott. 18. § 17) also blames him for selecting too 
extensive subjects for his tragedies. Agathon also 
wrote pieces, the story and characters of which 
were the creations of pure fiction. One of these 
was called the " Flower " ("Aydos, Arist Poet. 9. 
§ 7) ; its subject-matter was neither mythical nor 
historical, and therefore probably "neither seriously 
affecting, nor terrible." (Schlegel, Dram. Lit. i. 
p. 189.) We cannot but regret the loss of this 
work, which must have been amusing and originaL 
The titles of four only of his tragedies are known 
with certainty : they are, the Thyestes, the Tele- 
phus, the Aerope, and the Alcmaeon- A fifth, 
which is ascribed to him, is of doubtful authority-. 
It is probable that Aristophanes has given us 
extracts from some of Agathon's plays in the 



Tl,.- 

COIllj.. 

lientl 

Kuripidea, p. 417 



AGAVF- 
ioa«, T. 100-130. Tke ooinion diAt 
I •>!• eMucdiea, or that tinere wa* a 
"I thit MUM, Iwa Uan nfiitMl by 
hi* I>i»*ertaikn iimi tk« BpMaa «f 



(KitacU, 



dtA9- 



UumU riia, ArU tl Trvgoadiarwm rdkimiu^ Halae, 
1«29, «vo.) [K. W.J 

AGATHON (^Kyi»m\, of fluaoa, who vrM 
a work upon 8cythia ud aootlMr ^Ml BifWk 
(i'lut. de Fluv. p. 11&6, e. HAS, •! %^vkmmt 
Serm. tit. lUO. 10, ed. (Jaitfurd.) 

AO'ATHON {'KyiBtiv), at tinrt KcMkr, alW- 
wardi Librarian, at Conitantinoplo Id a. Bi 0til, 
during hia Readership, Iw WM Notanr or B^ 
(lurur at th« «tk timal CowKtl, which •••• 
demned tha Monothalh* hentr. Ho Mat mfim 
of the acta, writtea by hiaiao^ to the fir* Paui> 
archatet. He wrote, a. D. 712, a thort treatue, 
ttill extant in Greek, on the attemptt uf Philip, 
picut Bardanet (711 — 713) to revive the Muno> 
thclite error, CoMciliorum Nova Colletiio a 3/uaM, 
vol. xii. p. 1K9. {A. J. C.J 

A( i AIT I ( J'.ST H KN I--S ('AytOoirtinn ), a Greek 
hittorian or philoaopher of uncertain date, who ia 
referred to by Tietzet (ad Lt/oupkr. 704, 1021. 
CkU. viL 645) at hit authority in mattert comtocW 
ed with nognphy. There ia mention af • waik 
of AgrtWhrnra cdled ** Aiiatics CamiM* 
(GcHMokM, im ArmL Pkum. 34), when Onb 
\NaUi» im PmrOmm. p. 12&, kit.) wkhad lo Mi 
the M«e AgfaneriMwe;farAAi>elh— eeor A|lee 
thenee, who la by aoae tmaimwA to be the wimm 
at Agathoethenea, wrate • week on the hietorr 
of Naxoa, of which nothing it extant, but which 
waa much need by ancient writers. (Hygin. /'or/. 

Attr. ii. 16 ; Fi- ^ '•■•■„L ii. 27 ; Pollux, ix. 

83 ; Athen. iii. //. A', iv. 22.) [L. a J 

AGATHO"! 1 ' ~ , Ayotf^vxot), an ancient 
veterinary aoigeoB, whoae d^ and hiatory are un- 
known, bat who pnfaaUy lired in the fearth or 
fifth century after Chriat. Some fiagaienu of hit 
writinga are to be found in the ooUection of workt 
on this subject firtt published in a Latin tianalatioa 
by Jo. Uuellius, Velerinariae Atedidnae Libri dmo, 
Paris. 1530, fol., and after warda in Greek by 
Grjnacus, Batil. 1.537, 4to. [W. A. G.J 

AGATHYLLUS ("A-yddwAAof), of Arcadia, 
a Greek elegiac poet, who is quotMi by Dionjnmu 
in refoence to the hiatory of Aeneaa and the fom- 
dation of Rome. Some of hit venes are preaerved 
by Dionvsius. (L 49, 72.) 

AGATHYRNUS ('ATcWuproj), a ton of 
Aeolus, regarded aa the founder of Agathymum 
in Sicily. (Diod. v. 8.) [L. S.J 

AGA'VE ('A7au7j). 1. AdanghterofCadmoa, 
and wife of the Spartan Echion, by whom the 
became the mother of Pentheus, who succeeded hit 
grandfather Cadmus as king of Thebes. Agave 
was the sister of Autonoe, luo, and Semele (Ap<4- 
lod. iii. 4. § 2), and when Semele, during her 
pregnancy with Dionjsus, was destroyed by the 
sight of the splendour of Zeus, her si&tert spread 
the report that she had only endeavoured to con- 
ceal her guilt, by pretending that Zeus was the 
&ther of her child, and that her destruction was a 
just punishment for her falsehood. This calumny 
was afterwards most severely avenged upon Agave. 
For, after Dionysus, the son of Semele, had tra- 
versed the world, he came to Thebes and compelled 
the women to celebrate his IHonysiac festivals on 
mount Cithaeron. Pentheus wishing to prevent 



AGELADAS. 

or stop these riotous proceedings, went liimself to 
mount Cithaeron, but was torn to pieces there by 
his own mother Agave, who in her frenzy believed 
him to be a wild beast. (ApoUod. iii. 5. § 2 ; Ov. 
Met. iii. 7'25 ; coinp. Penthkus.) Hyginus {Fab. 
240, 254) makes Agave, after this deed, go to 
lUj'ria and marry king Lycotherses, whom how- 
ever she afterwards killed in order to gain hi* 
kingdom for her fiither Cadmus. This account is 
numifestly transplaced by Hyginus, and must have 
belonged to an earlier part of the story of Agave. 
2. [Nereidae.] [L. S.] 

AGDISTIS i^Kyhiaris), a mythical Ixjing con- 
nected with the I'hrygian worship of Attes or 
Atys. Pausanias (vii. 17. § 5) relates the follow- 
ing story about Agdistis. On one occasion Zeus 
unwittingly begot by the Earth a superhuman 
being which wiis at once man and woman, and 
was called Agdistis. The gods dreaded it and 
unmanned it, and from its severed alioia there 
grew up an almond-tree. Once when the daughter 
of the river-god Sangarius was gathering the fruit 
of this tri;e, she put some almonds into her bosom ; 
but here the almonds disappeared, and she became 
the mother of Attes, who was of such extraordinary 
beauty, tliat when he had grown up Agdistis fell 
in love witli him. His relatives, however, destined 
him to become the husband of the daughter of the 
king of Pessinus, whither he went accordingly, 
liut at the moment when the hymeneal song hud 
commenced, Agdistis appeared, and Attes was 
seized by a fit of madness, in which he unmanned 
himself; the king who had given him his daugh- 
ter did the same. Agdistis now repented her 
deed, and obtained from Zeus the promise that the 
body of Attes should not become decomposed or 
disapi)ear. This is, stiys Pausanias, the most po- 
pular account of an otherwise mysterious atlair, 
which is probably part of a symbolical worship of 
the creative powers of nature. A hill of the name 
of Agdistis in Phrjgia, at the foot of which Attes 
was believed to be buried, is mentioned by Pausa- 
nias. (i. 4. § 5.) According to Hesycliius («. r.) 
and Stnibo (xil p. 50'7; comp. s. p. , -tis 

is the same as Cybele, who was wor- ' b- 

sinus under that name. A story soi... .<..... w.,kr. 
ent is given by Arnobius. (Adv. Vent. ix. 5. § 4 ; 
comp. Minuc. Felix, 21.) [L. S.] 

AGE'LADAS ('A7«Ao5ai), a native of Argot 
(Pausan. vi. 8. § 4, vii. 24. § 2, x. 10. § 3), pre- 
eminently distinguished as a statuarj'. His fame 
is enhanced by his having been the instructor of 
the three great mastei-s, Phidias (Suidas, ». r. ; 
Schol. ad Aristoph. Kan. 304 ; Tzetzes, C/iiliaJ. 
vii 154, viii. 191 — for the names 'EKdSov and 
TfAdSou are unquestionably merely corruptions of 
' Ay fKaSov, as was first observed by Meursius, with 
whom ^Vinckelmnnn, Thiersch, and Miiller agree), 
Myron, and Polydetus. (Plin. Jf. X. xxxiv. 8, s. 
1!*.) The detenninaiion of the period when 
Ageladas flourished, has given rise to a great deal 
of discussion, owing to the apparently contradictory 
statements in the writers who mention the name. 
Pausanias (vi. 10. § 2) tells us that Ageladas cast a 
statue of t'leosthones (who gained a victory iu the 
chariot-race iu the (itJth Olympiad) with the 
chariot, horses, and charioteer, which was set up at 
Olyrapia. There were also at Olympia statues by 
him of Timasitheus of Delphi and Auochus of Ta- 
rentum. Now Timasitheus was put to death by the 
Athenians, for his participation in the attempt of 



AGEL.\US. 



67 



Isagoras in OL bcviii. 2 (b. c 507); and Anochut 
(as we learn from Eusebius) was a victor in the 
games of the 65th OL So &r ever}'thing is clear; 
and if we suppose Ageladas to have been bom 
about B. c. 540, he may very well have been the 
instructor of Phidias. On the other hand Pliny 
(/. c.) says that .Ageladas, with Polydetus, Phrad- 
mon, and Myron, tiourished in the 87th Ol. This 
agrees with the statement of the scholiast on 
Aristophanes, that at Melite there was a statue of 
'Hpcu<\-^s aXf^iKeucos, the work of Ageladas the 
Arrive, which was set up during the great pesti- 
lence. (OL IxxxviL 3. 4.) To these authorities 
must be added a paaage (^ Pauaanias (iv. 33. § 3), 
where he tpeak* of a ctatiw of Zeus made by 
Ageladaa for the McMenians of Naupoctiu. Thi* 
must haTe been after the year b. c. 455, when the 
Messeniana were allowed by the Athenians to 
settle at Naupactna. lo order to reconcile theae 
conflicting statementa, aoBie cuppoae that Pliny's 
date is wrong, and that the ttatue of HemUea 
had been made by Ageladaa long before it was set 
up at Melite : others (as Meyer ;■ - - ) that 

Pliny's date is correct, but that >! not 

make the statuas <^the Olympic vmor^ mt-niionetl 
by Pauaaniaa till many years after their victories ; 
which in the case of three persons, the dates of 
wboKe victories are to nearly the same, would be 
a very extraordinary coincidence. The most pro- 
bable solution of the difficulty is that of Thiersch, 
who thinks that there were two artists of this 
name ; one an Argive, the instrucT " ' '" ' s bora 
about B. c. 540, the other a naii . who 

tiourished at the date assigned I 1 was 

confounded by the scholiast on Ansiupuanes with 
his more illustrious namesake of Argos. Thiersch 
supports this hypothesis by an able criticism on a 
passage of Pausanias. (v. 24. § 1.) Sillig assumes 
that there were two artists of the name of Ageladas, 
but both .\rvives. Ageladas tlte Argive executed 
one of a group of thre« Muses, representing re- 
spectively the presiding geniuses of the diatonic, 
chromatic and enharmonic styles of Greek music. 
Canachus and Aristocles of Sicyou made the other 
two. (iVntipater, AmIA. Pal. Plan. 220; Thiersch^ 

/• ' ' ' ' "■ 158— lti4.) tC.P.M.J 

). 1. A sou of llera- 
d. - ■ founder of the house of 

CfXKDUs. (Apuliud. ii. 7. § 8.) Herodotus (L 7) 
derives the family of Croesus from one Alcaeus, 
and Diodorus (iv. 31) from one Cleolaus, while he 
calls the son of Heracles and Omphale Lamus, and 
others Laomedes. (Anton. Lib. 2 ; Palaephat. dt 
I acred. 45.) 

2. A son of Damastor, and one of the suitors of 
Penelope. (Horn. (Jd. xjc 321.) In the struggle of 
Odysseus with the suitors, and after many of them 
had fallen, Agelaus encouraged and headed those 
who sun-ived (xxii. 131, 241), until at last he too 
was struck dtiad by Odysseus with a javelin. 
(xxiL 293.) 

3. A slave of Priam, who exposed the in£mt 
Paris on mount Ida, in consequence of a dream of 
his mother. When, after the lapse of live days, 
the slave found the infant still alive and sudded 
by a bear, he took him to his own house and 
brought him up. (ApoUod. iii 12. § 4 ; compare 
Paris.) 

There are several other mythical personages of 
the name of .'\gelaus, concerning whom no particu- 
lars are known. (Apoilod. iL 8. § 5 ; Autonin. 

r2 



68 



AGKNOR. 



Lib. 2; Horn. //. viii. 1!>1, xi. 302; Patu. viiL 
85. §7.) [L. S.] 

AdKLA'l'S ('AyAoot), of NniipnctiiR, wan a 
leading mail in tliu Actolmii utiitc- at tin- tiiiit; of 
the Achiu-uii luaxuc llu is first inciitiuncd in 
B. C. '2*21, when hi! nr^ociati^d the alliance iM^twvc-n 
thu Iliyriaii chii-f ScerdilaiJas and the AvUiiiuns. 
It wan through his pcrKuasive iip<-fch that I'hilip 
of .Macrdoniii and his allies were induced to nuke 
peace with the Aetiiiiuns (ii. c. 21)1), luid he was 
elected ffenend of the latt«T in the following year, 
though his conduct in recommending peace was 
soon afti-rwards hiamed by his fickle countrymen. 
(I'oiyii, iv. Hi, T, 1(U — 107.) 

AOKLKIA or AdKLK'IS {'\y*\tla or 'A-y»- 
X»itf), a Buniainc of Athena, by which she is dehig- 
BAted as the leader or protectress of the people. 
(Horn. //. iv. 1-2U, T. 7<i5, tL 2(J9, xv. '213, 
0</. iii. .VB, &c.) [L.8.] 

AGK'LLIIJS. [A. OiLLiua.] 

A(iK'NUll (^ky/tvup). 1. A son of Poseidon 
and Libya, kin^ of Phoenicia, ond twin-brother of 
Ik'lud. (Apollod. ii. 1. § 4.) Jle murried Tele- 
phiiKsa, by whom he b<H:amc the fiither of Cadmus, 
IMinenix, Cylix, Thasus, Phineus, and according 
to some of Kuropa also. (Schol. ml Eurip. I'kuen. 
5; Hvgin. Fuh. 17«; Pans. t. 'la. §7; Schol. 
ad Apolkm. lihiHl. ii. 178, iii. 1185.) After his 
daughter Kuropn had been carried off by Zeus, 
Ageiior sent out his sons in search of her, and en- 
joined them not to return without their sister. As 
Eun>p:i was not to be found, none of them re- 
turned, and all settled in foreign countries. (Apol- 
lod. iii. 1. § I ; Hygin. Fait. 178.) Virgil {Am. 
i. 3.'i>l) c.ills Carthago the city of Agenor, by which 
lie alludes to the descent of Uido from Agenor. 
Buttiiuuin (Mi/f/iolitg. i. p. '23*2, &c.) points out 
that the genuine Phoenician name of Agenor was 
Chnas which is the same as Canaan, and upon 
these facts he builds the hypothesis that Agenor 
or Clinas is the same as the Canaan in the books 
of Moses. 

2. A son of Jasus, and father of Argus Panoptes, 
king of Argos. (Apollod. ii. I. § 2.) Hellanicus 
(FriM/m. p. 47, ed. Sturz.) states that Agenor was 
a son of Phoroneus, and brother of Jasus and Pe- 
lasgus, and that after their father^s death, the two 
elder brothers divided his dominions between 
themselves in such a manner, that Pelasgus re- 
ceived the country about the river Erasinus, and 
built Larissa, and Jasus the country about Elis. 
After the death of these two, Agenor, the young- 
est, invaded their dominions, and thus became king 
of Artros. 

3. The son and successor of Triopas, in the 
kingdom of Argos. He belonged to the house of 
Phoroneus, and w^as father of Crotopus. (Pans, 
ii. 16. § 1 ; Hygin. Fab. 145.) 

4. A son of Pleuron and Xanthippe, and grand- 
son of Aetolus. Epicaste, the daughter of Caly- 
don, became by him the mother of Porthaon and 
Demonice. (Apollod. i. 7. § 7.) According to 
Pausanias (iii. 13. § 5), Thestius, the father of 
Leda, is likewise a son of this Agenor. 

5. A son of Phegeiis, king of Psophis, in Arca- 
dia. He was brother of Pronous and Arsinoe, 
who was married to Alcmaeon, but was abandoned 
by him. When Alcmaeon wanted to give the 
celebrated necklace and peplus of Harmonia to his 
second wife Calirrhoe, the daughter of Achelous, 
he was slain by Agenor and Pronous at the insti- 



4), who relah-s the same story, call* the diil- 
of Ph eg i M , Tmmiuu, Axiun, and Alpk*> 



A0E8ANDER. 

gation of Ph«g*ua. Bat whM tb* tw \mkm t 
came to Delphi, whan tkcy iutamiti I* dUdkala 
the nc<;klaoe and paplM* tlMjr WMi kSbd kf Am- 
[ihoteru* and Acwrniu, tk* mm of Aimmtam mad 
Calirrhoe. ( Ap'>llod. iii. 7. i 5.) FaMuiM (viii. 
24. 8 
dren 
siboMk 

6. A wm of th* Trojaui Antenor and 
the priest4>M of Athena. (Mum. IL, xL &9, tL 
297.) He appears in the Iliad a* one of tka 
bravest among the Trojaiu, and it one of ikdt 
leaders in the attack upon tbo fcrtifctiowi of iW 
(Jreeks. (iv. 4(i7, xii. 9.\ xir. 4U.) Ho •««■ 
ventures to fight with Achilles, wbo io WO—dod 
by him. (zxL 570, &c.) AuoUo w a a wd Urn im 
a cloud firom tho aoget of AoiiUaa, and than «•- 
suined kiaaelf tho aapeo nm c o of Agtoar, by which 
nwsno be draw AcdUIm away froin tho willo of 
Troy, and afforded to the fugitive Trojans a mCi 

retreat to the city. fxju. in iin^) * -'inglo 

Pausanias (x. 27. i 1) Afoaor « No*> 

ptolerous, and waa ropWMBtod I' ' us ia 

the gnat paiatiBf fai tho Loatho o^lAolfiLl 

8oBo othor aytkical pwio«H— "I ^» mm* 
occur in the ioDowing poMOfn: ApoOod. iu 1. | 5, 
iiL 5. 8 6 ; Hvgin. Fab. 145. [L. 8.] 

ACiENC/UiliES ('ArreptSiif), a patronymic 
of Agenor, deoignating a deoeendant of an Agoaar, 
such as Cadmus (Or. Met. iiL 8, 81, 90; It. 
5(i3), Phineus (VaL Place, iv. 582), and Penraa. 
(Ov. A/r/. It. 771.) IL.8.J 

AOE'POLIS {'AyiroXit), of Rhodea, wao aeat 
by his countrj-nien aa amfaoModor to the eonaal Q> 
.Marcius Philippua, B. c 169, in the war wita 
Perseus, and had an interview with him near 
Heraceleum in Macedonia. In the following year, 
a. c. 168, he went as ambassador to Rotoe to 
deprecate the anger of the Romana. (Polybi 
XX viii. 14, 1.1, xxix. 4, 7; Li v. xlv. 3.) 

AUESANDER or AGE.SILA'US ('Ari<wipot 
or 'Ayf o-iAooi), from dytw and ajri)p or Ao^t, a sur- 
name of Pluto or Hades, detcribing him as the god 
who carries away all men. (Callim. Hymn, m I'al- 
lad. 130, with Spanheim's note; Hesych. t.v.; 
AeschyL up. Athen. iiL p. 99.) Nicander (ap. 
AtAen. xv. p. 684) uses the form 'H7*<rlAaor. [L.S.] 

AGESANDER, a sculptor, a native of the 
island of Rhodee. His name occurs in no author 
except Pliny (//. N. xxxri. 5. a. 4), and we 
know but of one work which he executed ; it is a 
work however which bears the most decisive tes- 
timony to his surpassing genius. In conjunction 
with Polydorus and Athenodorus he sculptured 
the group of Laocoon, a work which is ranked by 
all competent judges among the most perfect speci- 
mens of art, especially on account of the admirable 
manner in w^hich amidst the intense suffering 
portrayed in every feature, limb, and muscle, 
there is still preserved that air of sublime repose, 
which characterised the best productions of Grecian 
genius. This celebrated group was discovered in 
the year 1506, near the baths of Titus on the 
Esqiuline hill : it is now preserved in the museum 
of the Vatican. Pliny does not hesitate to pro- 
nounce it superior to all other works both of 
statuary and painting. A great deal has been 
written respecting the age when Agesander 
flourished, and various opinions have been held on 
the subject. Winckelmann and Miiller, forming 
their judgment from the style of art displayed in 



AGESILAUS. 

the work itself, assign it to the age of Lysip- 
pus. Miiller thinks the intensity of suffering de- 
picted, and the somewhat theatrical air which 
pervades the group, shews that it belongs to a 
later age than that of Phidias. Lessing and 
Thiersch on the other hand, after subjecting the 
passage of Pliny to an accurate examination, hare 
come to the conclusion, that Agesander and the 
other two artists lived in the reign of Titus, and 
sculptured the group expressly for that emperor ; 
and this opinion is pretty generally acquiesced in. 
In addition to many other reasons that might be 
mentioned, if 8|)ace permitted, if the Laocoon had 
been a work of antiquity, we can hardly under- 
stand how Pliny should have ranked it above 
all the works of Phidias, Polycletus, Praxiteles, 
and Lysippus. But we can account for his exag- 
gerated praise, if the group was modem and the 
admiration excited by its execution in Home still 
fresh. Thiersch has written a great deal to shew 
that the plastic art did not decline so early as is 
generally supposed, but continued to flourish in 
full vigour from the time of Phidias uninterrupt- 
edly down to the reign of Titus. Pliny was de- 
ceived in Seiying that the group was sculptured out 
of one block, as the lapse of time has discovered a 
join in it. It appears from an inscription on the 
pedestal of a statue found at Nettuno (the aixient 
Antium) that Athenodorus was the son of Age- 
sander. This makes it not unlikely that Polydorus 
also was his son, and that the father executed the 
figure of Laocoon himself, his two sons the remain- 
ing two figures. (Lessing, Laokoon; Winckelmann, 
O'esch. d. Kuttit, x. 1, 10; Thiersch, Kpocken d. 
hild. Kunst. p. 318, &C. ; Miiller, Arcluiologie d. 
Kunst, p. 152.) [C. P. M.J 

AGESA'NDRIDAS {'Ayyi<ravSpiiai), the son 
of Agesander (comp. Thuc. i, 139), the commander 
of the Ijacedaemoniau fleet sent to protect the 
revolt of Euboea in b. c. 411, was atti\cked by the 
Athenians near Eretria, and obtained a victory 
over them. (Thnc. viii, 91, 94, 95.) 

AGESl'ANAX {'Ayri<Tuit>ai), a Greek poet, of 
whom a beautiful fragment descriptive of the moon 
is preserved in Plutan.-h. {De/m-ie ia orb. lunae, 
p. 920.) It is uncertain whether the poem to 
which this fragment belonged was of an epic or 
didactic character. [L. 8.] 

AGE'S1.\S ('Aynalas), one of the lambidae, 
and an hereditary priest of Zeus at Glympia, 
gained the victory there in the mule race, and 
is celebrated on that account by Pindar in the 
sixth Olympic ode. Bikkh places his victory in 
the 78th Olympiad. 

AGESIDA'MUS {'Arnciianoi), son of Ar- 
chestratus, an Epizephyrian Locrian, who con- 
quered, when a boy, in boxing in the Olympic 
games. His victory is celebrated by Pindar in 
the 10th and 11th Olympic odes. The scholiast 
places his victory in the 74th OhTupiad. He 
should not be confounded with Agesidamus, the 
father of Chroniius, who is mentioned in the Ne- 
inean odes. (i. 42, ix. 99.) 

AOESILA'US. [Agksandkr.] 

AGESILA'US I. CA-yijfffAoor), son of Doryssus, 
sixth king of the Agid line at S[)arta, excluding 
Aristodemus, according to Apollodorus, reigned 
forty -four yciirs, and died in 880" b. c. Pausanias 
makes his reign a short one, but contemporary 
with the legisUuion of Lyeurgus. (Pans. iii. 2. § 3 ; 
Clinton, Fasii, i. p. 335.) [A. H. C] 



AGESILAUS. 



69 



AGESILA'US II., son by his second wife, Eu- 
polia, of Archidamus II., succeeded his half-bro- 
ther, Agis II. as nineteenth king of the Eurypontid 
line; excluding, on the ground of spurious birth, 
and by the interest of Lysander, his nephew, 
Leotycbides. [Lkotvchides.] His reign extends 
from 398 to 361 b. c, both inclusive ; daring most 
of which time he was, in Plutarch's words, "as 
good as thought commander and king of all (Jreece," 
and was for the whole of it greatly identified with 
his country's deeds aiMl fortunes. Th% position of 
tliat country, though internally weak, wu exter- 
nally, in Greece, down to 394, one of supremacy 
acknowledged : the only field of its ambition waa 
Persia ; from 394 to 387, the Conuthian or first 
Theban war, one of supremacy aMBulted : in 387 
that supremacy waa restored ofer Greece, in the 
peace of Antalcidia, by the naifiM of Aiiatic pro- 
spects : and thiH nan eanfiaed wbA man ncure, it 
becanae also more wwrtoo. After 378, wkea Thebes 
regained her freedom, we find it again assailed, 
and again for one moment reatored, tfaongh on a 
lower level, in 371 ; then overthrown for ever at 
Leuctra, the next nine year* being a struggle for 
existence amid dangers within and without. 

Of the youth of Ageailaus we have no detail, be- 
yond the mention of his intunacy with Lysander. 
On the throne, which he ascended about the age of 
forty, we first hear of him in the suppression of 
Cinadon's conapiracj. [Cinaoon.] In his third 
year (396) ke aoaaed into Aaia, and after a short 
campaiga, tmd a winter of preparation, he ia tha 
neztaMipewand the two aatra|)a, TiaaaphanMa aad 
PhamaliaKDa; and, in the apnng of SM, waa an* 
camped in the plain of Thebe, preparing to adrance 
into the heart of the empire, when a meaagige ar- 
rived to aummon him to the war at home. He 
calmly and promptly oheyed ; expfeaaing howerer 
to the Asiatic Greeks, and doubtless }'-—^ >•■' ■■■ 
dulging, hopes of a speedy return. Man 
ly by Xerxes'route, he met and defeatt-d . i ■, 

in Boeotia the allied forcea. In 393 he was engaged 
in a ravaging invasion of Argolia, in 392 in one of 
the Corinthian territory, in 391 he reduced the 
Aramaniana to nhmiauon ; but, in the remaniiiig 
years of the war, he ia not mentioned. In the inter- 
Tal of peaea, we find him declining the cummand in 
Sparta's aggreaaioo on Maniiueia ; but heading, from 
motives, it ia said, of private friendship, that on 
Phlius ; aad openly justifying Phoebidaa' seizure of 
the Cadmeia. Of the next war, the first two years 
he eoamaaded in Boeotia, more however to the 
enemy^ gun in point of experience, than Ioks hi 
any other ; from the five remaining he was with- 
drawn by severe illness. In the congress of 371 
an altercation is recorded between him and Epomi- 
nondas ; and by his advice Thebes wa« perempto- 
rily excluded from the peace, and orders given for 
the &t;il campaign of Leuctra. In 370 we find 
him engaged in an embassy to Mantineia, and 
reassuring the Spartans by an invasion of Arcadia; 
and in 3(J9 to his skill, courage, and presence of 
mind, is to be ascribed the maintenance of the uu- 
walled Sparta, amidst the attacks of four armies, 
and revolts and conspiracies of Helots, Perioeci, 
and even Spartans. Finally, in 362, he led his 
countrjTnen into .\rcadia ; by fortunate information 
was enabled to return in time to prevent the sur- 
prise of Sparta, and was, it seems, joint if not sole 
commander at the battle of Mantineia. To the 
ensuing winter must probably be referred his em- 



70 



AG ESI LOCH US. 



baMy to tho conat of Aula and n<>;(ot!ationi for 
money with tho revolted Kitnips alluded to in an 
ol)Hciir(' |i;ism;u{(! of Xcnoplioii (Ai/eti/aiu, ii. 2<J, 27) : 
and, in |i<Tfi)riuiince ]>Rrii.'ipH of Home (tipulatioii 
then niiulc. he crottned, in the "prinx of 3*>1, with 
n body of Liicediu^nioniiin inercenaried into Kjfypt. 
Jlere, after dixpldying much of hiit ancient okill, he 
died, while preparing for hix voyui^c home, in the 
winter of 31) l-OO, after a life of aimvc ci)<hty yearn 
and a rei^^n of thirty-eij^ht. ilin body wan em- 
balmed in wax, and uplendidly buri*^ at Sparta. 

It<jfcrrin)( to our Hketch of Spartan history, we 
find Aj^eMlauii ithining mont in its hr»t and IiMt 
period, uh commencing and Hurrendering a gloriovs 
career in Ania, and as, in extreme age, nuuntaining 
his proHtnite country. From dironeia to Laeactra 
we Me him partly unemployed, at times yielding 
to weak motives, at times joining in wanton acu 
of public injustice. No one of Spnrt.Vs great (Uh 
feats, but some of her \md policy l)elongs to him. 
In what others do, we miss him ; in what ha doM| 
we miss the greatness and consistency b<'longiii9 ^ 
unity of purpose and solu command. No doabt Im 
was hampered at homc^ ; perhaps, too, from ■ OMB 
withdrawn, when now near fifty, from kia ehoMB 
oireer, great miction in a new one of aaykiad coold 
not be looked for. i'luUirch girea amaag w u nar wu 
npophthegmatii his letterto the ephora on his reeall : 
"We have reduced most of Asia, driven bock the 
biirbariiins, miule anns abunilant in Ionia. But 
since you bid me, according to the daerae, eome 
home, I shall follow my letter, may perhapa baeraa 
before it. For my command is not mine, bat my 
country's and her allies'. And a commander then 
commands tnily according to right when he sees 
his own commander in the laws and ephon, or 
others holding otiice in the state." Also, an ex- 
clamation on iieariug of the battle of Corinth : 
"Alas for Greece! she has killed enough of her 
sons to hare conquered all the barbarians.'^ Of 
his counige, temperance, and hardiness, many in- 
atiinces are given : to these he added, even in ex- 
cess, the less S^virtan qualities of kindliness and 
tenderness as a father and a friend. Thus we 
have the story of his riding across a stick with his 
children ; and to gratify his son's affection for Cleo- 
nynius, son of the culprit, he saved Sphodrias from 
the punishment due, in right and policy, for his 
incursion into Attica in 37ti. So too the appoint- 
ment of Peisander. [Fkisandbr.] A letter of his 
runs, "If Niciiis is innocent, acquit him for that; 
if guilty, for my sake ; any how acquit him." 
From Spartiin cupidity and dishonesty, and mostly, 
even in public life, from ill feiith, his character is 
clear. In person he was small, mean-looking, and 
lame, on which last ground objection had been 
made to his accession, an oracle, curiously fulfilled, 
having warned Sparta of evils awaiting her under 
a "lame sovereignty." In his reign, indeed, her 
fall took place, but not through him. Agesilaus 
himself was Sparta's most perfect citizen and most 
consummate general ; in many ways perhaps her 
greatest man. (Xen. Hell. iii. 3, to the end, Affe- 
ailaus; Died. xiv. xv ; Paus. iii.9, 10; Plut. and C. 
Nepos, in vita; Plut. Apophthegm.) [A. H. C] 

AGESILA'US('A77J(7i\ooj), a Greek historian, 
who wrote a work on the early history of Italy 
('iToAi/ca), fragments of which are preserved in 
Plutarch {Parallela, p. 312), and Stobaeus. (Flo- 
rilcff. ix. 27, liv. 49, Ixv. 10, ed.Gaisf.) [C. P.M.] 

AGESI'LOCHUS or HEGESI'LOCHUS 



, xzix. 4.) 
af tka U*. 



AGK81P0LI& 

{'Ayt(TlKoxoi, 'Ayv'ri)^x'>U 'Hyif<rtXoxof ), waa tka 
chief nmgiatrate (I'ryUmit) at Um tUwIiana, aa 
tile breaking out of tiw WW WtwaM Umm ami 
Perseus in u. c. 171, and fMOMBMHlai kia w— ' 
trymen to eapousa the side at tha Bw— ■■ Ila 
was sent aa amhaaaador to Rome in ■■ & 169, and 
to'' ' <is PaiilUu ia Maeadaaia,a.ck 

I 3, zzviU. 2, 14, xzix. 4.J 

— ..:.-.. -■! L'8, eammi 
dian tleet ia tiM war batwaaa iIm Bnmai aad 
Philip, king of Macedonia, a. a 200—197. (Uv. 
XX .. IC, 32.) 

' US I. (*AyTr<r(«oA«t^ kingof Sparta, 
the tweiiij-iirBt of th« Afida kafHinim wttk K»> 
ryathanaa, loeoaedad kia fctfcar raamaiaa, wkila 
yet a miaor, b a. & 804, ami Rigaad fiwrtaaa 
years, lie waa placed ondrr the guardiauship o# 
Aristodemus, kia aaaiaat of kin. He caate to 
the cnwn juat about the time that the coBf** 
defMy (pxtly brought about by the intrtgaaa 
at the Peman wtrap Tithrauatea), wkick waa 
fgnaad by Thebaa, Atkenn, Coriiitk,,«ad Aifaa, 
■g ai aa t Sparta, l a ad w ad it naemmrj to mcall kia 
eaUaagaa, Ayiilaaa lU &«■ Aaa ; and tka fn» 
military ooantiaa at kia taiga waa tka eat 
to Corintb, wkam tka limwa of tka 
were thea aMmkiad. Tka Spartaa aro^ was lad 
by Aristodamaa, aad yUncd a ngoal nctory ovar 
the alliea. (Xen. HaU. ir. 2. i 9.) In tka year 
u. c 390 AfBaipolia, wko had now reachad kia 
majority, waa entrusted with the «wmmand of aa 
army for the inraaion of Argoli*. HmrimK pi»- 
cured tka macrioa of ' ''Iphie 

goda tot dimvfMdiag .ivea 

migkt make to atop hi ..., . '4 a 

religioaa truce, he carried his ra rtiiar 

than Agettlana had done in b.(. :ii ko 

suffered the ai^eet of the victims t from 

occupying a permanent post, the < > -Idad 

no fruit but the plunder. (X< n. // . .. ,. g 2-6; 
Paus. iiL 5. § 8.) In B. c. ;i > > t >;.arun«, seiz- 
ing upon some frivolous preUxiv, !»Jiit an expedi- 
tion against Mantineia, in which Agesipolis under- 
took the command, after it had been declined by 
Agesilaus. In this expedition the Spartans were 
assisted by Thebes, and in a battle witti the Man- 
tineans, Epaminondas and Pelopidaa, who were 
fighting side by side, narrowly escaped death. He 
took the town by diverting the river Ophis, so aa to 
lay the low grounds at the foot of the walls under 
water. The basements, being made of unbaked 
bricks, were unable to resist the action of the water. 
The walls soon began to totter, and the Mantineana 
were forced to surrender. They were admitted to 
terms on condition that the population should be 
dispersed among the four hamlets, out of which it 
had been collected to form the capitaL The demo- 
cratical leaders were permitted to go into exile. 
(Xen. HeU. v. 2. § 1-7 ; Paus. viiL 8. § 5 ; Diod. 
XV. 5, &c.; Plut. Felop. 4 ; Isocr. Paney. p. 67, a, 
De Pace, p. 179, c.) 

Early in b. c. 382, an embassy came to Sparta 
from the cities of Acanthus and Apollouia, request- 
ing assistance against the Olviitiiiaus, who were 
endeavouring to compel them to join their confede- 
racy. The Spartans granted it, but were not at 
first very successful. After the defeat and death 
of Teleutias in the second campaign (b. c. 381) 
Agesipolis took the command. He set out in 381, 
but did not begin operations till the spring of 38(J. 
He then acted with great vigour, and took Torone 



AGGRAMMES. 

by storm ; but in the midst of his successeg he was 
seized with a fever, which carried him off in seven 
days. He died at Aphytis, in the peninsula of 
Pallene. Hiti body was immersed in honey and 
conveyed home to Sparta for burial Though 
Agesipolis did not share the ambitious views of 
foreign conquest cherished by Agesilaus, his loss 
was deeply regretted by that prince, who seems to 
have hud a sincere regard for him. (Xen. Hell. 
V. 3. § 8-9, 18-19; Diod. xv. •22; Thiriwall, Hid. 
of Greece, vol. iv, pp. 405, 428, &c., v. pp. 5, &c. 
20.) [C. P. M.] 

AGESI'POLIS II., son of CleombrotuN was 
the 23rd king of the Agid line. He ascended the 
throne b. c. 371, and reigned one year (Paus. 
iii. 6. § 1 ; Diod. xv. 60.) IC. P. M.] 

AGESI'POLIS III., the Slst of the Agid line, 
was the son of Agesipolis, and grandson of Cleom- 
brotus II. After the death of Cleonienes he was 
elected king while still a minor, and placed under 
the guardianship of his uncle Cleomenes. (Polyb. 
iv. 35.) He was however soon deposed by his col- 
league Lycurgus, after the death of Cleomenes. 
We hear of him next in b. c. 195, when he was at 
the head of the Lacedaemonian exiles, who joined 
Fl.amininus in his attack upon Nabis, the tyrant 
of Lacedaemon. (Liv. xxxiv. 2(5.) He formed 
one of an embassy sent about B. c. 183 to liome 
by the Ijacedaemonian exiles, and, with his com- 
panions, was intercepted by pirates and killed. 
(Polyb. xxiv. 11.) [C. P.M.] 

AGESI'STHATE. [Aois IV.] 

AG E'TAS ('A7i}toj), commander-in-chief of the 
Aetolians in B. c. 217, made an incursion into 
Acamania and Epirus, and ravaged both coun- 
tries. ^Polyb. V. 91. 9G.) 

AGE TOR ('ATTfrotp), a surname given to leve- 
ral gods, for instance, to Zeui at Lacedaemon 
(Stob. Alpmi. 42) : the name seems to describe 
Zeus as the leader and ruler of men ; but others 
think, that it is synonymous with Agamemnon 
[Agamkmnon, 2]: — to Apollo (Eurip. Mi-d. 42(J) 
where however Elmsley and others prefer arf/frmp : 
■ — to Hermes, who conducts the souls of men to 
the lower world. Under this name Hermes had a 
statue at Megalopolis. (Pans. viii. 31. § 4.) [L. S.] 

AGGE'NUS U'RBICUS, a writer on the 
science of the Agrimensores. {Diet, of Ant. p. 30.) 
It is uncertain when he lived ; but he appears to 
have been a Christian, and it is not improbable 
from some expressions which he uses, that he lived 
at the hitter psirt of the fourth century of our era. 
The extiuit works ascribed to him are : — " Aggeni 
Urbici in Julium Frontinum Commentarius," a com- 
mentiiry upon the work " De Agrorum Qualitate," 
which is ascribed to Frontinus ; " In Julium Fron- 
tinum Commeutiiriorum Liber secundus qui Diazo- 
gniphus dicitur ;" and " Commentariorum de Con- 
troversiis Agrorum Pars prior et altera." The 
last-named work Niebuhr supposes to have been 
written by Frontinus, and in the time of Domitian, 
since the author speiiks of " pniestantissimus 
Domitianus," an expression, which would never 
have been applied to this tynuit after his death. 
{Hist, of Home, vol ii. p. 621.) 

AGGRAMMES, called XANDRAMES (Haj«- 
Spdftris) by Diodorus, the ruler of the Gtuigaridae 
and Prasii in India, was said to be the son of a 
barber, whom the queen had married. Alexander 
was preparing to m;\rch against him, when he was 
compelled by his soldiers, who had become tired of 



AG IS. 



71 



the war, to give up further conquests in India. 
(Curt. v. 2 ; Diod. xvii. 93, 94 ; Arrian, Anub, 
v. 25, &c.; Plut. Alea:.iiO.) 

A'GIAS (■A7J0S), son of Agelochns and grand- 
son of Titamenus, a Spartan seer who predicted 
the victory of Lysander at Aegos-potami. (Paus. 

iii. 11. § 5.) [Tl8A.MKNt'&] 

A'GIAS {'Ay las). 1. A Greek poet, whose 
name was formerly written Augias, through a 
mistake of the first editor of the Excerpta of 
Proclus. It has been corrected by Thiersch in the 
Acta I'kUol. Monac. iL p. 584, from the (''m!-\- 
Monacensis, which in one passage has .\^'i>ts, 
and in another Hagias. The name itself does nut 
occur in early Greek writers, unless it be supposed 
that Egias or Hegias {^Hylas) in Clemens Alexan- 
drinus {Strom, vi. p. 622), and Pausanias ( i. 2. 
§ 1 ), are only different forms of the same name. 
He was a native of Troezeu, and the time at which 
he wrote appears to have been about the year 
B. c. 740. ilis poem was celebrated in antiquity, 
under the name of N^<rro<, i. «. the history of the 
return of the Achaean heroea from Troy, and con- 
sisted of five books. The poem began with the 
cause of the mirfortnnes which befel the Achaeans 
on their way home and after their arrival, that is 
with the outrage committed upon Cassandra and 
the Palladium ; and the wbala poon filled up the 
space which was left betwven the work of the 
poet Arctinus and the Odyaaey. The ancientft 
themsehes appear to have bMn aaccrtain sbeiit the 
author of this poem, ii»r they refer to it ainply by 
the name of N<t<rrot, and when they mention the 
author, they milv call him 6 rous Uoarovs ^fxiifas. 
(Athen. vu. p. 281 ; Paus. x. 28. § 4, 29. § 2, 30. 
§ 2; ApoUod. ii. L § 5; Schol. wi Odyu. iv. 12; 
SchoL ad Arklofk. E/fmit. 1332; Lockn, IM 
Satlat. 46.) HflMe aMM wiiten attribated the 
NooTot to Homer ( Said. «. «. r^erm ; AnthoL 
Plauud. iv. 30), while othera call its author a Co- 
lophonian. (Eustath. orf Orfjiw. xvi. 118.) Simi- 
lar poems, and with the aaaM title, were written 
by other poets alioi, aaeh at Eaaielua of Corinth 
(SchuL ad J'imd. d. xiiL 31), Anticleideit of 
Athens (Athen. iv. p. 157, ix. p. 466), Cleidemua 
(Athen. xiii. p. 609), and Lysimachus. (Athen. 
iv. p. 158; SchoL ad ApoUom. Mod. I 558.) 
Where the N^rrai ia mentiened without a name, 
we have generally to understand the work of 
Agiaa. 

2. A comic writer. (Pollux, iiu 36 ; Meineke, 
Hist. Comic. Orufc. pp. 404, 416.) [L. S.] 

A'GIAS ('A-xios), the author of a work on 
Argolis. ('Af>7aA.iic(i, Athen. iii. p. 86, f.) He is 
called 6 iwvaitcds in another passage of Athenaeus 
(xiv. p. 626, f.), but the musician may be another 
person. 

AGIATIS. [Agis IV.] 

AGIS I. ('Ayii), king of Sparta, son of Fu- 
ry sthenes, began to reign, it is said, about B. c. 
1032. (Miiller, Dor. vol ii. p. 511, transl.) Ac- 
cording to EusebiuB {C'hron. L p. 166) he reigned 
only one year; according to ApoUodorus, as it 
appears, about 31 years. During the reign of 
Eurj'sthenes, the conquered people were admitted 
to an equably of political rights with the Dorians. 
Agis deprived them of these, and reduced them to 
the condition of subjects to the Spartans. The 
inhabitants of the town of Helos attempted to 
shake off the yoke, but they were subdued, and 
gave rise and lumie to the class called Helots. 



72 



AG IS. 



AU1& 



(I'Iplior. ftp. Siriib, viii. p. 3(i4.) To hit nr)((n 
wiiH referred Uii* coloiiy which wciit to Crete 
iitider l'()lli» mid Delphiin. ((JdiMin. Narr. 8*).) 
Fnim him thu kiiif^s uf that liite were cnJIed 
'AyiSai. iiit colleiigue wu Sou*. (I'uuk. iii. 2. 
g 1.) IC. P. M.) 

A(HS II., the 17th of the Eurypontid lioe 
(Ix'^iiiiiiiiK with Procles), nicceeded hit &tber 
ArL'hidaiiiUH, u. c. 4'27, and reigned a littJe more 
thiiii 'Jfl yenrH. In tho loramer of b. c. 4'J6, he 
led Jill aniiy of IVloponncsian* and their allie* a* 
far aH the iiithniiiH, with the iiiti-ntion of invading 
Attiia ; but they were det<rred from advaaetag 
fartlier liy n Hiiccehsicui of eiirtli<{iuikc» which hap- 
j)encd when they had f{ot m far. (Thuc. iii. 
it!).) Ill the Hpriii^ of th« fiullowinff year he led 
an nnny into Attica, but quitted it fifteen days 
after he lind entered it. (Thuc. iv. 2, 6.) In 
II. c. 41.0, tho An^ivpH, at the inittif^tinn of Alci- 
liiadcH, attacked KpidauruR ; and Agi* with the 
wiiole forra of I.ai-odaeinon »ct out nt the lamc 
time and marched to tho frontier city, Leuctra. 
No one, Thucydideii tcll» us, knew the purpoae of 
this expedition. It wan proliabiy to make a diver- 
Bioii in favour of Kpidauruii. (Thirlwall, vol. iii, 
p. Ml.) At Leuctra the aspect of the lacriAoea 
deterred him from proceeding, lie therebre led 
hiH troop!) Imck, and lunit round notice to the alliee 
to be ready for an ex|)cdition at the end of the 
sacred month of the Ciuncan fettival; and when 
tlie Arrives re|icated their ntttick on Epidaunu, 
the Sf)nrtans again marched to the fntntier town, 
Caryae, and again turned kick, profesnedly on 
account of the aspect of the victim*. In the mid- 
dle of the following snnuiier (b. c. 418) the Kpi- 
daurians being still hard pnF8»cd by the Argivea, 
the Lacpdaeinonians with their whole force and 
some allies, under thu command of Agis, invaded 
Argolis. By a skilful manoeuvre he succeeded in 
iiitert-epting tlie Argives, and posted his array ad- 
vantageously between them and the city. But 
just as the battle was about to begin, Thrasyllus, 
one of the Argive generals, and Alciphron came to 
Agis and prevailed on him to conclude a truce for 
four months. Agis, without disclosing his motives, 
drew off liis .ami}'. On his return he was severely 
censured for having thus thrown away the oppor- 
tunity of reducing Argos, especially as the Argives 
had seized the opportunity afforded by his return 
and taken Orchomenos. It was proposed to pull 
down his house, and inflict on him a fine of 1 00,000 
dmchmae. But on his earnest entreaty they con- 
tented themselves with appointing a council of 
war, consisting of 10 Spartans, without whom he 
was not to lead an army out of the city. (Thuc. 
v. 54, 57, &c.) Shortly afterwards they received 
intelligence from Tegea, that, if not promptly suc- 
coured, the party favourable to Sparta in that city 
would be compelled to give way. The Spartans 
immediately sent their whole force under the com- 
mand of Agis. He restored tranquillity at Tegea, 
and then marched to Mantineia. By turning the 
waters so as to flood the lands of Mantineia, he 
succeeded in drawing the army of the Mantineans 
and Athenians down to the level groimd. A bat- 
tle ensued, in which the Spartans were victorious. 
This was one of the most important battles ever 
fought between Grecian states. (Thuc. v. 
71 — 73.) In B. c. 417, when news reached Sparta 
of the counter-revolution at Argos, in which the 
oligarchical and Spartan faction was overthrown. 



an tgmj mtf Mrt iktm mim Agk H* «m »• 
able to feetow the defcrtai pwty, fct Iw dw twy d 

the long wall* which the hv/}ir% had bcfMB to 
carry down to the aea, and Uuk llyMe. (Thoe. 
v. >i3.) In the ipriiif of & c. 41S, Afie eatcna 
Attica with a PilapoMiiiiw Mair, aad fvitfad 
Dcceleia, a tteep emineaee aboat 15 aulae aertli* 
cut of Athrns (Thuc. viL 19, 27); and ia the 
winter of the lame year, after the newt vt tho 
diMuttoua &t0 of tiie Sidlian Mpedition kid 
iMehed OiMoe, he BMiciMd aorthwwd* to levy 
eoBtribatioM on the alike of Sparta, tat the par- 
pewofeaMtnHdagaieet WMb at Di » *ia ha 
aeted ia a gnat BMaaan iadepaadeBtlj ef the 8pai» 
tan goremoient, and receired embaMie* aa well 
from the diiaffected alliee of the Athenian*, a* 
from the Boeotian* aad other alliee of Sparta. 
(Thuc. tin. 3, .').) He aeeaM to have 
at Deceleia till the rad of the Pe 
In 411, dori^ the adateieUatkn of the Foar 
Hundredt he aaide aa na eaec e a dhl atteaipt oa 
Athene kMl£ TThac TiiL 71.) lo a. c 401, 
the eooHMnd of tae war Matn*t Kli* wa* entnut^ 
ed t« Agia, who ia the third year coapellod tha 
Eleaae to eae fw peaea, Aa he wae rHani«f 
froai Delphi, whither he had goae to conaecrate a 
tenth of the apoil, he feO eidt at Hetaea in Arca- 
dia, and died ia the eoone of a lew day* after he 
leached Sparta. (Xcn. IM. iii. 2. i 21, kx. 
S. I 1^.4.) He left a sou, Leotychide*, wh« 
however wae exelnded from the thivae, ae thu* 
wae *ome eaepirion with regard to Ua hfitiai a f y. 
While Alcibiadea wae at Sparta he made Agia hi* 
impUcable enemy. Later writer* (Jiutin, r. 2 ; 
Piut. Aleib. 23) aiaign a* a rea*on, that the latter 
suapectcd him of having diahonoored hi* qaaea 
Timaea. It wa* probably at the aoggeetioa of 
Agia, that ordera were eeat oat to A*tyochiia to 
put him to deatL Aldbiade* however received 
timely notice, (according to aome aocounta froai 
Timaea henelf) and kept out of the reach of the 
Spartan*. (Thuc viiL 12, 45; Plut. Lymmd. 
2-2. Agt$U. 3.) [C. P. M.] 

AGIS III.,theelder*onof Archidamo* Ill.,waa 
the 20th king of the Eurypontid line. Hi* reign 
was short, but eventfuL He ancceeded hia fiubcr 
in B. c. 338. In B. c. 333, we find him going 
with a single trireme to the Persian commanders 
in the Aegean, Phamabazn* and Aut»phra- 
datea, to request money and an anmiment fur car- 
rying on hostile operation* against Alexander in 
Greece. They gave him 30 talents and 10 tri- 
remes. The news of the battle of Issus, however, 
put a chedc upon their plans. He sent the gal- 
leys to his brother Agesilaus, with instructions to 
sail with them to Crete, that he might secure 
that island for the Spartan interest. In this he 
seems in a great measure to have succeeded- 
Two years afterwards (b. c. 331), the Greek 
states which were leagued together against Alex- 
ander, seized the opportunity of the disaster of 
Zopyrion and the revolt of the Tkracians, to de- 
clare war against Macedonia. Agis was invested 
with the command, and with the Lacedaemonian 
troops, and a body of 8000 Greek mercenaries, 
who had been present at the battle of Issus, 
gained a decisive victory over a Macedonian army 
under Corragus. Having been joined by the 
other forces of the league he laid siege to 
Megalopolis. The city held out tiU Antipater 
came to its relief, when a battle ensued, in which 



AGIS. 
Agis was defeated and killed. It happened abont 
the time of the battle of Arbela. (Arrian, ii. 13 ; 
Diod. xvi. 6a, 68, xviL 62; Aesch. c. CHesipli. 
p. 77 ; Curt, vi, 1 ; Justin, xu. 1.) [C. P. M.] 

AGIS IV., the elder son of Eudamidas II., was 
the '24th king of the Eurypontid line. He suc- 
ceeded his father in B. c. 244, and reigned four 
years. In B. c. 243, after the liberation of Corinth 
by Aratus, the general of the Achaean league, Agis 
led an anny against him, but was defeated. 
(Paus. ii. 8. § 4.) The interest of his reign, how- 
ever, is derived from events of a different kind. 
Through the influx of wealth and luxury, with 
their concomitant vices, the Spartans had greatly 
degenerated from the ancient simplicity and 
severity of manners. Not above 700 fiunilies of 
the genuine Spartan stock remained, and in conse- 
quence of the innovation introduced by Epitadeus, 
who procured a repeal of the law which secured 
to every Spartan head of a family an equal portion 
of land, the landed property had passed into the 
hands of a few individuals, of whom a great num- 
ber were females, so that not above 100 Spartan 
families possessed estates, while the poor were 
burdened with debt. Agis, who from his earliest 
youth had shewn his attiichment to the ancient 
discipline, undertook to reform these abuses, and 
re-est<iblish the institutions of Lycurgus. For this 
end he detennined to lay before the Spartan senate 
a proposition for the abolition of all debts and a new 
partition of the lands. Another part of his plan wiu 
to give landed estates to the Perioeci. His schemes 
were wannly seconded by the poorer classes and the 
young men, and as strenuously opposed by the 
wealthy. He succeeded, however, iu gaining over 
three very influential persons, — his unci* Afeu- 
laus (a man of Ltrge property, but who, being 
deeply involved iu debt, hoped to profit by tlie 
innovations of Agis), Lysander, and Mandrocleides. 
Having procured liysander to be elected one of 
the ephors, he laid his plans before the senate. 
He proposed that the Spartiui territory should be 
divided into two portions, one to consist of 4500 
equal lots, to be divided amongst tlie Spartans, 
whose ranks were to be filled up by the admis- 
sion of the most respectable of the Perioeci and 
strangers ; the other to contain 15,000 equal lots, 
to be divided- amongst the Perioeci. The senate 
could not at first come to a decision on the matter. 
Lysander, therefore, convoked the assembly of the 
people, to whom Agis submittinl his measure, and 
offered to make the first sacrifice, by giving up his 
lands and money, telling them that his mother and 
grandmother, who were possessed of great wealth, 
with all his relations and friends, would follow his 
example. His generosity drew down the ap- 
plauses of the multitude. The opposite party, 
however, headed by Leonidas, the other king, who 
had fonned his habits at the luxurious court of 
Seleucus, king of Syria, got the senate to reject 
the measure, though only by one vote. Agis now 
detennined to rid himself of Leonidas. Lysander 
accordingly accused him of having violated the laws 
by marrying a stranger and living in a foreign land. 
Leonidas was deposed, and was succeeded by his 
Bon-in-law, Cleombrotus, who co-operated with 
Agis. Soon afterwards, however, Lysander's term 
of ofHce expired, and the ephors of the following 
year were opposed to Agis, and designed to restore 
Leonidas. They brought an accusation against 
Lysander and Mandrocleides, of attempting to vio- { 



AGIS. 



73 



late the laws. Alarmed at the turn events were 
taking, the two latter prevailed on the kings to 
depose the ephors by force and appoint others ia 
their room. Leonidas, who had returned to 
the city, fled to Tegea, and in his flight was 
protected by Agis from the violence meditated 
against him by Agesilaus. The seilish avarice of 
the latter frustrated the plans of Agis, when there 
now seemed nothing to oppose the execution of 
them. He perauaded his nephew and Lysander 
that the most effectual way to secure the consent 
of the wealthy to the distribution of their lands, 
would be, to begin by cancelling the debts. Ac- 
cordingly all bonds, registers, and securities were 
piled up in the market place and burnt. Agesi- 
laus, haring secured his own ends, contrived vari- 
ous pretexts for delaying the division of the lands. 
Meanwhile the Achaeans applied to Sparta for 
assistance against the Aetolians. Agis was ao- 
cordingly sent at the head of an army. The cau- 
tious movements of Aratus gave Agis no opportu- 
nity of distinguishing himself in action, but he 
gained great credit by the excellent discipline he 
preserved among his troops. During his absence 
Agesilaus so incensed the poorer classes by his 
insolent conduct and the continued postponement 
of the division of the lands that they made no 
opposition when the enemiea of Agis openly 
brought back Leonidas and Mt him on the throne. 
Agis and Cleombrotus fled fer sanctuary, the 
former to the temple of Athene Chalcioecus, the 
latter to the temple of Poseidon. .Cleombrotus 
was sofiBrad to go into exile. Agis was entrapped 
by aoBM twchtrous fi-iends and thrown into 
^mlm\Am inunediately cme with a hand 
■ad aecaicd tke priaoo without, 
while the ephors entered it, and wont throogh the 
mockery of a triaL When asked if he did not 
repent of what he had attempted, Agis replied, 
that he should never repent of so gkriooa a design, 
even in the &ee of death. He was ooademned, 
and precipitately ezecated, the epbon iiaring a 
rescue, as a gnat eeneoiine of pMpk kadaaaan- 
bled round Uie pruon gatea. Agis, ohserving that 
one of his executioners was moved to tears, said, 
^ Weep not for me: suffering, as I do, unjustly, I 
am in a happier case than my murderers." His 
mother Agesistrate and his grandmother were 
strangled on his body. Agis was the first king of 
Sparta who had been put to death by the ephors. 
Paosanias, who, however, is undoubtedly wrong, 
says (viii. 10. § 4, 27. § 9), that he fell in battle. 
His widow Agiatis was forcibly married by Leo- 
nidas to his son Cleomenes, but nevertheless they 
entertained for each other a mutual affection 
and esteem. ( Plutarch, Affia, CJeomena^ Aratus; 
Paus. viL 7. § 2.) [C. P. M.] 

AGIS CA7«), a Greek poet, a native of Argos, 
and a contemporary of Alexander the Great, whom 
he accompanied on his Asiatic expedition. Cur- 
tius (viii. 5) as well as Arrian {Anab. iv. 9) and 
Plutarch {De adulat. et amie. diserim. p. GO) de- 
scribe him as one of the basest flatterers of the 
king. Curtius calls him " pessimorum carmiuum 
post Choerilum conditor," which probably refers 
rather to their flattering character than to their 
worth as poetry. The Greek Anthology (vL 
152) contains an epigram, which is probably the 
work of this flatterer. (Jacobs, AnthoL iii. p. 
836 ; Zimmennanu, Zeitschrifi Jiir die AUerth. 
1841, p. 164.) 



74 



AONODICE. 



Atlicnnous (xii. p. /)1()) mention* one Agii a* 
th(! aiitlKir of a work on the art of cooking 
(^df^prmind). [L. b.] 

AdLA'IA {'AyKeda). 1, [Charitkh.] 
'2. 'J'lic wife of (Ihiiropuii nrid mother of Nlreua, 
who h-(l a Hniall Iniiid from tho iHlaiiil of Syme 
RfliiiiiKt 'JVoy. (lloni. //. ii. 671; l>iod. v. y.i.) 
Another Agliiia in mentioned in Apoiludorut. (ii, 

7. S »•) II- H-J 

A(iLAONrCK. [AoANicK.] 

A(iI-A()l'IiK'MK. [SiRENKs.] 
AOIiA'Ol'lION ('A7Aao<^i'), a painter, bom 
in the isliitid of 'I'hnsoH, the; futlicr and iiiBtrut-tor 
of I'olyf^notiiH. (SiiidaH and I'hotiuR,*. r. TloKuyyt»- 
Toj ; Aiith. (ir. ix. 70(1.) He had another ton 
named Arintophon. (I'lat. O'orf/. p. 44H. B.) A« 
Polyfi^iotud flourished before the 90th 01. (Plin. 
J/. N. XXXV. y. «. 35), Aplaophon profwhly lived 
about 01. 70. Quintilian (xii. 10. §3) praiae* hit 
jiaintings, which were diHtinf(iiiAhed by the Nin- 
piii-ity of their coloiiriii);, as worthy of admimtion 
on other grounds liesides their antitjuity. 'I here 
was an Aglaophon who flourished in the 90th OL 
according to Pliny (//. N. xxzt. 9. •. 3(>), and his 
statement is conflrmed by a pmwge of Athcnaeu* 
(xii. p. .'543, I).), from which we learn that he 
painted two pictures, in one of which Olympias 
and Pythijis, as the preniding genin''-"" "f »!"• 
01ymj)ic and Pythiim gnmus, wen? 
crowning Alciltiades ; in the other Neiii' 
hiding deity of the Nemean games, held AltibiiiJes 
on her knees. Alcibiades could not have gained 
any victories much before 01. 91, (b. c. 416.) It 
is therefore exceedingly likely that this artist was 
the son of Arihtophon, and grandson of the older 
Aglaoplion, as among the Greeks the son generally 
liorc the name not of his father but of his grand- 
fjilher. Plutarch {Alcib. \(j) says, that Aristo- 
phon was the author of the picture of Nemea and 
Alcibiades. He may perhaps hare assisted his 
son. This Aglaophon was, according to some, the 
firit who represented Victory with wings. (SchoL 
ad Aristoph. Aves^ 573.) [C. P. M.] 

AGLAOSTHENES. [Aoaosthknks.] 

AGLAUROS. [Agraulos.] 

AG LA' US (^\y\a6i), a poor citizen of Psophis 
in Arcadia, whom the Delphic oracle pronounced 
to be happier than Gyges, king of Lydia, on ac- 
count of his contentedness, when the king asked 
the oracle, if any man was happier than he. (Val. 
Max. vii. 1. § 2 ; Plin. H. N. viL 47.) Pausa- 
iiias (viiL 24. § 7) places Aglaus in the time of 
Croesus. 

AGNAPTUS, an architect mentioned by Pau- 
sanias (v. 15, § 4, vi. "20. § 7) as the builder of a 
porch in the Altis at Olympia, which was called 
by the Eleans the " porch of Agnaptus." When 
he lived is uncertain. [C. P. M.] 

A'GNIUS C'A^.'ios), the father of Tiphys, who 
was the pilot of the ship Argo ( Apollod. i. 9. § 1 6 ; 
Orph. Argon. 540), whence Tiphys is called 
Agniades. [L. S.] 

AGNO'DICE ('AtvoSikt)), the name of the 
earliest midwife mentioned among the Greeks. 
She was a native of Athens, where it was 
forbidden by law for a woman or a slave to 
study medicine. According, however, to Hyginus 
{Fab. 274), on whose authority alone the whole 
story rests, it would appear that Agnodice dis- 
guised herself in man's clothes, and so contrived to 
attend the lectures of a physician named Hiero- 



AOON. 

philav— '«t««iiif koMir dMy to tkt Midj «r 
midwiihrT ud Um diMMM M wi i wu jUi» 
wards, wh«a tha bcpu ptaetki^ biia| fwy •«»■ 
MMfol in tbna bniarhw ti tiM ttJmdtm, A» 
excited th« JMlooajr of wrwil of UM olW fia»> 
titionen, by whon tho wm o a winn o d bifcm tlw 

ARIOpO^VBi ttM MMaod 01 OOtMl|plMff MO BMRlS 

of hor pirtiMli. Upon kor fufcihg tlii ohMp by 
makiaff known hor mz, iIm wnt mmt^am^ •»■ 

cuiM^d of haring Tiolstod tbo ezioting kw, wUdi 
second dangor aho oaaqted bj tko wirot of tko 
chief penona in Athona, whoa oho hnd ott— dod, 
eonnngfcrwwd in her bohnU^ aad Moeaodiaf at 

kot in gett:— '^' -I -.--;■- i.-v aholiibwi No 

datewlwtr '<>r7,bat MToml 

peraoni h:i\ of Agnodko by 

the munc uf IlrrupitUut inatrtui of llitro^iln*, 

placed it in the third or fourth r«»ntiinf brforo 

Christ Hi ■ ' M 

Terynuyii -■icr 

free from >■' ' '" 

■tory is t<> 

Hyginus, \\ 

fifth or sixth century lM.-fi>r<i Ciihi>'> 

or fourth ; •••condir, w« hsvi* no f' 

ing t' " 

Her 



wrut« a 
: (ii. 17. 



iiul Uie 
y Qain- 



AGNUN, a (jretik rhtt 
work againit rhetoric, whi< 
§ 15) calU •* Ubetoriooo ac 
{Hill. OH. Orat. Oram. p. 
most modem scholm hnvo c 
to be the suno am m Agn" 
rary of Phocion,aa tho lott< 
Com. Nepos {Phoe. S) call' 
manner in which Agnon is . 
tiliaa, shews that ho i* : ' 
a modi kter period. \ 

same as the academir 

Athenaeus (xiii. p. 60- ; ( L. S. J 

AGNCMDES (a Atl»enian 

demagogue and sycophant, a contemporary of 
Theophrastns and Phocion, The former was ac- 
cused by Agnonides of impiety, but was acqnitted 
by the Areiopagns, and TheophiaotiM aight hare 
ruined his accuser, had be been leas generooa. (Diog. 
Laert v. 37.) Agnonides was opposed to the Ma- 
cedonian party at Athens, and called Phocion a trai- 
tor, for which he was exiled, as soon as Alexander, 
son of Polysperchon, got possession of Athens. 
Afterwards, however, he obtained from Antipater 
permission to return to his country through tho 
mediation of Phocion. (Plut. I%jc. 29.) But 
the sycophant soon forgot what he owed to his 
benefactor, and not only continued to oppose the 
Macedonian party in the most vehement manner, 
but even induced the Athenians to sentence Pho- 
cion to death as a traitor, who had delivered the 
Peiraeens into the hands of Xicanor. (Plut. Pkoc. 
33, 35; Com. 'Se^p^Phoc. 3.) But the Athenians 
soon repented of their conduct towards Phocion, 
and put Agnonides to death to appease his manes. 
(Plut. Phoc. 38.) [L. S.j 

AGON {'Aydv), a personification of solemn 
contests (dyavfs). He was represented in a statue 
at Olympia with dXrjjpfs in his hands. This sta- 
tue was a work of Dionysius, and dedicated by 
Smicythus of Rhcgium. (Pans. t. 26. § 3.) [L. S.] 



AGRAULOS. 

AGO'NIUS {'Ayuptos), a surname or epithet of 
several gods. Aeschylus (A(;am. 513) and Sopho- 
cles {Traeh. 2C) use it of Apollo and Zeus, and 
apparently in the sense of helpers in struggles and 
contests. (Coinp. Eustath. a</ //. p. 1335.) But 
Agonius is more especially used as a surname of 
Hennes, who presides over all kinds of solemn 
contests. ('Ayoij'ts, Paus. v. 14. § 7 ; Find. Olymp. 
vi. 133, with the SchoL) [L. «.] 

AGORA'CRITUS {' kyopixpnos), a famous 
statuary and sculptor, born in the island of Paros, 
who flourished from about 01. 85 to 01. 88. (Plin. 
//. N. xxxvi. 5. 8. 4.) He was the favourite 
pupil of Phidias (Paus. ix. 34. § 1), who is even 
said by Pliny to have inscribed some of his 
own works with the name of his disciple. Only 
four of his productions are mentioned, viz. a statue 
of Zeus and one of the Itonian Athene in the 
temple of that goddess at Athens (Paus. /. c.) ; a 
fitiitue, pmbably of Cybele, in the temple of the 
Great Goddess at Athens (Plin. I. e.) ; and the 
Riuunnusian Nemesis. Respecting this hist work 
there has been a groat deal of discussion. The 
account which Pliny gives of it is, that Agoracritus 
contended with Alcjunenes (another distinguished 
disciple of Phidias) in making a statue of Venus; 
and that the Athenians, through an undue [>ar- 
tuility towards their countryman, awarded the 
victory to Alcanienes. Agoracritus, indignant at 
his defeat, made some slight alterations so as to 
change his Venus into a Nemesis, and sold it to 
the people of Rhamnus, on condition that it should 
not be set up in Athens. Pausanias (i. 33. § "2), 
without saying a word about Agoracritus, tay* 
that the Rhanmusian Nemesis was the work of 
Phidias, and was made out of the block of Parian 
marble which the Persians und«r Datit and 
Artiiphcmes brought with them for tlia poraoae of 
setting up a trophy. (See Thesetetoi and Panne- 
nio, Anthol. Gr. Flanud. iv. Pi, 2-21, 2->2.) This 
account however has been rejected as involving 
a confusion of the idejis connected by the Greeks 
with the goddess Nemesis. The statue moreover 
was not of Parian, but of Pentelic marble. (fV 
fdiU'd Antiquities of Attica, p. 43.) Strabo (ix. 
p. 3!)fi), Tzetzes {^Chiliad, vii. 154), Suidas and 
Photius give other variations in speaking of this 
statue. It seems generally agreed that Pliny's 
account of the matter is right in the main ; and 
there have been various dissertations on the way 
in which a statue of Venus could liave been 
changed into one of Nemesis. (Winckelnumn, 
S'dmmtlklie Werke von J. Kiselein, vol. v. p. 364 ; 
Zoega, AlJtandlunpcn, pp. 56 — 6*2 ; K. O. Miiller, 
Arch. d. Kumt, p. 10-2.) [C. P. M.J 

AGORAEA and AGORAEUS {'Ayopala and 
'Ayoixuos), are epithets given to several divinities 
who were considered as the protectors of the as- 
semblies of the people in the dyopd, such as Zeus 
(Paus. iii. li, § 8, v. 15. § 3), Athena (iii. 11. 
§ 8), Artemis (v. 15. § 3), "and Hermes, (i. 15. 
§ 1, ii. 9. § 7, ix. 17. § 1.) As Hennes was the 
god of commerce, this surname seems to have re- 
ference to the dyopd as the market-place. [L. S.] 

AGRAEUS {'Aypaios), the hunter, a surname 
of Apollo. After he had killed the lion of Cithae- 
ron, a temple was erected to him by Alcathous at 
iSIegara under the name of Apollo Agraeus. (Paus. 
i. 41. § 4 ; Eustath. ad II. p. 361.) [L. S.] 

AGRAULOS or AGRAULE ^AypavKos or 
'Ay/KJi'Ai^). 1. A daughter of Actaeus, the first 



AGRICOLA. 



75 



king of Athens. By her husband, Cecrops, she 
became the mother of Erysichthon, Agraulos, 
Herse, and Pandrosos. (Apollod. iii. 14. § 2 ; 
Paus. L 2. § 5.) 

2. A daughter of Cecrops and Agraulos, and 
mother of Alcippe by Ares. This Agraulos is 
an important personage in the stories of Attica, 
and there were three different legends about her. 
1. According to Pausanias (L 18. § 2) and Hyginus 
{Fab. 166), Athena gave to her and her sisters 
Erichthonius in a cheet, with the express conuuand 
not to open it. But Agraulos and Herse could 
not control their curiosity, and opened it ; where- 
upon they were seized with madness at the sight 
of Erichthonius, and threw themselrea from the 
steep rock of the Acropolis, or according to Hygiims 
into the sea. 2. According to Grid (Met. iL 7lU, 
&c.), Agranlos and her sister survived their open- 
ing the chest, and the fonuer, who had instigated 
her sister to open it, was punished in this manner. 
Hermes came to Athens during the celebration of 
the Panathenaea, and fell in love with Herse. 
Athena made Agraulos so jealous of her suter, that 
she even attempted to prevent the god entering 
the house of Herse. Bat, indignant at sucfa pre- 
sumption, he changed Agraulos into a stone. 
3. The third legend represents Agiauloa in a 
totally different light. Athens was at one time 
involved in a long-protracted war, and an orade 
declared that it would cease, if some one would 
sacrifice hiaaaif far the good of hia eoontiy. 
Agranlos came forward and threw herself down 
the Acropolis. The Athenians, in gratitude for 
this, built her a temple on the Acropolis, iu which 
it subsequently became catlUtaary fat the young 
Athenians, on reeeiTing their first anit ti annonr, 
to take an eath that thejr wtwld alwajs deflBod 
their country to the haL (Said, and Hesych. s. tc 
'A-ypavXot; Ulpiaa, ad Dtmentk. de/aU. leg.; He- 
rod, viii. 53 ; Plut Aleib. 15; Philochonu, Fniym. 
p. 18, ed. Siebelis.) One of the Attic Srjfioi 
(Agraule) derived its name fraa this heroine, and 
a festival and mysteriea were eeiefanted at Athens 
in honour of her. (Steph. Byi. a. •. 'AypavKij ; 
Lobeck, Afflaoph. p. 89; Diet, tf Att. p. 3U, a.) 
According to Porphyry (I>e JMm. aAoMMMo/. i. 2), 
she was also wushipped in Cyprus, where human 
sacrifices were offered to her down to a very bite 
time. [L. S.] 

AGRESPHON ^Aypiv^mmV a Greek gram- 
marian mentioned by Suidas. (*. «. 'AToAAjftoi.) 
He wrote a woi^ IIcj*} 'OftiM'VfUf (conceniing per- 
sons of the same name). He cannot have lived 
earlier than the reign of Hadrian, as in his work 
he spoke of an ApoUonius who lived in the time of 
that emperor. [C. P. M.] 

AGREUS {'Ayp«is\ a hunter, occurs as a sur- 
name of Pan and Aristaeus. (Pind. PytA. ix. 115; 
Apollon. Rhod. iiL 507 ; Diod. iv. 81 ; Hesych. ».r.; 
Salmas. ad Soiin. p. 81.) [L. S.] 

AGR1'C0L.\, GNAEUS JULIUS, is one of 
the most remarkable men whom we meet with in 
the times of the first twelve emperors of Rome, for 
his extraordinary ability as a general, his great 
powers, shewn in his government of Britain, 
and borne witness to by the deep and universal 
feeling excited in Rome by his death (Tac. Affric. 
43), his singular integrity, and the esteem and 
love which he commanded in all the private rela- 
tions of life. 

His life of 55 years (from June 1 3th, a. d. 37, 



76 



AORICOLA. 



to the S.lrd AupfUit, A. I). f);t) oxtcniU tliroujfli the 
n-i^iR of the nine empcrorii from ('(Uigulu to Donii- 
tiiui. lie wui bom ut the- Roman colony of Fonim 
.liilii, the nKxlvm Frrju* in I'rovencc. Iliit father 
wiiN Julitiii (JniecinuN of ncnutoriaii ntnk ; hiit nio- 
thiT Jiiliii I'rocilla, who throu^^hout hin education 
Hiu-tDK to have watched with great ctire and to 
have exerted ({n-at iiiHuencc over him. Jle Htudied 
]>hiIom>phy (the uruiJ education of a Konuin of 
higher rank) fn)m his earliest youth at Munteillet. 
iliR fint military aervico was under Suetonius 
I'aiilinus in DritJiin (a. d. GU), in the relation of 
C'oiituhenialiH. (^ro J>kt. o/Ant. i>.2iM,ti.) Hence 
lie retuni(-d to Home, was married to Domitis 
Decidiana, and went the round of the magistracies; 
the quaeHtorship in Asia (a. n. fi.'i), under the pro- 
consul Salvius Titianus, where his integrity wa« 
shewn by his refusal to join the proconsul in the 
ordinary system of extortion in the Konuui pro- 
vinces ; the tribunate and the prnetorship, — in 
Nero's time mere nominal offices filled with dan- 
ger to the man who held them, in which a prudent 
inactivity was the only safe course. Uy Golba 
(a. n. ().<)) he was appointed to examine the lacred 
I)roi>erty of the temples, that Nero'i lyttem of 
i-obbery (Sueton. Nrr. 3"2) might be stopped. In 
the same year he lost his mother ; it was in re- 
turning from her funeral in Liguria, that he heard 
of Vespasian^s accetiion, and immediately joined 
hit party. Under Vespasian his first service was 
the command of the 20th legion in Britain, (a. n. 
70.) On his return, he was raised by the emperor 
to the nmk of patrician, and set over the province 
of Aquitania, which he held for three years, (a. o. 
74-70".) lie was recalled to Rome to be elected 
consul (a. D. 77), and Britain, the great scene of 
his power, was given to him, by general consent, 
as his province. 

In this year he betrothed his daughter to the 
historian Tacitus ; in the following he gave her to 
him in marriage, and was made governor of Britain, 
and one of the college of pontiffs. 

Agricola was the twelfth Roman general who 
had been in BriUiin ; he was the only one who 
completely effected the work of subjugation to the 
Romans, not more by his consummate military 
skill, than by his masterly policy in reconciling the 
Britons to thiit yoke which hitherto they had so 
ill borne. He taught them the arts and luxuries of 
civilised life, to settle in towns, to build comfort- 
able dwelling-houses and temples. He, established 
a system of education for the sons of the British 
chiefs, amongst whom at last the Roman language 
was spoken, and the Roman toga worn as a 
&shionable dress. 

He was full seven years in Britain, from the 
year a. d. 78 to a. d. 84. The last conquest of his 
predecessor Julius Frontinus had been that of the 
Silures (South Wales); and the last action of 
Agricola's command was the action at the foot of 
the Grampian hills, which put him in possession of 
the whole of Britain as far north as the northern 
boundar}- of Perth and Argyle. His first campaign 
(a. d. 78) was occupied in the reconquest of Mona 
(Anglesea), and the Ordovices (North Wales), the 
strongholds of the Druids ; and the remainder of 
this year, with the next, was given to making the 
before-mentioned arrangements for the security of 
the Roman dominion in the already conquered 
parts of Britain. The third campaign (a. d. 80) 



AORIPPA. 

carric-d him northward* to the Tsus,* prabaUjr 
the .Sol way Frith ; and the fourth (a. u. 81) wa* 
token up in fortifying aad takiof ftttmdm tl 
this tract, and advancing as ht uatik at tka Fritka 
of Clrda aad Forth. la tka Mb atnffriga (a. B. 
82), ha waa «v>f"' <■ MAMm ika trihea m 
the pnnontarj omoaita Inlaal. la «ha lixdi 
(a. v. 83), he cxniond with hk laat $ai laaA 
force* the coast of Fife and Forfv, eeaiflf aaw 
for the first time into contact with the tnie CaM*> 
niaiit. They made a night attack on his fania 
(beUered to ba at Loch On, whaia dthchea mi 
oUmt tiaeaa of • Bn— n caaip an MS la ba ma)^ 
and aaeeeedod in naariy deatnjfaig tka aialh bfiaai 
but in the general battle, whidl fBOavad, tkof 
were repulsed. The seTenth and kat Mipaifn ( a. n. 
84) gave Agricola complete and antin poMoniaa 
of the country, up to the northenwiBil poial 
which he bad reachBd, by a aaat dacidad tmoij 
over tha aaiaotbiad Caledodaaa ladar thak 1 
(ialgacua (aa it ia beUarad, froai tha E 
Britiih renaina Cnad than, aad fraai the two 
tumuli or sepoldml adna) oa tha bmot of lloidoch 
at the toot of the Orampiui bills. In tUa caanpaka 
bis fleet sailed northwards from tha coaat oiFn 
round Britain to tlio Tnitnlcnsian harbaer (m^ 
poM-d to be Sandwich), thiu far the fint tiaM «•• 
covering Britain to be an iahuid. He withdnw 
his army into winter qoarten, aad tooa after (a.d. 
84) was recalled by the jealooa Dooitiaa. 

(>n his return to Room, ha liTed m retitenieat, 
and when the gOTemmaot aitbar of Asia or Africa 
would bare £ulaa to hiai, ha eoaaidered it nera 

Erudent to decline the hoooor. He died a. o. 93 ; 
is death waa, aa hk biographer pkinly hinu, 
either immediatelj caaaad or certainly hastcnad 
by the emisaariea of the anperor, who codd aot 
bear the pceaenea of • aam pointed oat ij aahw^ 
sal feeling aa akoa it to neat tba iriiiiMir af 
times in which the Roana arma had m mn a n- 
peated reverses in Germany and the countriea 
north of the Danube. Dion Cassius (IxvL 20) saya 
expressly, that he was killed by Domitian. 

In this account we can do no more than refer to 
the beautiful and interesting description given by 
Tacitus {Affric. 39 — 46) of his life daring his re- 
tirement from office, his death, his person, and hu 
character, which though it had no field of action at 
home in that dreary time, shewed itself during the 
seven years in whxh it waa unfettered in Britain, 
as great and wise and good. (Tacitus, Agricola.) 

There is an epigram of Antiphilus in the Greek 
Anthology {Anth. Brunck. ii. 180) upon an Agri- 
cola, which is commonly supposed to refer to the 
celebrated one of this name. [C. T. A.] 

AGRIO'NIUS (^ h-ypuivioi), a samame of 
Dionysus, imder which he was worshipped at 
Orchomenus in Boeotia, and from which his festi- 
val Agrionia in that place derived its name. {Diet. 
of Ant. p. 30 ; MUller, Orchom. p. leC, 6ic.) [L.S.] 

AGRI'OPAS, a writer spoken of by Pliny. (//. 
A". viiL 22, where some of the MSS. have Acopaa 
or Copas.) He was the author of an account of the 
Olympic victors. [C. P. M.] 

AGRIPPA, an ancient name among the Ro- 
mans, was first used as a praenomen, and after- 
wards as a cognomen. It frequently occurs as a 



* As to whether the Taus was the Solway Frith 
or the Frith of Tay, see Chalmers' Caledonia. 



AGRIPPA. 

cognomen in the early times of the empire, but not 
under the republic. One of the mythical kings of 
Alba is called by this name. (Liv. i. 3.) Ac- 
cording to Aulus Gellius (xvi. IC), Pliny (//. A'. 
vii . G. 8. 8), and Solinus (1), the word signifies a 
birth, at which the child is presented with its feet 
foremost ; but their derivation of it from aegre par- 
ins or pes is absurd enough, (Comp. Sen. Oed. 813.) 
AGRIPPA ('A7p/inroj), a sceptical philosopher, 
only known to have lived later than Aenesidemus, 
the contemporary of Cicero, from whom he is said 
to have been the fifth in descent. He is quoted 
by Diogenes Laertius, who proljably wrote a)>out 
the time of M. Antoninus, The "five grounds of 
doubt" {oi nimf rpoToi), which are given by 
Sextus Empiricus as a summary of the later scepti- 
cism, are ascribed by Diogenes Laertius (ix. 88) to 
Agrippa. 

1. The first of these argues from the uncertainty 
of the rules of common life, and of the opinions of 
philosophers. II. The second from the " rejectio 
ad infinitum : " all proof requires some further 
proofi and so on to infinity. III. All things are 
changed as their rektions become changed, or, as 
we look upon them in diiferent points of view. 

IV. The truth asserted is merely an hypothesis or, 

V. involves a vicious circle. (Sextus Empiricus, 
Pyrrhon. Hypot. i. 15.) 

With reference to these ir/vT« rp^woi it need 
only be remarked, that the first and third are a 
short sumniJiry of the ten original grounds of doubt 
which were the basis of the earlier scepticism. 
[Pyhkhon.] The three additional ones shew a 
progress in the sceptical system, and a transition 
from the common objections derived from the falli- 
bility of sense and opinion, to more abstnct and 
metaphysical grounds of doubt. They Kem to 
mark a new attempt to systematize the iceptical 
philosophy and adapt it to the spirit of a later age. 
(Ritter, Geschwlde der PhUusophie, xii.4.) [B. J.] 

AGRIPPA, M.ASI'NIUS, consul a. d. To, 
died A. o, 26, was descended from a family more 
illustrious than ancient, and did not disgrace it by 
his mode of life. (Tac. Ann. iv. 34, til.) 

AGRIPPA CASTOR ('Ayp^wxaj KaVr^p), 
about A. D. 1 3o, praised as a historian by Euse- 
bius, and for his learning by St Jerome (de Virit 
lUusir. c, 21), lived in the rvign of Hadrian. He 
wrote against the twenty-four books of the Alex- 
andrian Gnostic Basilides, on the Gospel, Quota- 
tions are made from his work by Eusebius. \Hist. 
Eix-les. iv. 7 ; see Galhindi's BiUiotkeca Patrum, 
vol. i. p. 330.) [A. J. C] 

AGRIPPA, FONTEIUS. 1. One of the ac- 
cusers of Libo, A. D. 16, is again mentioned in 
A. D. 19, as offering his daughter for arestal y\x- 
gin. (Tac. Ann. ii, 30, 86.) 

2. Probably the son of the preceding, command- 
ed the province of Asia with pro-consular power, 
A. D. 69, and was recalled from thence by Vesjia- 
sian, and placed over Moesia in a. d. 70. He 
was shortly afterwards killed in battle by the Sar- 
matians, (Tac Hid. iii. 46; Joseph. B. Jud. 
vii. 4. § 3.) 

AGRIPPA, D. HATE'RIUS, called by Taci- 
tus (Ann. ii. 51) the propinquus of Gemmnieus, 
was tribune of the plebs a. d. 15, praetor a. n. 17, 
and consul a. d. 22. His moral character was 
very low, and he is spoken of in a. d. 32, as plot- 
ting the destruction of many illustrious men. 
(Tac Ann. L 77, ii. 51, iii. 49, 52, vL 4.) 



AGRIPPA. 



77 



AGRIPPA, HERO'DES I.('Hp««nJ 'fiypl^rns), 
called by Josephus {Ant. Jud. xviL 2. § 2), 
"Agrippa the Great," was the son of Aristobulus 
and IJerenice, and grandson of Herod the GreaC 
Shortly before the death of his grandfather, he 
came to Rome, where he was educated with the 
future emperor Claudius, and Dnisus the son of 
Tiberius. He squandered his property in giving 
sumptuous entertainments to gratify his princely 
friends, and in bestowing laigeaies on the freed- 
men of the emperor, and became so deeply involved 
in debt, that he was compiled to fly from Rome, 
and betook himself to a fortrcM at Malatha in 
Idumaea. Through the mediation of his wife 
Cyprus, with his sister Herodias, the wife of He- 
roides Antipaa, he waa allowed to take up hit 
abode at Tiberias, and received the rank of aedile 
in that city, with a small yearly income. But hav> 
ing quarrelled with his brother-in-kw, he fled to 
FhiccuB, the proconsul of Syria. Soon afterwards 
he was convicted, through the information of his 
brother Aristobulus, of having received a bribe 
from the Damascenes, who wished to purchase hia 
influence with the proconsul, and was again com- 
pelled to fly. He was arrested as he was about to 
sail for Italy, for a sum of money which he owed 
to the treasury of Caesar, but made his escape, and 
reached Alexandria, where his wi& succeeded in 
procuring a supply of money from Alexander the 
Alabarch. He then set sail, and landed at PuteolL 
He was favourably received by Tiberius, who en- 
trusted him with the education of his grandson 
Tiberius. He also formed an intimacy with Caius 
Caligula. Having one day incautiously expressed 
a wuh that the latter might soon succeed to the 
throne, his words were reported by his freedman 
Eutychus to Tiberius, wIm forthwith threw him 
mto prison. Caliguk, oo hia awBirion (a. d. 37), 
set him at liberty, and gave him the tetranhies of 
Lysanias (Abilene) and Philippus (Batanaea, 
Trachonitis, and Auranitis). He also presented 
him with a golden chain of equal weight with the 
iron one which be had worn in prison. In the 
following year Agrippa took possession of his king- 
dom, and after the banishment of Herodes Antipas, 
the tetraichy of the latter was added to his domi- 
nions. 

On the death of Cedigula, Agrippa, who was at 
the time in Rome, materially agisted Claudius in 
gaining possession of the empire. As a reward fur 
his services, Judaea and Samaria were annexed to 
his dominions, which were now even more exten- 
sive than those of Herod the Great. He was also 
invested with the consular dignity, and a league 
was publicly made with him by Claudius in the 
forum. At his request, the kingdom of Chalcis 
was given to his brother Herodes. (a, d. 41.) He 
then went to Jerusalem, where he offered sacrifices, 
and suspended in the treasurj' of the temple the 
golden chain which Caligula had given him. His 
government was mild and gentle, and he was ex- 
ceedingly popular amongst the Jews, In the city 
of Berjtus he built a theatre and amphitheatre, 
baths, and porticoes. The suspicions of Claudius 
prevented him from finishing the impregnable for- 
tifications with which he had begun to surround 
Jerusalem. His friendship was courted by many 
of the neighbouring kings and rulers. It was 
probably to increase his popularity with the Jews 
that he caused the apostle James, the brother of 
John, to be beheaded, and Peter to be cast into 



711 



AGRIPPA. 



jfriRon. (a. n. 44. Acti, xiL^ It wa« not howeror 
jMirrly by ituch act* that he »trovo to win their 
fiivour, iM we (kjo from the way in whiih, at ihn 
ri»k of hi* own life, or at leaiit of hi* IDx-rty, he 
jnt<'rce(lc(i with Caligula on bt-holf of tho Jews, 
wiicii that emperor wiw attemptin(f to iM!t up hit 
titiitiie it) th(! tein])I(! at .lenis.i! '! ' 

of hi» (l<'ath, which took placi' 

wiMK! year, as he wa* cxhitiitiii;; , 

of the emperor, is relatt'd in Act* xii., and is con- 
iimied in all esiicntial points by Josephus, who 
rciM'atH Agrippji's words, in which he acknowledfp-d 
the justice of the puiiiHhiiieiit thus inflict«'d on him. 
After lingerinj< five days, ho expired, in the lifty- 
fourth year of his age. 

Hy hin wife Cypros he had a son named A^ppo, 
and three daiij<hters, Berenice, who first married 
her uncle lIero<leg, king of Cholcis, afterwards 
lived with her brother Agrippa, and sabsequcntiy 
married I'olaino, king of ('ilicia ; the is alluded to 
l)y Juvenal {ScU. vi. 156); Moriamne, and DrusilU, 
who married Felix, the procurator of Judaea. (Jo- 
(fi'ph. Aiit. Jud. xvii. 1. g 2, XTiii. 6-8, xix. 4-8; 
Jhll. Jud. i. 2». § 1, ii. 9, 11; Dion Cask Ix. 8; 
Kiiwb. IliM. l-kxle$. ii. 10.) [C. P. M.l 

Aai{IlM'A,IIKR(yi)KSII.,the> -• * n 
I., was cducate<i at the court of the ■ 

dius, and at the time of his father's di .:. > y 

Beventeen years old. Claudius therefore kept him 
at Home, and sent Cuspius Fadus as procurator of 
the kingdom, which thus again became a Koman 
province. On the death of Herodes, king of 
Chalcis (a. d. 48), his little principality, with the 
right of suj)erintonding the temple and appointing 
the high priest, was given to Agrippa, who four 
years afterwards received in its st<»d the tetrar- 
chies formerly held by Philip and Lysanias, with 
the title of king. In a. d. 5.5, Nero added the 
cities of Tiberias and Taricheae in Galilee, and 
Julias, with fourteen villages near it, in Peraea. 
Agrippa expt^nded large sums in Ijeautifying Jeru- 
Balem and other cities, especially Ik>rytu8, His 
piirtiality for the latter rendered him unpopular 
amongst his own subjects, and the capricious man- 
ner in which he appointed and deposed the high 
priests, with some other acts which were distasteful, 
made him an object of dislike to the Jews. Be- 
fore the outbreak of the war with the Romans, 
Agrippa attempted in vain to dissuade the people 
from rebelling. When the war was begun, he 
sided with the Romans, and was wounded at the 
siege of Gamala. After the capture of Jerusalem, 
he went with his sister Berenice to Rome, where 
he was invested with the dignity of praetor. He 
died in the seventieth year of his age, in the third 
year of the reign of Trajan. He was the last 
prince of the house of the Herods. It was before 
this Agrippa that the apostle Paul made his de- 
fence, (a. d. 60. Ads. XXV. xxvi.) He lived on 
tonus of intimacy with the historian Josephus, 
who has preserved two of the letters he received 
from him. (Joseph. Ant. Jud. xvii. 3. § 4, xix. 9. 
§ 2, XX. 1. § 3, 5. § 2, 7. § 1, 8. § 4 & 11, 9. § 4 ; 
Bell. Jud. ii. 11. § 6, 12. § 1, 16, 17. § 1, iv. 1. § 3; 
nt. s. 54 ; Phot. cod. 33.) [C. P. M.] 

AGRIPPA, MARCIUS, a man of the lowest 
origin, was appointed by Macrinus in b. c. 217, 
first to the government of Pannonia and after- 
wards to that of Dacia. (Dion. Cass. Ixxviii. 13.) 
He seems to be the same person as the Marcius 
Agrippa, admiral of tlie fleet, who is mentioned by | 



AGRIPPA. 

Spartianu* a< privy to the death of Antaaintu 
Cunitallu». {A:in„. r„r »;.) 

A(iUIPPA ' > .4. [MimDnoiL] 

AGltM'l'A . I 8, ■ poMliwaow am 

of M. Vipaauiu* A>{ri(jpa, by Julia, the fifhiir af 

Augustus, was boni in it. c. \'l. Jle was aJiiptid 

' Augustan together with TiberiiM ia A. Bk 4, 

! he aMunfUxi the toga virilis ia tk« Mhwfag 

If, A. u. 5. (Suet. Uciav. ft4, <6| Di«l CbH^ 
iiv. 29, Iv. 22.) NutwitlMtndiH U> ■<y*Wi h* 
was afu-rwards banitlMtd bjr AnCMtat !• tM idMA 
of I'lannitia, on th* eoMt of Uonka, • 
which ho incurred on aeeoturt of kb 
intractable character ; bnt he waa not gvfltj af 
any crime. There he waa under the ■nrrtilllaawi 
of aoldicra, and Augnatna obtained a aeaataaea»> 
•ultum by which the bMiialUMat WM kfaU/ «a»- 
finned for the time of Ua Ufc. The uwy e tty af 
Agrippa waa aaaigned by Anguatua to the tmuory 
of the army. It ia aaid that during hia captivity 
he received the Tiait of Angnatoa, who aacradr 
went to Pkaaaia, aeeonBaaiod by Fabiaa lla»- 
mna. Angoataa lad Agrippa, both dooply afiactad, 
ahed teara when tkcy act, and it waa believ- 
ed that Agrippa woald bo ata to r ed to Ubatty. 
But the newa of this vfait wartad Lirja, tba 
mother of Tibaria% and Agripaa ni—iwid a cap 
tive. After the a cc ea aio n of Tnariaa, ia a. oi U, 
Agrippa waa murdered by a c a p taij oa, who en- 
tered hit prison and killed hiai afler a laag 
struggle, for Agrippa waa a aaa of gmt bodily 
strength. When the oentarioa afterwarda went to 
Tibehoa to giro him an aoeoont of the execotioB, 
the empe r of denied baring given any oidar tat it, 
and it ia very probable that Livia waa tba aecreC 
author of the crime. There waa a rumour that 
Augustua bad left an order for the execntioD of 
Agrippa, but thia ia poaitively contradicted hr 
Tacitus. (Tac. Ann. L 3 — 6 ; Dion Caaa. W. 32, 
Ivii. 3 ; Suet. /. c, Tift. 22 ; VeUei. iL 104, 1 12.) 

After the death of Agrippa, a alave of the name 
of Clemens, who waa not informed of the marder, 
landed on Planasia with the intention of reatoring 
Agrippa to liberty and carrying him off to the 
army in Germany. When he heard of what had 
taken place, he tried to profit by his great reaenk>' 
blancc to the murdered captive, and he gave him- 
self out as Agrippa. He landed at Ostia, and 
found many who believed him, or affected to 
believe him, but he was seized and pat to death 
by order of Tiberius. (Tac. Ann. iL 39, 40.) 

The name of Agrippa Caesar is found on a medal 
of Corinth. [W. P.] 

AGRIPPA, VIBULE'NUS, a Roman knight, 
who took poison in the senate house at the time of 
his trial, A. D. 36 ; he had brought the poison with 
him in a ring. (Tac. Ann, vL 40 ; Dion. Caaa. 
Iviii. 21.) 

AGRIPPA, M. VIPSA'NIUS, waa bom in 
B. c. 63. He was the son of Lucius, and was de- 
scended from a very obscure femUy. At the age 
of twenty he studied at ApoUonia in Illyria, toge- 
ther with young Octavins, afterwards Octavianus 
and Augustus. After the murder of J. Caesar in 
B. c. 44, Agrippa was one of those intimate friends 
of Octavius, who adrised him to proceed immedi- 
atelj' to Rome. Octavius took Agrippa with him, 
and charged him to receive the oath of fidelity from 
several legions which had declared in his fevour. 
Having been chosen consul in b. c. 43, Octaviua 
gave to his &iend Agrippa the delicate commiasum 



AGRIPPA. 

of prosecuting C. Cassiug, one of the murderers of 
J. Caesar. At the outbreak of the Ferusiniau war 
between OctaN-ius, now Octavianus, and L. Anto- 
nius, in B. c. 41, Agrippa, who waa then praetor, 
connnanded part of the forces of Octavianus, and 
after distinguishing himself by skilful manoeuvres, 
besieged L. Antonius in Perusia. He took the 
town in b. c. 40, and towards the end of the same 
year retook Sipontuni, which had iallea into tlie 
hands of M. Antonius. In B. c. 38, Agrippa ob- 
tained fresh success in Gaul, where he quelled a 
revolt of the native chiefs ; he also penetrated into 
Gennany as feir as the country of the Catti, and 
transplanted the Ubii to the left bank of the 
Rhine ; whereupon he turned his arms against the 
revolted Aquitani, whom he soon brought to obe- 
dience. His victories, especijilly those in Aquitania, 
contributed much to securing the power of Octavi- 
anus, and he was recalled by him to undertake the 
conunand of the war against Sex. Pumpeius, 
which was on the point of breaking out, b. c. 37. 
Octavianus offered him a triumph, which Agrippa 
declined, but accepted the consulship, to which he 
was promoted by Octavianus in b. c. 37. Dion 
Cassius (xlviii. 4!)) seems to say that he was con- 
sul when he went to Gaul, but the words vrdrtvf 
Si fitrd AuuKiou FdWuv seem to be suspicious, 
unless they are to be inserted a little higher, after 
the passage, T(p 5' Aypl'inr<f ri^y ruv yavriKov 
irapaaKfui^i' iyxftf'^oo-i, which refer to an event 
wliich took place during the consulship of Agrippa. 
For, immediately after his promotion to this dig- 
nity, he was ciuirged by Octavianus with the con- 
struction of a fleet, which was the more uecetcary, 
as Sextus Pompey was master of the sea. 

Agripp:!, in whom thoughts and deeds were 
never sef>ai-dted (VelleL ii, ~\)), executed tliis 
order with prompt energy. The Lucrine lake 
near Baiiie was tninsfonued by huu into a safe 
hiirbour, which he called the Julian port in honour 
of Octjiviiums, mid where he exercised his sailors 
and mariners till they were able to encounter the 
experienced sailors of Pouipey. In B.C. 3(>, Agrip- 
pa defeated Sex. Pompey hi-st at Mylae, and after- 
wards at Nauluchus on the coast of Sicily, and the 
latter of these victories broke the naval supremacy 
of Pouipey. He received in consequence the ho- 
nour of a iiuval crown, which was tirst conferred 
upon him ; though, according to other authorities, 
W. \'arro was tiie first who obutined it from Pom- 
pey the Great. (Vellei. ii. 81 ; h\\. Epit. 129; 
Dion Cass. xlix. 14 ; Plin. //. N. xtL 3. s. 4; Virg. 
Aen. viii. C84.) 

In B. e. 3o, Agrippa had the conunand of the 
war in Illyria, and afterwards served under Octa- 
vianus, when the latter had proceeded to that coun- 
try. On his return, he voluntarily accepted the 
aedileship in B.C. 33, although he had been consul, 
and expended immense sums of money upon great 
public works. He restored the Appian, Marciiiu, 
and Anienian aqueducts, constructed a new one, 
fifteen miles in length, from the Tepula to Rome, 
to which he gave the name of the Julian, in honour 
of Octiiviauus, and had an immense number of 
smjiller water- works made, to distribute the water 
within the town. He also had the large cloaca of 
Tarquinius Priscus entirely cleansed. His various 
works were adorned with stiitues by the first ar- 
tists of Rome. These splendid buildings he aug- 
mented in B. c. 27, during his tliird consulship, by 
several others, and among these was the Puutheon, 



AGRIPPA. 



79 



on which we still read the inscription : " M. Agrippa 
L. F. Cos. Tertium fecit." (Dion Cass. xlix. 43, 
liii. 27 ; Plin. H. N. xxxyL 15, «. 24 § 3; Strab. 
T. p. 235 ; Frontin. De Aquatd. 9.) 

When the war broke out between Octarianua 
and M. Antonius, Agrippa was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief of the fleet, b. c 32. He took 
Methone in tlie Peloponnesus, Leucas, Patrae, and 
Corinth ; and in the battle of Actium (a c. 31) 
where he commanded, the victory was mainly 
owing to his skilL On his return to Rome in 
B. c. 3U, Octavianus, now Augustus, rewarded 
him with a ** vexiilum caeruleum," or Ka-greea 
flag. 

In & c 28, Agrippa became emunl fiir Uie Mcond 
time with Augustus, and aboot tkia tine nanied 
Marcella, the niece of Auguetoa, and the daaghtcr 
of his bister Octavia. His fonner wile, Ponponia, 
the daughter of T. Pomponius Atticus, was either 
dead or divorced. In the following year, u. c. 27, 
he was again consul tlie third time with Augustus. 

In B. c 25, Agrippa accompanied Augustus to 
the war against the Cantahriaus. \^~-< >' 't time 
jealousy arose between him ami i-law 

MarcelJui, the nepliew of Au^ who 

seemed to be destined as his succeaaur. Augustus, 
anxioiu to prevent ditfereuces that might have had 
serious consequences for him, sent Agrippa as pro- 
consul to Svria. Agrippa of course left Rome, but 

h.' — • i' ■' \ii.vi..,. ;„ ,1.. island of Lesbos, 

1< ..1 to his legale. 

'1 ; . wi-re removi-d by 

the death ut' Miuxciliia ui u. c 23, and Agrippa 
immediately returned to Rome, where he was the 
more aii<- ubles had broken 

out dur. luuls in a. c. 21. 

Atii/ii«t ^ t.iitr.tiil frifud 

ii.. 1 him 

to ..L, the 

widow ut MuicciiiiA aiid liic a.iuga;>;r uf .Vu^ustua 
by his third wife, Scribouia. (u. c. 21.) 

In K c 19, Agrippa went iato GaaL Ue paci- 
fied the turtMilent n atiwa, aad Baaa twrte A km 
great public roads and a nihndid aqaeduct at 
Nemausus (Nlmes). From tlusDce he proceeded 
to Spain and subdued the CaBtahrians after a short 
but bloody and nhatiwate itnic^ ; but, in accord- 
ance with his nanal pnideiiea^M neither announced 
his victories in pompous letters t -' - r 

did he accept a triumph whicli 
him. In £. c. 18, he was iuve^t< 
nician power for five years together wiih Augustus ; 
and in the following year (n. c 17), his two somi, 
Caius and Lucius, were adopted by Augustus. 
At the close of the year, he accepted an invita- 
tion of Herod the Great, and went to Jerusa- 
lem. He founded the military colony of Berytus 
(Beyrut), thence he proceeded in u. c. 1(> to the 
Pontus Kuxinus, and compelled the Bosporani to 
accept Polemo for their king and to restore the 
Roman eagles which had been taken by Mithri- 
dates. On his return he stayed some time in 
Ionia, where he granted privileges to the Jews 
whose cause was pleaded by Herod (Joseph. J «/tfy. 
J ad. xvL 2), and then proceeded to Rome, where 
he arrived in b. c. 1 3. After his tribunician power 
had been prolonged for five years, he went to Pan- 
nonia to restore tranquillity to that province. He 
returned in b. c. 12, after having been successfiil 
as usual, and retired to Campania. There he died 
unexpectedly, in the month of March, & c. 12, in 



80 



AORIPPA. 



hit /)l«t ypnr. Hii Iwidy wa« cnrricd to Rome, 
ami wiiH hiirii'd in tlx^ nmuHoIciim of AuKUNtu*, 
who liiniNcIf proiKMiiiciHl n fiiiifRil onition (ivc-r it. 

Dion CitxHiiiH tfllH u» (lii. I, A(c.), that in the year 
B. (.'. 2!) Aiif^iiNtus :iNs«>in))lc(l his friendii and coiin- 
■plliirH, AKrippii and Miu-ffiiaH, dcniniidiriK thoir 
opinion !ih to whether it would be advisable for 
him to UHurp monarchical jK)wer, or to reitore to 
the nation its former republican government. 
Thin in corrobonited by Suetoniun ((Muv. 21)), 
who Miys that AuguHtiis twice deliberated uixin 
that dubject. The it{>cecheB which A^rippa and 
MaeconaH delivered on thi* occniiion are f(iven by 
T)ioti (laMsiuit ; but the artificial character of them 
makes them ituHpicioufi. lluwever it doei not leem 
likely from the general character of Dion Catidui 
ns a liiHtorian that theiic i|>eeche« an inreatad by 
him; and it ift not improljable, and mdl • Mppo- 
sition Huits entirely the character of Aagncttia, 
that thofM> 8iM>cche» were really pronounced, thoii((h 
preconcerted between Au(fu»tuii and hit coun«ellora 
to make the Roman nation believe that the fate of 
the republic wiu Rtill a matter of difcuMion, and 
that AuKiiRtuH would not uMumc monarchical power 
till ho had I>ecn convinced that it waa nteeimrj 
for the welfare of the natioiu ItoMdea, Agrippa, 
who according to Dion CaAuut, adviaed Auguttu* 
to restore the republic, waa a man whoM political 
opinions had evidently a monarchical tendency. 

A);rip|)a wan one of the mo«t diitin^piithed and 
important men of the a|ife of Augustus. He 
must be considered as a chief support of the rising 
monarchical constitution, and without Agrippa 
Augustus could scarcely have succeeded in making 
himself the absolute master of the Roman empire. 
Dion Cassius (liv. 29, &c.), Velleius Patcrculus 
(ii. 79), Seneca {Ep. 94), and Horace (Od. L 6), 
8jH\ik with equal admiration of his merits. 

Pliny constantly refers to the " Commentarii" of 
Agrippa as an authority (Elenchus, iii. iv. -v. vi, 
comp. iii. 2), which may indicate certain official 
lists drawn up by him in the measurement of the 
Roman world under Augustus [Akthicus], in 
which he may have taken part, 

Agripp left several children. By his first wife 
Pomponiiw, he had Vipsania, who was married to 
Tiberius Caesar, the successor of Augustus. By 
his second wife, Marcella, he had several children 
who are not mentioned; and by his third wife, 
Julia, he had two daughters, Julia, married to 
L. Aemilius Paullus, and Agrippina married to 
Germanicus, and three sons, Caius [Caksar, C], 
Lucius [Caesar, L.], and Agrippa Postumus. 
(Dion Cass. lib. 45-54; Liv. Epit. 117-136; 
Appian, Bell. Civ. lib. 5 ; Suet Ociav. ; Frandsen, 
Jif. Vipsanitis Ai/ri/jpa, eine historische Untersuchung 
iiber dessen Leben und \yirken, Altona, 1836.) 

There are several medals of Agrippa : in the one 
figured below, he is represented with a naval 
crown ; on the reverse is Neptnne indicating his 
success by sea. [W. P.] 




AGRIPPINA. 

AGRIPPI'NA I., Um vou(|wtdM((liUrorM. 
VipMtnius Agrippa aiid of Jolta, tl>« daughter </ 
Augustoa, waa bora iMM tia« baiw* ■.(--. 12. 
She marriod C— •fOanii— Ihm, tk« aoa of Dtumm 
Nero GonMHikaa, bjr whom rfM had niao cUl* 
dren. Afripfiaa waa gifted with gnat pwwi 
of mind, s noble chaiBcter, and all dM MMial 
and physical qualitie* that c a nat j lal ad tha MaM 
of a ICormui matron : her loro far har kaahaad wm 
sincem and hwting, her chastity waa ■aotlai^ 
fertility waa a virtaa in the eye* of tha Raai 
and har ■ttachmant to her childxaa waa an mA- 
neotfaatanorhwdMWMter. 8ha j iddad ta mm 
dangeroua paiaiaa, aiahitfawi, 
her particular attantioa and atlachaaat. (S 
Caliy. 8.) 

At the death of Angoalaa ia ii. B. 14, tha waa 
on the Ixiwer Rhine with OafaMaicaa, who eoai- 
roanded the legions than. Her haabaad waa tha 
idol of the army, and tha lagiona on the Rhiaa, 
dissatisfied with the acceeejoa of Tibcrina, inaai 
fested their intention of prodaiiaiac Oenaaaima 
matter of the state. Tiberius hatadaad diaadad 
Gerroanicua, and ha ehawad aa andk aaliMlllj la 
Agrippina, as ha had lava ta har akUr mm, Ua 
first wife. In thia perilooa eitaatiwi, Oanaaaiaw 
and Agrippina saved themselves by their praomt 
energy ; he quelled the outbreak and ponaed tha 
war against the Genaana. In tha 



his lieutenant Caedna, after haTiaf a 
tion into Germany, rttanad to tha Rhiaa. TW 
campaign waa not inglcriaaa kn tha RaMBM, hat 
they were worn out bjr hardaUpa, and pariaqM 

harassed on their march by tome bands of Ger- 
mans. Thus the rumour waa spread that the main 
body of the Germans was approaching to invade 
(taul. Germanicus was absent, and it waa pr»> 
posed to destroy the bridge over the RUne. 
(Comp. Strab. iv. p. 194.) If this had beeadeaa, 
the retreat of Caecina's army would hare bean cat 
off, but it waa saved by the firm opposition of 
Agrippina to such a cowardly meaaoie. When 
the troops approached, she went to the bridge, 
acting as a general, and receivmg the soldiers aa 
they crossed it ; the wounded among them were 
presented by her with clothes, and they raceiTed 
from her own hands everything necesaary for tha 
cure of their wounds. (Tac Ann. i. 69.) Ger- 
manicus having been recalled by Tiberius, she ac- 
companied her husband to Asia (a. d. 17), and 
after his death, or rather murder [Gkrm ANict's], 
she returned to Italy. She stayed some days at 
the island of Corcyra to recover from her grief^ 
and then landed at Brundusium, accompanied by 
two of her children, and holding in her arms the 
urn with the ashes of her husband. At the news 
of her arrival, the port, the walls, and even the 
roofs of the houses were occupied by crowds of 
people who were anxious to see and salute her. 
She was solemnly received by the officers of two 
Praetorian cohorts, which Tiberius had sent to 
Brundusium for the purpose of accompanying her 
to Rome ; the urn containing the ashes of Germa- 
nicus was borne by tribunes and centurions, and 
the funeral procession was received on its march 
by the magistrates of Calabria, Apulia, and Cam- 
pania ; by Drusus, the son of Tiberius ; Claudius, 
the brother of Germanicus ; by the other children 
of Germanicus ; and at last, in the environs of 
Rome, by the consuls, the senate, and crowds of 
the Roman people. (Tac. Ann. iii. 1, &c.) 



» 



AGRIPPINA. 

During some years Tiberius disguised his hatred 
of Agrippina ; but she soon became exposed to 
secret accusations and intrigues. She asked the 
emperor's permission to choose another husljand, 
but Tiberius neither refused nor consented to the 
proposition. Sejanus, who exercised an unbound- 
ed intiuence over Tiberius, then a prey to mental 
disorders, persuaded Agrippina that the emperor 
intended to poison her. Alarmed <it such a report, 
she refused to eat au apple which the emperor 
oftered her from his table, and Tiberius in his 
turn complained of Agrippina regarding him 
as a poisoner. According to Suetouius, all this 
was iiu intrigue preconcerted between the emperor 
and Sejanus, who, as it seems, had formed the 
plan of leading Agrippina into false st<*p». Tibe- 
rius Wcas extremely suspicious of Agrippina, and 
shewed his hostile feelings by allusive words or 
neglectful silence. There were no evidences of 
ambitious plans formed by Agrippiua, but the 
rumour having been spread that she would fly to 
the army, he banished her to the island of Pan- 
dutaria (a. d. 30) where her mother Julia had 
died in exile, ller suns Nero and Drusus were 
likewise banished and both died an umiatural 
deatli. She lived three years on that barren 
isliind ; at last she refused to take auy food, 
and died most probably by voluntary starvation. 
Her death took place precisely two years after and 
on the siime date as the murder of Sejanus, that is 
in A. D. 33. Tacitus aud Suetonius tell us, that 
Tiberius boasted that he had not strangled her. 
(Sueton. Tib. 53; Tac. Ann. vL 25.) The aithes 
of Agrippina and those of her son Nero were 
afterwards brought to Rome by order of her son, 
the emperor Cidigula, who struck various medals in 
Iionour of his mother. In the one figured below, 
the head of Caligula is on one side and that of his 
mother on the other. The words on each side are 
respectivelj', c. caksak. avu. ukk. p.m. tr. ih>t., 

and AGHIFPI.NA. MAT. C. CAK8. AVU. UKKM. 



AGRIPPINA. 



81 




(Tac. Ann. i.— vi.; Sueton. 0<<a». 64, Tih.Le., 
Caluf. I.e.; Dion. Cass. Ivii. 5, (i, Iviii. -Jfi.) [ W. P ] 

AGRIPPI'NA II., the daughter of Germani- 
cus and Agrippina the elder, daughter of M. 
Vipsanius Agrippa. She was born between a. d. 
13 and 17, at the Oppidum Ubiorum, afterwards 
adled in honour of her C'olonia Agrippina, now 
Cologne, and then the head-quarters of the legions 
commanded by her father. In a. c. "28, she mar- 
ried Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, a man not un- 
like her, and whom she lost in A. D. 40. After 
his death she married Crispus Passienus, who died 
some years afterwards ; and she was accused of hav- 
ing poisoned him, either for the purpose oi obtjiin- 
ing his great fortui>e, or for some secret motive of 
much higher importance. She was alreiidy known 
for her scandalous conduct, for her most perfidi- 
ous intrigues, and for an unboimded ambition. 
She was accused of having committed incest with 
her own brother, the emperor Caius Caligula, 
who under the pretext of having discovered 
that she had lived in an adulterous intercourse 



with M. Aeniilias Lepidus, the husband of 
her sister Drusilia, banished her to the island of 
Pontia, whieh was situated opposite the bay of 
Caieta, oti' the coast of Italy. Her sister Drusilia 
was likewise bonbhed to Pontia, and it seems 
that their exile was connected with the punish- 
ment of Lepidus, who was put to death for having 
conspired against the emperor. Previously to her 
exile, Agrippina wa» compelled by her brother 
to rorry to Rome the ashes of Lepidus. This 
happened in A. D. 39. Agrippina and her sister 
were released in A. o. 41, by th*ir uncle, Clau- 
dius, immediately after hia aeceuion, although 
his wife, MetMlioa, wm the mortal enemy 
of Agrippina. Mrt— linn was put to death by 
order of Claudiiu in a. d. 48 ; and in the follow- 
ing year, a. d. 4.9, Agrippina suc-ceeded in mar- 
rying the emperor. Claudius was her uncle, but 
her marriage was legalised by ■ Muatusconsul- 
tum, by which the marriage of a man with his 
brother's daughter was declared ralid ; this seuatus- 
consultum was afterwards abrogated by the emper- 
or- '" ' '' ^tans. In this intrigtie 
.\. ilities of an accomplished 

til... , - -- :..einHueuce of her charms 

and superior talents over the old emperor, that, in 
prejudice of his own son, Uritannicus, he adopt- 
ed Domitius, the son of Agrippina by her first 
husband, Cn. Domitius Ahenoburbua. (a. o. 51.) 
Agrippina was assisted in ker leciet plans bj 
Pallas, the }>ertidious IwMwit tt ChmlWM Jfy 
her intrigues, L. Junius Sifcuma, tke InMbuid M 
Octaviji, the daughter of Claudius, was put to 
death, and in a. d. 53, Oouria was marned to 
young Noro. Lollia Paullina, oaee Um riTal of 
Agrippina for the hand of the anpeior, was accused 
of high tieaaoB and eoadcauHd to itmtk ; bat iIm 
put an end to ber owa Hh, Oinhb li^ida, tk* 
sister of Cn. DomitiM AliiwiBlifbiH, net with a 
similar frte. After baring thus remoTod those 
whose rivalship she dreaded, or whose virtveo sbe 
enried, Agripfuna waolTed te get rid of ber hus- 
band, and to gown tke empire through ber ascen- 
dency orer her son Nero, his successor. A ragne 
rumour of this reached the emperor ; in a state of 
drunkenness, he foigot pnidenee, and talked about 
punishing his ambitions wife. Having no time to 
lose, Agrippina, assisted by Locusta and Xenophon, 
a Greek physician, poisoned the old emperor, in 
A. D. 54, at Sinuessa, a watering-pkce to which 
he had retired for the sake of his health. Nero 
was proclaimed emperor, and presented to the 
troops by liurrus, whom Agrippina had appointed 
praefectus praetorio. Narcissus, the rich freedman 
of Claudius, M. Junius Silaims, proconsul of Asia, 
the brother of L. Junius Silanus, and a great- 
grandson of Augustus lost their lives at the insti- 
gation of Agrippina, who would have augmented 
the number of her victims, but for the opposition 
of Uurrus and Seneca, recalled by Agrippiiia from 
his exile to conduct the education of Nero. Mean- 
while, the young emperor took some steps to shake 
otf the insupportable ascendency of his mother. 
The jealousy of Agrippiua rose from her son's pas- 
sion for Acte, and, after her, for Poppaea Sabina, 
the wife of M. Salvius Otho. To reconquer his 
affection, Agrippiua employed, but in vain, most 
daring and most revolting means. She threatened 
to oppose Britannicus as a rival to the em]>eror ; 
but Britannicus was poisoned by Nero ; and she 
even solicited her son to an incestuous inter- 



92 



AGRIPPINU8. 



coarsfl. At luit, her dpath wai rckolved upon 
by Nero, who wivhcd to repudiate Octavia and 
nwrry I'oppiu-a, but wliouc plaji wa» thwarted 
by liis mother. Thuii p«'tty feminine intri((ue* 
bociiine the cauiw! of Af{rippin»'t ruin. Nero 
inviUtd her under the pretext of a n^onciliation 
to vihit liini nt liiiiiu-, on the coiut of C'am|>ania. 
She went thither by n-a. In their conversation 
hypocriiiy wan diHpinyed on both lidci. She 
left Diiiiie by the mime way ; but the TeMcI waa 
•o contrived, that it wan to break to pieces 
when out at nea. It only [wrtly broke, and Aifrip- 

|)inu Kiived hemelf by Kwinnnin^ to the nhore ; 
ler attendant Acerroiiia wjui killed. Aj^rippina 
fled to her villa near the Lucrine lake, and inform- 
ed her fton of her happy escojie. Now, Nero 
charjifed liurrus to murder hi* mother; but nurrui 
dcclinin)( it, Anieetuii, the commander of the fleet, 
who had invented the 8trata(tcni of the tbip, waa 
compelled by Nero and Hurniii to undertake the 
tiiNk. Anicetuit went to her villa with a choMn 
band, and hit men surprised her in her bedroom. 
"Ventrem feri" hhe cried out, after she waa but 
■li){htly wounded, and immediately afterwards ex- 
pired under the blows of a centurion, (a. d. 60.) 
(Tiu-. Ann. xiv. 0.) It was told, that Nero went 
to the villa, and that ho admired the beauty of the 
dead iMidy of his mother : tliiH wo* beliered by 
some, doubted by otiiers. (xiv. 9.) Agrippina left 
commentaries conceniing her history and that of 
her family, which Tacitus consulted, according to 
his own statement. (//<. iv. .')4 ; comp. i'lin. JlitL 
A'al. vii. 0". B. H, Elenchus, vii. &c.) 

There are sevunil medals of Agripplna, which 
are diHtini^uishable from those of her mother by 
the title of Augusta, which those of her mother 
never have. On some of her medals she is repre- 
sented with her husband Clandius, in others with 
her son Nero. The former is the case in the one 
annexed. The words on each side are respectively, 

AUKIPPINAB AV(iV8TAK, and TL CLAVD. CABSAK. 
AVU. UKRU. P.M. TRIB. POT. P.P. 




(Tac. Ann. lib.xii. xiii. xiv.; Dion Cass. lib. lix. — 
Ixi.; Sueton. CtauJ. 43, 44, Nero, 5, 6.) [W.P.] 

AGRIPPI'NUS, Bishop of Cartk^, of 
venerable memory, but known for being the first 
to maintain the necessity of re-baptizing all 
heretics. (Vincent. Lirinens. Commonit. i. 9.) St. 
Cyprian regarded this opinion as the correction of 
an error (S. Augustin. De Bapfismo, ii. 7, vol ix. 
p. 102, ed. Bened.), and St. Augustine seems to 
imply he defended his error in writing. (Epist. 93, 
c. 10.) He held the Council of 70 Bishops at 
Carthage about a. d. 200 (V'ulg. a. d. 215, Mans. 
A. D. 217) on the subject of Baptism. Though he 
erred in a matter yet undefined by the Church, St. 
Augustine notices that neither he nor St. Cyprian 
thought of separating irom the Church. {De 
Baptismo, iii. 2, p. 109.) [A. J. C] 

AGRIPPI'NUS, PACO'NIUS, whose father 
was put to death by Tiberius on a charge of trea- 
son, (Suet. Tib. 61.) Agrippinus was accused at 



AQRON. 

tha mam tfaM m Thnura, a. d. 67« nd wm 1»> 
nikh«d from Italy. (Tac An*. zrL 2S, 39, S3.) 
He waa a 8totc phikMoplMr, «U to mkaa af witli 
praise by Kpictetns (op. StA, Smm. 7), and Airi— . 
(i. 1.) 

A'iilUUS C^T^wt), a MB af PortlMwa and 
Kury te, and farotlMr ct Oaaaaa, kiaf af Calvdaa ia 
Aetolia, Alanhowa, Malaa, Li u aayawa, lad wumtf*. 
He was bther of aix aona, of wham Tkanilaa «m 
one. These sons of Agriua daprivad Onaw af 
his kingdom, and gare it to tMr CmW | b«t all af 
them, with tha axeaptioa of Tkanilaa, wan ilaia 



by Dwmadaa, tha gmndaaa af OmaM, (ApoHad. 
i. 7. g 10, 8. 8 ft, Ac) Apofladaraa pheaa timaa 
events before tne expedition of tha Graaka acaiaal 

343 nd 



Troy, while liyginus (foA, 17A, 
Antonin. Lib. 37) sutes, that I>ia 
heard, after the &11 of Troy, of tha ■lirfmtwi af 
bis cnuMifraMf Oanavai haataoad BMk mm acpauad 
AgrtWi wIm Ami pot mi aad ta hk tmu Mb ; w- 
cordiny ta auata, A|pMa wtA Ma aaaa wh9 mimi 
by Diomedea. (Conpi. Paaa. iL 35. g 3 ; Or. M»- 
roid. iz. l&S.) 

Thaw Bia aaaa othar Mythiaal p iriiM|m aftiba 
nama af ApiWf aaMannf wmm Mihuig a* ibI^ 
rest is known. (Henod. Thtof. 101S,dEc; ApaOad* 
i. 6. H 2, ii. 5. t) 4.) IL.S.] 

AUHOE'CIUS or AtiROEl'IUg, a lliMW 
gnunaariaa, the aatbor of an asturt watk ** Da 
Orthognphk at Diflerentia SanMoia," tot ■■ dad « 
a supplement to a work on tha nme aabjact, hj 
Flavius Caper, and dedicated ta a btohap, E a th e 
rius. He is snppoaed to haTc lired ia toa middla 
of the 5th century of our era. His work to printed 
in Putschius' ** Grammaticae Latinae Anetana 
Antiqui," pp. 2266—2275. [C. P. M.] 

AOROKTAS ('AypoiTaf), a Greek historian, 
who wrote a work on Scythia (2irt4uu(), from the 
thirteenth book of which the scholiast on ApoUo- 
nius (iL 1248) quotes, and one on Libya (AiCiwd), 
the fourth book of which ia quoted by the aaaa 
scholiast, (ir. 1396.) He ia alio mentioned by 
Stephanus Bvx. (». r. 'Am»«Ao».) [C. P. M.] 

AGRON '('A7p«i'). 1. The son of Ninus, the 
first of the Lydian dynasty of the Hetadeidae. 
The tradition was, that this dynasty iwppi— tfid a 
native race of kings, having been origmaOy en- 
trusted with the government as deputies. The 
names Ninus and Belus in their genealogy render 
it probable that they were either Assyrian gover- 
nors, or princes of Assyrian origin, and that their 
accession marks the period of an Assyrian con- 
quest (Herod, i. 7.) 

2. The son of Pleuratus, a king of Illyria. In 
the strength of his land and naval forces he sur- 
passed all the preceding kings of that country. 
When the Aetolians attempted to compel the Me- 
dionians to join their confederacy, Agron under- 
took to protect them, having been induced to do 
so by a large bribe which he received from Deme- 
trius, the lather of Philip. He accordingly sent to 
their assistance a force of 5000 Illyrians, who 
gained a decisive victory over the Aetolians. 
Agron, overjoyed at the news of this success, gave 
himself up to feasting, and, in consequence of his ex- 
cess, contracted a pleurisy, of which he died. (b.c 
231.) He was succeeded in the government by 
his wife Teuta. Just after his death, an embassy 
arrived from the Romans, who had sent to mediate 
in behalf of the inhabitants of the island of Issa, 
who had revolted from Agron and placed them- 



r 



AHALA. 

selves under the protection of the Romans. By 
his first wife, Triteuta, whom he divorced, he had 
a son named Piunes, or Pinneus, who survived 
him, and was placed under the guardianship of 
Demetrius Pharius, who married his mother after 
the death of Teuta. (Dion Cass, xxxiv. 46, 1.51 ; 
Polvb. ii. 2 — 4 ; Appian, III. 7 ; Flor. ii. 5 ; Plin. 
//. A^, xxjtiv. fi.) [C. P. M.] 

AGRO'TEUA ('Ayporipa), the huntress, a sur- 
name of Artemis. (Horn. //. xxL 471.) At Agrae 
on the llissus, where she was believed to have first 
hunted after her arrival from Delos, Artemis Agrotera 
had a temple with a statue tarrying a bow. (Pans, 
i. 19. §7.) Under this name she was also wor- 
shipped at Aegeira. (vii. 2(i. § 2.) The name 
Agrotera is synonymous with Agraea [Aukael'is], 
but Eustatliius {ad II. p. 3(Jl) derives it from the 
town of Agrae. Concerning the worship of Artemis 
Agrotera at Athens, see Diet, of Ant, t. r. ' Ay po- 
ripas ducria, p. 31. [L. S.J 

AGYIEUS ('Ayviftis), a surname of Apollo de- 
scribing him as the protector of the streets and 
]jublic places. As such he was worshipped at 
Acharnae (Paus. i. 31. § 3), Mycenae (ii. 19. § 7), 
and at Tegea. (viii. 53. § 1.) The origin of the 
worship of Apollo Agyieus in the last of these 
places is related by Pausanias. (Compare llor. 
C'arm. iv. 6. 2B ; Macrob. iiut. i. 9.) [L. S.] 

AGY'RRlilUS i'Ayv^ftios), a native of Collv- 
tus in Attica, whom Andocides ironically calls riif 
KoAui' KayaOov {de Myxt. p. 65, ed. Reuke), after 
being in prison many years for embezzlement of 
public money, obtained about B. c. 395 the restore 
ation of the Theoricon, and also tripled the pay for 
attending the assembly, though he reduced the 
allowance previously given to the comic writeriL 

iHarpocmt. «. t<. QtupiKd, 'Ayvp(>ios ; Suidas, *. r. 
KKK-ijcrtaariKOi'; Schol. ad Arintuph. Ecd. 102; 
Dem. f. Timocr. p. 742.) By this expenditure of 
the public revenue Agyrrhius became so popular, 
tliat he was appointed general in u. c. 389. (Xen. 
JM. iv. 8. § 31 ; Diod. xiv. 99 ; BUkh, Puhl. 
Ke<m. of AOttns, pp. 223, 224, 316, &.Cm 2nd ed. 
Engl. transL; Schumann, tiir <'- ■■■■■■-, ■ -^ >,■.) 

AlIA'LA, the luuue of a : ihe 

Serviliii Gens. There were .i _ 5 of 

this geus with the name of Sit^tiiu A hula., who 
may have formed a dttfereut family irom the Aha- 
lae ; but as the Ahalae and Struct! Ahalae are 
frequently confounded, all the persons of these 
names arc given here. 

1. C. Skrvilius Structus Ahala, consul B.C. 
478, died in his year of ottice, as appears from the 
Fasti. (Liv. u. 49.) 

2. C. Skkvilius Structus Ahala, magister 
equitum u. c. 439, when L. Cincinnatus was ap- 
pointed dictator on the pretence that Sp. Maelius 
was plotting against tlie state. In the night, in 
which tlie dictator was appointed, the capitul and 
all the strong posts were garrisoned by the piirti- 
zims of the patricians. In the moniing, when the 
people assembled in the forum, and Sp. Maelius 
among them, Ahala summoned thi- ' ;.ear 
before the dictsitor ; and upon M;u . mg 

and taking refuge in the crowd, Ai - ;;iio 

the throng and killed him. (Liv. iv. 13, 14 ; Zo- 
naras, vii. 20 ; Dionys. Ejk. Mai, L p. 3.) This 
act is mentioned by later writers as an example of 
ancient heroism, and is frequently referred to by 
Cicero in terms of the highest admiration (in CatiL 
L 1, pro Mil, 3, Cuto, 16); but it was in reality 



AHENOBARBUS. 



83 



a case of murder, and was so regarded at the time. 
Ahak was brought to trial, and only escaped con- 
demnation by a voluntary exile. (VaL Max. t. 3. 
§ 2 ; Cic. de Hep. L 3, pro Dom. 32.) Livy passes 
over this, and only mentions (iv. 21), that a bill 
was brought in three years afterwards b. c. 436, 
by another Sp. Maelius, a tribune, for confiscating 
the property of Ahala, but tliat it failed. 

A representation of Ahala is given on a coin of 
M. Drutus, the murderer of Caesar, but we cannot 
suppose it to be anything more than an imaginary 
likeness. M. Brutus pretended that he was des- 
cended from L. Brutus, the first consul, on his 
father's side, and fium C. Ahala on his mother's, 
and thus was sprung from two tyrannicides. 
(Comp. Cic. ad Alt. xiiL 40.) The head of Brutus 
on the annexed coin is thenifam wtended to reprt»- 
sent the firkt cousuL 




3. C. Sbrvilius Q. p. C n. Structus Auaia, 
consul B. c. 427. (Liv. iv. 30.) 

4. C. Srkviuus p. r. Q. n. Structi's Abala, 
consular tribune B.C. 408, and magister equitum in 
th« HHM ywr ; whidi kttor dignkjr he obtaiMd 
is SMasqMBM flf si^pastuif ths seMte Rgsiaat his 
eoUesgaea, who did not vuh s dictsUr to be ap- 
pointed. For the mhm vbomb he was elected 
osaankr tnbane s seeoad tisM ia the fBlbwnif 
jmtf 4U1. B« «w esoniw trihne a third tia* 
in M2, whw he sesietod the MMito in iiipiiBf 
his eoUaagvee to resign who had heea deieated by 
the enemy. (Lir. iv. 56, 57, t. t, 9.) 

5. C. Skrvilius AnAtA, magister equitum 
B. c 389, when Camillus was apfwinted dictator a 
third time. (Liv. vi 2.) Ahak is spokso of as 
magister equitum in 385, as seeaaiaB of the trial 
of Manlius. Maulius summoaed him to hear wit- 
ness in his favour, as one of those whose lives he 
had saved in battle ; but AhaU did not appear, 
(iv. 20.) Pliny, who mentions this circumstance, 
calls Ahala P, Sen ilius. (//. S, viL 39.) 

6. Q. Skrvilii's Q. w. Q. n. Ahala, consul 
B. c. 365, and again b. c. 362, in the latter of 
which years he appointed Ap. Claudius dictator, 
after his plebeian colleague L. Genucius had been 
slain in battle. In 36 U he was himself appointed 
dictator in consequence of a Gallic tumullu*, and 
defeated the Gauls near the Colline gate. He held 
the comitia as intenex in 355. (Lir. >-iL 1, 4, 6, 
11,17.) 

7. Q. Skrvilius Q. f. Q. n. Ahala, magister 
equitum B. c. 351, when M. Fabius was appointed 
dictator to fhistrate the Licinian law, and consul 
B. c 342, at the beginning of the first Samniie 
war. He remiiined in the city ; his colleague had 
the charge of the war. (Liv. vii. 22, 38.) 

AHENOBARBUS, the name of a plebeian 
family of the Dumitia Gkns, so called from the 
red hair which many of this family had. To ex- 
plain this name, which signifies " lied- Beard," and 
to assign a high antiquity to their family, it was 
said that the Dioscuri aiuiouuced to one of their 



84 



AI1KN()I5AUBU8. 



AIIENODAIlBi;& 



nncnuton the victory of tlir Koiiinnt over the Tiatin* liW-k hair and Ijeard, which tiiim«diat«ly bMaoM 



lit liikt! Id-^illuit (li. c. 4!>ii), uiid, to i-iiiitinii tlie 
trutli of wimt tliuy kiiid, tliut they ktniked hi* 



n-d. (Siirt. Ser. 1 ; I'luU Atmd. 'Ib^ CurioL »i 
Dionyi. vi. 13; TertulL AjtoL'I-2.) 



StKMMA AHKNOBARBOaUM. 

1. Cn. Dotnitiu* AhciiolKirbui, Co*. B. c. 192. 
2. Cn. Domitiui Ahenoborbaa, Coa. Soft B. C. 163. 

8. Cn. Domitiua Abenobarbua, Coc B, c 122. 

I 



4. Cn. Domitius Abenobarbua, Coa. u. c 96. 



A. L. Domitiua AhenolMrbM, Coa. a a M. 



€. Cn. Domitius Ahenoborbui, Probobly aon of 
No. 4. Died u. (. ill. Murricd Cornelia, dangk' 
ter of Ij. Cornelius Cinua, Cot. u. c. 87. 



I 
7. L. Ikimitiu* AbcBohBbw^ Cm. 
B. c. A4. Marriod P««M, mtttm 

8. Cn. DoahiM AfcaiwbMWs Coa. & c 32. 



<L 



P. L. Donutina Ab«nobartma, Coik u. c 16. ICtrrfcd 
Antonia, daughter of M. Antonina aad Odavia. 



10. Cn. Doinitiu* AhonokorimR, Coa. II. Donraa. Ifar- 

A. D. 3*2. Married Agrippina, ried Criapaa Paa- 

daughter of Ocnnanicut. iioana, 

13. L. Domitius Ahenobarbai, the emperor Nxro. 

1. Cn. Domitius L. p. L. n. Ahknobarbih, 
pleheian aedile B. c. 196, prosecuted, in conjunction 
with his colleague C. Curio, many pecuarii, and 
with the fines raided therefrom built a temple of 
Fiiuinis in the island of the Tiber, which he dedi- 
cated in his praetorship, B. c. 194. (Liv. xxxiii. 
4*2, xxxiv. 42, 4.3, 5.'i.) He was consul in 19'2, 
and was sent against the Boii, who submitted to 
him ; but he rem.iined in their country till the 
following year, when he was succeeded by the 
consul Scipio Nasica. (xxxv. 10, 20, 22, 40, xxzvL 
37.) In 190, he was legate of the consul L. Scipio 
in the war against Antiochus the Great, (xxxvii. 
39; Plut Apo}ihth. Rom. Cn. Domit.) In his 
consulship one of his oxen is said to have uttered 
the warning "Roma, cave tibi." (Liv. xxxv. 21 ; 
Val. Max. L 6. § 5, who falsely says, Bello Punico 
secundo.) 

2. Cn. Domitius Cn. f. L. n. Ahenobarbus, 
Bon of the preceding, was chosen pontifex in B. c. 
17"2, when a young man (Liv. xlii. 28), and in 169 
was sent with two others as commissioner into 
Alacedonia. (xliv. 18.) In 167 he was one of the 
ten commissioners for arranging the ailairs of Ma- 
cedonia in conjunction with Aemilius Paullus (xlv. 
17) ; and when the consuls of 162 abdicated on 
account of some fault in the auspices in their elec- 
tion, he and Cornelius Lentulus were chosen con- 
suls in their stead. (Cic. de A'at. Deor. ii. 4, de Div. 
ii. 35; Val. Mcuc. L 1. § 3.) 

3. Cn. Domitius Cn. f. Cn. n. Ahenobarbus, 
son of the preceding, was sent in his consulship, 
B. c. 122, against the Allobroges in Gaul, because 
they had received Teutoinalius, the king of the 
Salluvii and the enemy of the Romans, and had 
laid waste the territory of the Aedui, the friends 
of the Romans. In 121 he conquered the Allo- 
broges and their ally Vituitus, king of the Arvemi, 
near Vindalium, at the confluence of the Sulga and 



12. Domitk Lapidk 
Married II. Val*. 
riaa . 



the RhodaDiu ; and he gainad iIm battle mainly 
through the terror caoaed bj kia eiqitaalaL Ha 
commemorated hia Ticteiy bjr the efcetion of tr» 
phiea, and went in prooeaaion thnmgli the prorince 
carried by an elejMiant. He trioniphed in 1*20. 
(Uy. Eyit.GX; Flonii, iii. 2 ; Strab. ir. p. 191 ; 
Cic. pro Font. 12, linU. 26 ; Vellei. iL 10, 39 ; 
Oros. T. 1 3 ; Suet. Ner, 2, who confounds him 
with his son.) He waa censor in 115 with Caeci- 
lius Metellus, and expelled twenty-two peraona 
from the senate. ( Lir. Ej/it. 62 ; Cic. pro Cluent. 
42.) He was also Pontifex. (Suet./.c.) The 
Via Domitia in Gaul waa made bj him. (Cic pro 
Font. 8.) 

4. Cn. Domitius Cs. r. Cn. n. Ahenobabbih, 
son of the preceding, was tribune of the pleba B. c. 
104, in the second consulship of Marius. (Ascon. 
wi Comd. p. 81, ed. OrellL) When the college of 
pontiffs did not elect him in place of his father, he 
brought forward the law {Lex Domitia), by which 
the right of election was transferred from the 
priestly colleges to the people. {DicL of Ant. pp. 
773, b. 774, a.) The people afterwards elected 
him Pontifex Maximus out of gratitude. (Lit. 
Epit. 67 ; Cic. pro DeirA. 1 1 ; Val. Max. ri, 5. § 5.) 
He prosecuted in his tribunate and afterwarda 
several of his private enemies, as Aemilius Scauma 
and Junius Silanus. (Val. Max. /. c; Dion Caaa. 
Fr. 100; Cic Div. in Caecil. 20, Verr. ii. 47, 
Cornel. 2, pro Scaur. 1.) He was consul B. c. 96 
with C. Cassius, and censor b. c. 92, with Licinius 
Crassus, the orator. In his censorship he and his 
colleague shut up the schools of the Latin rhetori- 
cians (Cic. de Oral, iiu 24 ; GelL xr. 11), but this 
was the only thing in which they acted in concert. 
Their censorship was long celebrated for their dis- 
putes. Domitius was of a violent temper, and waa 
moreover in favour of the ancient simplicity of liv- 
ing, while Crassus loved luxury and encouraged 



AHENOBARBUS. 

art. Among the many sayings recorded of both, 
we are told tliat Crassus observed, "that it was no 
wonder that a man liad a beard of brass, who had 
a mouth of iron and a heart of lead." (Plin. //. N. 
xviii. 1; Suet. I.e.; Val. Max. ix. 1. § 4; Macrob. 
Sat. ii. 11.) Cicero says, that Domitius was not 
to be reckoned among the orators, but that he 
spoke well enough and had sutiicient talent to 
maintain his high rank. (Cic. lirat. 44.) 

5. L. DOMITII'8 Cn. f. Cn, n. Ahk.nobarbi'8, 
son of No. 3 and brother of No. 4, was praetor in 
Sicily, probably in B. c. 96, shortly after the Ser- 
vile war, when slaves had been forbidden to carry 
arms. He ordered a slave to be crucified for kill- 
ing a wild boar with a hunting spear. (Cic. Verr, 
V. 3 ; Val. Max. vi. 3. § 5.) He was consul in 
94. In the civil war between Marius and Sulla, 
he espoused the side of the latter, and was mur- 
dered at Rome, by order of the younger Marius, 
by the prtietor Damasippus. (Appian, B. C. i. 88 ; 
Vellei. iL 20 ; Oros. v. 20.) 

6. Cn. Domitius Cn. f. Cn. f. Ahknobarbds, 
apparently a son of No. 4, married Cornelia, daugh- 
ter of L. Cornelius Cinna, consul in b. c. 87, and 
in the ci^dl war between Miirius and Sulla espoused 
the side of the former. When Sulla obtiiiiied the 
supreme power in 82, Ahenobarbus was proscribed, 
and fled to Africa, where he was joined by many 
who were in the same condition as himself. With 
the assistance of the Numidian king, lliarbas, he 
collected an army, but was defeated near Utica by 
Cn. Ponipeius, wliom Sulla liad sent against him, 
and was afterwards killed in the storming of his 
camp, B. c. 81. According to some accounts, he 
was killed after the battle by conunand of Pompey. 
(Liv. Ejnt. 89 ; Plut. Pomp. 10, 12 ; Zonaras, x. 2; 
Ores. v. 21 ; VaL Max. vi. 2. § 8.) 

7. L. Domitius Cn. f. Cn. n. Aiiknubarbus, 
son of No. 4, is first mentioned in fl. c. 70 by 
Cicero, as a witness a^iinst Verres. In SI he 
was curule aedile, when he exhibited a hundred 
Numidian lions, and continued the game* so long, 
that the people were obliged to leave the circus 
before the exhibition was over, in order to take 
food, which was the first time they had doae so. 
(Dion Cassw xxxviL 4G ; Plin. //. .V. viii. .54 ; this 
pause in the games was calletl dUudium, Hor. Ep. 
i. 19. 47.) He married Porciii, the sister of M. 
Cato, and in his aedileship supported the latter in 
his proposals against bribery at elections, which 
were directed against Pompey, who was purchasing 
votes for Afraniua. The puliiical opinions of Ahe- 
nobarbus coincided with those of Cato; he wa« 
throughout his life one of the strongest supporters 
of the aristocratical party. He took an active part 
in opposing the measures of Caesar and Pompey 
after their coalition, and in 59 was accused br 
Vettius, at the instigation of C-aesar, of being an 
accomplice to the pretended conspiracy against the 
life of Pompey. 

Ahenobarbus was praetor in b. c. 58, and pro- 
posal an investij^tion into the validity of the 
Julian laws of the preceding year ; but the senate 
diired not entertain his propositions. He was can- 
didate for the consulship of 55, and threatened 
that he would in his consulship carry into execu- 
tion the measiuvs he had proposed in his praetor- 
ship, and deprive Caesar of his province. He was 
defeated, however, by Pompey and Crassus, who 
also became candidates, and was driven fn>m the 
Campus Martius on the day of election by force of 



AHENOBARBUS. 



85 



arms. He became a candidate again in the follow- 
ing year, and Caesar and Pompey, whose power 
was firmly established, did not oppose hini. He 
was accordingly elected consul for 54 with Ap. 
Claudius Pulcher, a relation of Pompey, but was 
not able to efiect anything against Caesar and 
Pompey. He did not go to a province at the ex- 
piration of his consulship ; and as the friendship 
between Caesar and Ponpey cooled, he became 
closely allied with the latter. In B. c. 52, he «'aa 
chosen by Pompey to preside, as quaesitor, in the 
court for the trial of Clodius, For the next two 
or three years during Cicero's absence in CUi- 
cia, our information about Ahenobarbus is princi- 
pally derived from the letters cS his enemy Coelius 
to Cicero. In b. c. 50 he was • candidate for the 
place in the college of augun, Tacant by the death 
of HortensiuB, but was defeated by Antony through 
the influence of Caeaar. 

The senate appointed him to succeed Caesar in 
the province of further Gaul, and on the march of 
the latter mto Italy (49), he was the only one of 
the aristocratical party who shewed any energy or 
courage. He threw himself into Cortinium with 
about twenty cohorts, expecting to be supported by 
Pompey ; but as the latter did nothing to aasist 
him, he was compelled by his own troops to sur- 
render to Caesar. His own soldiers were incorpo- 
rated into Caesar's army, but Ahenobarbus was 
dismissed by Caesar uninjured — an act of demency 
which he did not expect, and which he would eei>- 
tainly not hare shewed, if he had been the con- 
queror. Despairing of life, he had ordered his 
physician to administer to him poison, but the lat- 
ter gave him only a sleeping diught. Ahenoharbua* 
feelings against Cae«ar iwMiimd wiaherad, but h« 
was too deeply aftad e d bj the eaodwt of Ponpejr 
to join him iumwdiitwly. H« ratirad fer • skort 
time to Cosa in Etraria, and »fterw«r-i« >»n»i to 
Massilia, of which tlie inliabitanla a m 

governor. He proaecnted the wa; y 

against Caesar ; but the town was eveutualiy takeu, 
and Ahenoboritas escaped in a Teasel, which was 
the only one that got oA 

-Ahenoharins bow went U» Pompey in Tbesiaiy, 
and propeaed diat after the war all senators should 
be brou>:ht to trial who had remained neutral 
in it Cicero, whom he htanded as a coward, was 
not a little afraid of him. He fell in the battle of 
Pharsalia (48), where he commanded the left wing, 
and, according to Cicero's aasotion in the second 
Philippic, by the hand ti Antony. Ahoiohailna 
was a man of gnat «»ergy of ehaneter; he re- 
mained firm to his political principles, but was 
little scrupulous in the means he employed to 
maintain them. (The passages of Cicero in which 
Ahenobarbus is mentioned are given in OreUi's 
OnomasHcom Tullianum ; Suet. AVr. 2 ; Dion Cass, 
lib. xxxix. xii. ; Caes. Bell. Cir.) 

8. Cn. Domitius L. f. Cn. n. Ahenobarbus, 
son of the preceding, was taken with his fether at 
Corfinium (b. c 49), and was present at the battle 
of Pharsalia (48), but did not take any further 
part in the war. He did not however return to 
Italy till 4(>, when he was pardoned by Cae- 
sar. He probabl}' had no share in tlie murder 
of Caesar (44), though some ^Titers expressly 
assert that he was one of the conspirators ; but he 
followed Brutus into Macedonia after Caesar's 
death, and was condemned by the Lex Pedia iu 
43 as one of the murderers of Caesai. In 42 he 



86 



All ENOIJA RHUS. 



eoiiliiMUid«d B (lent of fifty ihipi ill the Tonian lea, 
and completely dufimtcd Domitiun Culviiiui on the 
day of the firit battle nf I'hilippi, m the latt<-r 
attunipted to tail out of itrundiiniunL He wn* 
■oIuUhI Inipcrntor in coniuv]uiMice, luid a record of 
thii victory ii prei«rvcd in the annexed coin, which 
rcprencntii a trophy phiccd upon the prow of a 
VDMol. 'I'lio heft<l on the other «ido of the coin 
hAH a beard, in refereoo* to the reputed origin of 
the family. 




After the battle of PhilippI (42), Ahenobarbua 
cnndiictL'd the war independently of Sex. Fompciua, 
and with n fleet of seventy thipt and two lagiooa 
plundered the coaats of the Ionian iMk 

In 40 Ahonobarbo* becaiM wcandhd to Antony, 
which gave great oflbnee to Oetavianu, and was 
placed over Bithynia by Antony. In the peace 
concluded with Sex. l*onipc-iu» in 33, Antony pn>- 
vided for the safety of Ahenubiirbua, and obtained 
for him the proniiie of the coiisulthip for 32. 
Alienobtirbut remained a conaiderable time in 
Asia, and iicconi(>!ini<;d Antony in bin unfortonate 
ctunpaign agninst tlio l'artlii;in8 in 3U. He becama 
consul, nccurdiiig to ngrccmont, in 32, in which 
year the open rupture took place between Antony 
and Augustus. Ahenobarbus fled from Rome to 
Antony at Ephesus, where he found Cleopatra 
with liini, and endeavoured, in vain, to obtain her 
removal from the array. Many of the soldien, 
disgusted with the conduct of Antony, offered the 
conunand to him ; but he preferred deserting the 
party altogether, and accordingly went over to 
Augustus shortly before the battle of Actium. He 
was not, however, present at the battle, as he died 
a few days after joining Augustus. Suetonius says 
that he was the best of his family. (Cic. Phil. iL 
1 1, X. C, Brut. 25, ad Fam. vi. 22 ; Appian, B. a 
V. 35, (J3, 65; Plut. Anton, 70, 71 ; Dion Cass, 
lib. xlvii.— 1 ; Vellei. ii. 76, 84 ; Suet Ner. 3 ; 
Tac. Ann. iv. 44.) 

9. L. DoMiTR's Cn. f. L. n. Ahxnobarbus, 
son of the preceding, was betrothed in b. c. 36, at 
the meeting of Octavianus and Antony at Taren- 
tum, to Aiitonia, the daughter of the latter by 
Oetavia. He was aedUe in b. c. 22, and consul in 
n. c. 1 6. After his con£ulship, and probably as the 
successor of Tiberius, he commanded the Roman 
aimy in Germany, crossed the Elbe, and penetrat- 
ed further into the country than any of his prede- 
cessors had done. He received in consequence the 
insignia of a triumph. He died A. d. 25. Sueto- 
nius describes him as haughty, prodigal, and cruel, 
and relates that in his aedileship he commanded 
the censor L. Plancus to make way for him ; and 
that in his praetorship and consulship he brought 
Rflman knights and matrons on the stage. He 
exhibited shows of wild beasts in every quarter of 
the city, and his gladiatorial combats were con- 
ducted with so much bloodshed, that Augustus 
was obliged to put some restraint upon them. 
(Suet. Ner. 4; Tac. Ann. iv. 44; Dion Cass. liv. 
59 ; Vellei. ii. 72.) 



AJAX. 

10. Cn. DoMiTiiJk L. r. Cn. k. AHSMoaAaai** 
son of the preceding, and Cstbcr of the emperor 
Nero. He manriMl Afrippuia, tk« daafiuar of 
Gerroanictu. He waa eoaaol ▲. D. K, uuk alUr- 
wards prooonaal in Sicily. Ha 4M •• Pmi is 
Ktruria of dropsy. Hi* life waa ilaiaad wiiJi 
crimes of every kind. He waa ueetmi aa tha ae- 
complice of Albocilla of tha crioM* of adultery aad 
mnrder, and also of iueaat with his sistar Domitia 
Lapida, and oalr aaeapad azaratka bjr Ilka daatJi 
ofTibariaa. Whaa cawpiftilrtwl on tha birtfc tt 
hia MM, aAarwaHa Nam, ha wpBad tJMt wbiMavar 
) ipraV flMB Ub m4 Afripdaa omU a^jr 



bring raia to tha alata. (SmI. Nmr. ft, 6 ; Tac 
Ann. iv. 75, tL I, 47, ziu 64 ; Vellei. ii. 72 ( 
Dion Caas. Itriii. 17.) 

11. iKjMiTiA, daughter of No. 9. [DourriA.] 

12. DrjMrriA Lkpiaa, daughter of No. 9. 

[Dn • ' IDA-J 

I iiTicn AvBioaAaat'K, son of No. 

lU, iha empenr Nem. [Nbro.] 

14. Cn. iiuMiTiUK Amknobarbcm, pnietor in 
a. c. &4, pfcaided at the second trial of M. Coelitts^ 
(Cic. ad ^ Fr. ii. 13.) He nay Imv« baas tha 
■oo of No. 5. 

15. L. DoMmua Abbmomuuh;!, pfMlav a. a 
80, fnaMBairfad tba pcvriaee of aaanr Spaia, with 
the titJa of pwooaaL la 79, ha waa iniaiiiiiBiil 
into further Spain by Q, M at a fl a a Pius, who waa 
in want of aasirtanra agaiaet B«rtoria«, but ha 
was defeated and killed by V' .r of 
Sertorioa, near the Anas. \Ai, 

Epit. 90; Eotrop. tL I ; 1 , — . -- , Urofc 

V. 23.) 

AJAX ( Alai). 1. A ton of Tekimoa, king of 
Salamis, by Feriboea or Eriboea (Apollod. iii. 12. 
§ 7 ; Fans. i. 42. § 4 ; Find. IdA. vL 65 ; Diod. 
ir. 72), and a grandson of Aeacns. Homer cslia 
him Ajaz the Telamonian, Ajax the Great, or 
simply Ajax (//. ii. 768, ix. 169, xiv. 410 ; comp. 
Find. Jtth. tL 38), whereaa the other Ajax, tha 
son of Oileos, is always distinguished fimn tha 
former by some epithet. According to Haaar 
Ajax joined the expedition of the Greeks agaiact 
Troy, with his Salaminians, in twelve shipa (JL 
ii. 557 ; comp. Strab. ix. p. 394), and waa next ta 
Achilles the most distinguished and the bravest 
among the Greeks, (ii. 768, r\-iL 279, he) He 
is described as tall of stature, and his head and 
broad shoulders as rising above those of all the 
Greeks (iiL 226, &c.) ; in beauty he waa inferior 
to none but Achilles. (Od. xL 550, xxiv. 17; 
comp. Faus. L 35. § 3.) When Hector challenged 
the bravest of the Greeks to single combat, Ajax 
came forward among several others. The people 
prayed that he might fight, and when the lot 
fell to Ajax {JL vii. 179, &&), and he ap- 
proached. Hector himself began to tremble. (215.) 
He woimded Hector and dashed him to the ground 
by a huge stone. The combatant* were separated, 
and upon parting they exchanged arms with one 
another as a token of mutual esteem. (305, ix.) 
Ajax was also one of the ambassadors whom Aga- 
memnon sent to conciliate Achilles, (ix. 169.) He 
fought several times besides with Hector, as in the 
battle near the ships of the Greeks (xiv. 409, &c xr. 
415, xvi. 114), and in protecting the body of Patro- 
clus. (xviL 128, 7 32.) In the games at the funeral 
pile of Patroclus, Ajax fought with Odysseus, but 
without gaining any decided advantage over him 
(xxiii. 720, &c.), and in like manner with Dio- 



.UAX. 

medes. In the contest about the armour of Achillas, 
he was conquered by Odysseus, and this, says 
Homer, became the cause of his death. {Od. xi. 
541, &c.) Odysseus afterwards met his spirit in 
Hades., and endeavoured to appease it, but in vain. 
Thus far the story of Ajax, the Telamonian, is 
related in the Homeric poems. Later writers fur- 
nish us with various other traditions about his 
youth, but more especially about his death, which 
is so vaguely alluded to by Homer. According to 
Apollodorus (iii. 12. § 7) and Pindar (/»M. tL 
SI, &c.), Ajax became invulnerable in conse- 
quence of a prayer which Heracles offered to Zeus, 
while he was on a visit in Salamis. The child 
was called Afat from dcrJi, an eagle, which ap- 
peared immediately after the prayer as a favour- 
able omen. According to Lycophron (455 with the 
Schol.), Ajax was born before Heracles came to 
Telamon, and the hero made the child invulner- 
able by wrapping him up in his lion's skin. 
(Comp. Schol. ad II. xxiii. 841.) Ajax is also 
mentioned among the suitors of Helen. (ApoUod. 
iii, 10. § 8; Hygin. Fab. 81.) During the war 
against Troy, Ajax, like Achilles, made excursions 
into neighbouring countries. The first of them was 
to the Thracian Chersonesus, where he took Poly- 
dorus, the son of Priam, who had been entrusted 
to the care of king Polymnestor, together with 
rich booty. Thence, he went into Phni-gia, slew 
king Teuthras, or Teleutas, in single combat, and 
caiTied off great spoils, and Tecmessa, the king's 
daughter, who beciune his mistress. (Diet. Cret. 
ii. 18 ; Soph. Aj. 210, 480, &c. ; Hor. C'arm. ii. 
4. 5.) In the contest about the armour of Achilles, 
Agamemnon, on the advice of Athena, awarded 
the prize to Odysseus. This discumtiture threw 
Ajax into an awful state of madness. In the 
night he rushed from his tent, attacked the sheep 
of the Greek ani\y, made great havoc among them, 
and dragged dead and living animals into his Xent, 
fancying that they were his enemies. When, in 
tlic morning, he recovered his senses and beheld 
wliat he had done, shame and despair led him to 
destroy himself with the sword which Hector h.ad 
once given him as a present. (Pind. Nem. viL 
36; Soph. AJ. 42, 277, 852; Ov. Mtt. xiiL I, 
&c. ; Lycophr. /. c.) Less poetical traditions 
make Ajax die by the hands of others. (Diet. 
Cret. v. 15; Dar. Phryg. 35, and the Greek argu- 
ment to Soph. Ajax.) His step-brother Teucrus 
was charged by Tekmon witli the murder of Ajax, 
but succeeded in clearing himself from the accusa- 
tion. (Paus. i. 28. § 12.) A tradition mentioned 
by Pausanuis (i. 35. § 3 ; comp. Ov. Met. xiii. 
397, &.C.) states, that from his blood there sprang 
up a purple flower which bore the letters al on its 
leaves, which were at once the initials of his name 
and expressive of & sigh. According to Dictys, 
Neoptoleinus, the son of Achilles, deposited the 
ashes of the hero in a gcJden urn on mount Rhoe- 
teion ; and according to Sophocles, he was buried 
by his brother Teucrus against the will of the 
Atreidae. (Comp. Q. Smyni. v. 500 ; Philostr. Her. 
xi. 3.) Pausauias (iii. 19. § 11) represents Ajax, 
like many other heroes, as living after his death in 
the island of Leuce. It is said that when, in the 
time of the emperor Hadriaii, the sea had washed 
open the grave of Ajax, bones of superhuman size 
were fomid in it, which the emperor, however, 
ordered to be buried again. (PhUostr. Her. i. 2 ; 
Paus. iii. 39. § 11.) Ilespecting the state and 



AJAX. 



87 



wandering of his soul after his death, see Plato, 
De Re PM. X. in fin. ; Plut. Sympot. ix. 5. 

Ajax was worshipped in Salamis as the tutelary 
hero of the island, and had a temple with a statue 
there, and was honoured with a festival, fdamtia. 
(Diet, of Ant. s. V.) At Athens too he was wor- 
shipped, and was one of the eponyraic heroes, one 
of the Attic tribes (Aeaatit) being called after him. 
(Paus. L 35. § 2 ; Plut. Sympot. i. 10.) Not far 
from the town Rhoeteion, on the promontory of the 
same name, there was likewise a sanctuary of 
Ajax, with a beautiful statue, which Antouius 
sent to Egypt, bat which was restored to its ori- 
ginal place by Augustus. (Strab. xiiL p. 595.) 
According to Dictys Cretensis (v. 16) the wife of 
Ajax was Glauca, bjr whom she had a son, Aeau- 
tides ; by his belored Ttammm, he had a sou, 
Eurysaces. (Soph. JJ. 333.) Several illustrious 
Athenians of the historical times, such as Miltiades, 
Cimon, and Alcibiades, traced their pedigree to the 
Telamonian Ajax. (Paus. iL 29. § 4 ; Plut. Alcib. 
1.) The traditions about this hero furnished 
plentiful mateiiala, not only for poeU, but also for 
sculptors and puntMib Hk aafl* «mbkt with 
Hector was my B U S Mi tod on the oMt of Cypselua 
(Paus. V. 19. § I); his statue formed a part of a 
large group at Olympia, the work of Lycius. ( Paus. 
y. 22. § 2; comp. Plin. //. N. xxxv. 10. § 36; 
Aelian, V. H. ix. II.) A beautiful sculptured 
head, which is genanlUy believed U> be a head of 
.\jax, is still extant in th« BgiMMWt eolbetioB »( 
Petworth. (Bottiger, JaoAko, ML p. 25&) 

2. The son of OQeva, king of the Locriaut, who 
is also called the LoMer Ajax. (Hum. //. iL 527.) 
His mother's name wm EnopUt Aeending to 
Stnibo (ix. p. 425) hia biithplaee was Naiyx in 
Locris, whence Ovid (AM. ziv. 468) calls him 
Narydm Aeros. Aoeoidii^ to the Iliad (ii. 527, 
&c.) he led hia Lotrina in forty ships (Hygin. 
Fab. 97, saya twoatr) against Troy. He is de- 
scribed as one of tM grast heroes among the 
Greeks, and acts finqnently in conjunction with 
the TefauMnian Ajax. He is small of stature aud 
wears a linen cuirass (AivoAJpq^), but is brave 
and intrepid, especially skilled in throwing the 
spear, and, next to Achillea, the most swift-footed 
among all the Greeks. (//. xiv. 520, &c., xxiii. 
789, &c.) His principal exploits during the siege 
of Troy are mentioned in the following passages : 
xiiL 700, AlC, xiv. 520, iic, xvL 350, xvii. 256, 
732, &c. In the funeral games at the pyre of 
Patroclus he contended with Odysseus and Anii- 
lochus for the prize in the footrace ; but Athena, 
who waa hostile towards him and £ivoured Odys- 
■eos, made him stumble and ialL, so that he 
gained only the second prize. (xxiiL 754, dc.) 
On his return from Troy his vessel was wrecked 
on the Whirling Rocks (Tupal virpai), but he him- 
self escaped upon a rock through the assistance of 
Poseidon, and would have been saved in spite of 
Athena, but he used presumptuous words, and 
said that he would escape the dangers of the sea 
in defiance of the immortals. Hereupon Poseidon 
split the rock with his trident, and Ajax was 
swallowed up by the sea. (Od. iv. 499, &c) 

In later traditions this Ajax is called a sou of 
Oi'leus and the njmph Rhene, and is also men- 
tioned among the suitors of Helen. (Hygin. Fab. 
81, 97 ; ApoUod. iii. 10. § 8.) According to a 
tradition in Philostratus (Her. viii. 1), Ajax had 
a tame dragon, five cubiu in length, which follow- 



88 



AIU8 LOCUTIUS. 



ed him evprywhi^re like a dog. After the taking 
of Troy, it is naid, he niiihed into Uie tRiiipi); of 
AthiTin, where C'uftMindra hnd titken refuge, and 
WOH embmciiig the ntntuo of the g(Mldeii« an a lup- 

filiiint. Ajiix ilrvif^nl her iiway with violence and 
ed her to the other captiven. ( V'irj^. Acn. ii. 403 ; 
Kiirip. TriKul. 70, &c.; DkU Cret. v. \'l; Hygin- 
J'ltl). n<i.) According to Home Htatenientt he 
even violated CaMandra in the temple of the god- 
dess (Try-i)hiod. 635 ; Q. Srnyni. riii. A'1'1 ; 
Lycoplir. 3()0, with the Schol.); Odytitcuii at It-airt 
acciiiM'd him of thin rrhiie, ojid Ajajc wn* to l>e 
atoned to death, hut Mivcd liimM-lf by entabluhing 
hit innocence by an oath- (I'aus. x. "iti, g I, 31. 
§ t.) The whole charge, ia on the other hand, 
•aid to have been an invention of Agamemnon, 
who wanted to have Caasiindni for himaetl But 
■whether true or not, Athoiui h.-id Ruflicient raaaon 
for heini^ indignant, im Ajnx had dragged a lof^ 

i)liant from her temple. When on hi* ▼ojaoe 
lomeward he came to the Capliaruan n)cki on the 
coaxt of KuIkicr, hit ship was wrecked in a ttorm, 
he himself was killed by Athena with a flash of 
lightning, and his body wai waahed upon the rocka, 
which henceforth were called the rocka of Ajai. 
{Hygin. /-V*. IIG; comp. Virg. Amt. L 40, &«., 
xi. '2(i().) For a ditFerent account of hb death lee 
PhiioHtr. Ilrr. viiu 3, and Schol. ml lAfonfikr. I. c. 
After his death hia spirit dwelled in the ishuid of 
IxMice. (Fans. iii. 19. § 11.) The Opuntinn 
Iberians worshiiiped Ajax oa their national hero, 
and so great was their faith in him, thiU when 
they drew up their army in battle am»y, they al- 
ways left one place open for him, b«'lieving that, 
although invisible to them, he was fighting for and 
among them. (Paus. /. c. ; Conon. Xarrai. IH.) 
The story of Ajax waa frequently made use of by 
ancient poets and artists, and the hero who ap- 
pears on some Locriaa coins with the helmet, 
shield, and sword, is probjibly Ajax the son of 
Oileus. (Mionnet, No. 570, &c) [L. S.] 

A'IDES, "AKt,!. [Hades.] 
AIDO'NEUS •('Ar5«i'«i!i). 1. A lengthened 
fonn of 'AJSijs, (Horn. //. v. 190, xx. 61.) 
[Hades.] 

'2. A mytliieal king of the Molossiana, in 
Epeirus, who is represented as the husband of 
Persephone, and father of Core. After Theseus, 
with the assistance of Peirithous, had carried off 
Helen, and conce<aled her at Aphidnae [Acadk- 
Mus], he went with Peirithous to Epeirus to pro- 
cure for him as a reward Core, the daughter of 
Ai'doneus. This king thinking the two strangers 
were well-meaning suitors, oflfejed the hand of his 
daughter to Peirithous, on condition that he should 
fight and contjuer his dog, which bore the name of 
Cerberus. But when Ai'doneus discovered that 
they had come with the intention of carrj'ing off 
his daughter, he had Peirithous killed by Cerberus, 
and kept Theseus in captivity, who was after- 
wards released at the request of Heracles. (Plut. 
Ties. 31, 35.) Eusebius {Ch)-on. p. 27) calls the 
wife of Ai'doneus, a daughter of queen Demeter, 
with whom he had eloped. It is clear that the 
story about A'ldoneus is nothing but the sacred 
legend of the rape of Persephone, dressed up in 
the form of a history, and is undoubtedly the work 
of a late interpreter, or rather destroyer of genuine 
ancient myths. [L. S,] 

AIUS LOCUTIUS or LOQUENS, a Roman 
divinity. In the year b. c. 389, a short time be- 



ALARICU8. 

fure the invaaion of the Uaula, a voice waa heaH 
at Home iu tlie Via nova, during the aileoee of 
night, announciog that the Oattk wo* apfnaduaM. 
( Liv. T. 82.) No attMitiMi ww at Om tfaaa pJk 
to the wamiaf, but aftar (k« Oaub Ud wkkdmwm 
from th* d^, Ik* Bmmm mmmlbmti tlw pm- 
phetk voiM, and atoaad lor tlMir ■■dirt Inr caiM- 
ing oa tka afwt in the Via nova, where the voir* 
had Immii hawd, a iemplum, ttiat ia, an slur with 
a aoLTod endoaan amuid it, to Aiua Locutiua, ur 
the ** Annaaebf Bfaakar.** ( I.ir. v. &0 ; Varm, 
up. OclL zri. 17; Cic. <<« XHwwaC i. 4&, ik 
3i) [L. 8.J 

ALARANDUS ('AA4<a»<MX a Carian befo, 
aon of Kuippua and Calurboe, whom the iohabi^ 
anu of Alabanda worahipped aa the foawlf tl 
their town. (Steph. Dys. a. r. 'AAoloi^a ; Cic. 
^ \<tL JJeor. iii. IS, 19.) [I* 8. J 

A! \i:i>'\\\ ('AAiryoria), a daitgbter of 
Z<" s frum whom Akgonia, a town ia 

Ln< i iu name. (Faua. iiL 21. | 6, 

26. i » J Niti. Com. viii. 23.) [L. 8.J 

ALALC<JMKNK'1S r'AAaAaoM**^*), a aar- 
Muaa of Athana, deriiM fnm th» hare Afadco> 
■anea, ar from tka Boaotaaa riOt^ ti AJak»- 
manaai vmiv mm waa beuarad ta aava bara bank 
Othan dariTa tha naaM (iram tha ftrb dAdAaair, 
ao that it wooU Hgnifjr tha " povarfol dafaDder." 
(Horn. //. ir. 8 ; Bteph. Byx. «. «. 'AAaA«e^riM'; 
Muller, OnAom. p. 213.) 11* 8wJ 

A LA LCO'M EN E8 CAAaA«o^i>itf ), a Boootiaa 
autochthon, who waa believed to have given tha 
name to the Boeotian Alalcomenae, to have 
brought up Athena, who waa bora there, and to 
have been the firat who intntdnced her worship. 
(Paus. ix. 33. § 4.1 According to Plutarch {iM 
iMwdal. Fratjm. a), he adviied Zeua to have a 
figure ef oak-wood dreaaed in bridal attire, and 
carried about amidst hymeneal aonga, in order ta 
change the anger of Hera into joiloiuj. Tha 
name of the wife of Alakomenea waa Athe- 
nai's, and that of hia aon, Olancopiu, both of 
which refer to the goddeaa Athena. (Steph. Byz. 
s. r. ' KKoLXjconiiriov ; Paua. ix. 3. § 3 ; comp. 
Diet, of Ant. «. r. AoiSoAa; Miiller, Orckom. f, 
213.) [L. S.) 

ALALCOME'NIA (^ ^Xa>Mo^Lwia), one of the 
daughters of Ogyges, who aa well aa her two 
sisters, Thelxionoea and Aulia, were regarded aa 
supernatural beings, who watched over oatha and 
saw that they were not taken rashly or thoughtr 
lessly. Their name was Tlpa^iiiKai, and they had 
a temple in common at the foot of the Telphnaiaa 
mount in Boeotia. The representations of these 
divinities consisted of mere heads, and no parts of 
animals were sacrificed to them, except heads. 
(Paus. ix. 33. § 2, 4 ; Panyasis, ap. Steph. Uyu 
I. V. TptixiXri-, Suid. s. f. Upa^iiiicri ; Miiller, Or^ 
chcrni. p. 128, &c.) [L. S.] 

ALARI'CUS, in German Al-ric, i. e. •* All 
rich," king of the Visigoths, remarkable aa 
being the first of the barbarian chiefs who en- 
tered and sacked the city of Rome, and the first 
enemy who had appeared before its walls since the 
time of HannibaL He was of the family of Baltha, 
or Bold, the second noblest family of the Visigoths. 
( Jomandes, cfe ifei. 6'e^. 29.) His first appearance 
in history is in A. D. 394, when he was invested 
by Theodosius with the command of the Gothic 
auxiliaries in his war with Eugenius. (Zosimus, 
v. 5.) In 396, partly from anger at being refused 



I 



ALARICUS. 

the conimand of the armies of the eastern empire, 
partly at the instigation of Rufinug (Socrates, 
Hut. Ecii. vii. 10), he invaded and devastated 
Greece, till, by the arrival of Stilicho in 397, he 
was comf)elled to escape to Epirus. Whilst there 
he was, by the weakness of Arcadius, appointed 
prefect of eastern lUyricum (Zosimus, v. 5, 6), and 
partly owing to tliis office, and the use he made of 
it in providing arms for his own purposes, partly to 
his birth and fame, was by his countrj-nieu elected 
king in 398. (Claudian, Eutrup. ii. 212, BelL Get. 
533—543.) 

The rest of his life was spent in the two inva- 
sions of Italy. The first (400-403), apparently 
unprovoked, brought him only to Ravenna, and, 
after a bloody defeat at Pollentia, in which his wife 
and treasures were taken, and a masterly retreat 
to Verona (Ores. vii. 37), was ended by the treaty 
with Stilicho, which transferred his services from 
Arcadius to Honorius, and made him prefect of the 
western instead of the eastern Illyricum. In this 
capacity he fixed his camp at Aemona, in expecta- 
tion of the fulfilment of his demands for pay, and 
for a western province, as the future home of his 
nation. The second invasion (408-410) was occa- 
sioned by the delay of this fulfilment, and by the 
massiicre of the Gothic families in Italy on Stilicho's 
death. It is marked by the three sieges of Rome. 
The first (408), as being a protracted blockade, 
was the most severe, but was raised by a ransom. 
The second (409), was occasioned by a refusal to 
comply with Alaric's demands, and, upon the oc<-u- 
pation of Ostia, ended in the unconditional surren- 
der of the city, and in the disposal of the empire 
by Alaric to Attains, till on discovery of his inca- 
pacity, he restored it to Honorius. (Zosimus, v. vi.) 
The third (410), was occasioned by an assault upon 
his troops under the imperial sanction, and was 
ended by the treacherous opening of the Salarian 
gate on August 24, and the sack of the city for six 
days. It was immediately followed by the occu- 
pation of the south of I tidy, and the design of in- 
vading Sicily and Africa. This intention, how- 
ever, was interrupted by his death, after a short 
illness at Consentia, where he was buried in the 
bed of the adjacent river Busentinus, and the 
place of his interment concealed by the massacre of 
all the workmen employed ou the occasion. (Oros. 
vii. 39; Jornandes, 30.) 

The few personal tmits that are recorded of him 
— his answer to the Roman embassy with a hoarse 
laugh in answer to their threat of desperate resist- 
ance, "The thicker the hay, the easier mown," 
and, in reply to their question of what he would 
leave tliem, "Your lives" — are in the true savage 
humour of a barbarian conqueror. (Zosinms, v. 40.) 
But the impression left upon us by his general 
character is of a higher order. The real military 
skill shewn in his escape from Greece, and in his 
retreat to Verona ; the wish at Athens to shew 
that he adopted the use of the bath and the other 
external forms of civilised life ; the moderation and 
justice which he obser>'ed towjirds the Romans in 
the times of pejice ; the humanity which distin- 
guished him during the sack of Rome — indicate 
something superior to the mere craft and lawless 
ambition which he seems to have possessed in 
common with otlier barbarian chiefs. So also his 
scruples against fighting on Easter-day when at- 
tacked at Pollentia, and his reverence for the churches 
during the sack of the city (Ores. viL 37, 39), 



ALASTORIDES. 



8d 



imply that the Christian faith, in which he had 
been instructed by Arian teachers, had laid some 
hold at least on his imagiitation, and had not 
been tinged with that fierce hostility against the 
orthodox p»arty which marked the Arians of the 
Vandal tribes. Accordingly, we find that the 
Christian part of his contemporaries regarded him, 
in comparison with the other invaders of the empire 
as the representative of civilization and Christianity, 
and as the fit instrument of divine vengeance on 
the still half pagan city (Oros. viL 37), and the 
yerj' slight injury which the great buildings of 
Greece and Rome sustained from his two invasions 
confirm the same view. And amongst the Pagans 
the same sense of the preternatural character of 
his invasion prevaileti, though expnaMMl in a dif- 
ferent fonu. The dnkgM n^idi Clandian {Bvil. 
Gel, 485-540) repraaente him to hare held with 
the aged counsellors of his own tribe seems to be 
the heathen version of the ecclesiastical story, that 
he stopped the monk who begged him tu spare Rome 
with the answer, that he was driven on by a voice 
which he could not resist. (Socniti- '■' ■ ''■•/. 
viL 10.) So also his vision of Ac i- 

nerva appearing to defend the city ■ , i* 

recorded by Zosimus (v. 6"), if it dof» uui imply 
a lingering respect and fear in the mind of Alaric 
himself towards the ancient worship, — at least 
expresses the belief of the pagan historian, that his 
invasion was of so momentous a character as to 
call fur divine interference. 

The permanent effects of his career are to b« 
found only in the establishment of the Vi»igothic 
kingdom of Spain by the warriors whom he was 
the first to lead into the veet. 

The authoritiM far the ravMim of Greece and 
the first two tiegee of Rome are Zoeimna (r. vi): 
for the first invasion of Italy, Jornandes de HtL, Get. 
30 ; Claudian, B. Get. : for the third siege and 
sack of Rome, Jornandes, »&.; Orosius, vii. 39; 
Aug. Vie. DeL, L 1-10 ; Hieronym. Eyist. ud Pri»- 
eip. ; Procop. Beii. Vamd. L 2 ; Soaemea, HUt. 
Ectt. ix. 9, 10; laid. Hi^wtonaia, CknmieoH Got- 
torum.) The invaaioBs m Italj are involved in 
great confusion by these writers, especially by 
Jomandea, who blends the battle of Pollentia in 
403 with the massacre of the Goths in 408. By 
conjecture and inference they are reduced in Gibbon 
(c 30. ■" ^ • ■ *'■ ' "rder which has been here follow- 
ed. .>^ 'y,tidPhuo*tor.^n.Z. [A.P.S.] 
Al..\- AAoffTwp). 1. According to He- 
sychius ami the Etymologicum ^L, a surname of 
Zeus, describing him as the avenger of evil deeds. 
But the name is also used, especially by the tragic 
writers, to designate any deity or demon who 
avenges wrongs committed by men. (Paus. viii. 
24. § 4 ; Plut. De De/. Orac. 13, &c. ; AeschvL 
Ayum. 1479, 1508, Fers. 343 ; Soph. Track. 1092 ; 
Eurip. Pftoeii. 1550, &c) 

2. A son of Neleiis and Chloris. When Heracles 
took Pylos, Akstor and his brothers, except 
Nestor, were slain by him. (Apollod. L 9. § 9 ; 
Schol. ad ApoUon. JRJiod. L 156.) According to 
Parthenius (c. 13) he was to be married to Har- 
palyce, who, however, was taken from him by her 
father Clymenus. 

3. A Lycian, who was a companion of Sarpe- 
don, and slain by Odysseus. (Horn. //. v. 6"77 ; 
Ov. Met. xiii. 257.) Another Alastor is mention- 
ed in Hom. 7/. viii. 333, xiiL 422. [L. S.] 

ALAST0'R1DE§ ('AAa<rro/)i5j/j), a patro- 



no 



ALIJINOVANUS. 



iiymic from Alantor, and given by Homer (//. xr. 
4()3) to Tniit, wlio wa» probably a »on of the 
Lyciitd Ahmtor mi-ntioned alnivf*. [ L. S. ) 

ALATHK'IJ.S, call.-.l ODOTHAKUS by Clau- 
diiin, lM-ciunt> with Saplinix, in a. i>. liTH, on tho 
di'ath of V'itliiinir, th« );iiiir(li:in of Vithericwii, the 
yoini)( i(iii;{ of the (irriithuM)(i, the chit-f trilie of 
thn OntroKoth*. AlatheuK and Saphrax led their 
p<Miple acroHi thn Danubo in thii year, and unitin|{ 
thi'ir forct!* with thorw; of tho Viii^othi under 
Friti|j;(Tn, took |>art a^inst thu Uonuiiu in the 
buttle of lludriiuiople, a. u. 37)!, in which the em- 
p(>ror V^ilcnii wan defeated and killed. Ahttt 
plundcrinf^ the mirrounding country, Alatbflva and 
Saplirax eventually recrosited the Danube, hut 
apfM'ared a^in on its Ixinkt in IWi, with the in- 
tention of invadinf^ the Jlnnuui province* again. 
They were, however, repulsed, and Aktheua wa« 
slain. (Anim. Marc. xxxL 3, &c. ; Jomand. ile 
JM. (let. *2(j, 27 ; Claudian, da IV Oomt. llomor. 
G'2G ; Zoaimu», iv. 39.) 

ALHA Sl'LVlUS, one of the mythiaU kinfp 
of Albiu laid to have been the ion of I^tinus, aniid 
tho father of Atyi, according to Livy, and of C»- 
petus according to Dionyitiu*. Ho reigned thirty- 
nine year*. (Li v. i. 3; Diony*. i. 71.^ 

A'LIUA (iHNS. No penon* of thia gea* ob- 
tained any oiiicei in the state till the fint omluj 
B. c. They all bore the cognomen Carhinai. 

L. ALIU'NIUS. 1. One of the tribunes of 
the pleb», at the first institution of the office, B. c. 
494. (Liv. ii. 33.) Asconius calls him L. Albi- 
nius C. F. Paterculus. (/« Cic Cornel, p. 76, ed. 
Orelli.) 

*2. A plebeian, who was conTeying his wife and 
children in a cart out of the city, after the defeat 
on the Alia, B. c. 390, and overtook on the .lani- 
culus, the priests and vestals carrj'ing the sacred 
things: he made his &mily alight and took as 
many as he was able to Caere. (Liv. t. 40 ; VaL 
Max. i. 1. § 10.) The consular tribune in & c. 
379, whom Livy (vi. 30) calls M. Albinius, is 
probably the same person as the above. (Comp. 
Niebuhr, IliM. of Rome, ii. n. 1'20L) 

ALBINOVA'NUS, C. PKDO, a friend and 
contemporary of Ovid, to whom the latter addres- 
ses one of his Epistles from Pontus. (iv. 10.) He 
is classed by Quintilian (x. 1) among the epic 
poets ; Ovid also speaks of his poem on the ex- 
ploits of Theseus, and calls him gidereus Pedo, on 
account of the sublimity of his style. {Ex. Pont. 
iv. IG. 6.) He is supposed to have written an 
epic poem on the exploits of Germanicus, the son 
of Dnisus, of which twenty-three lines are pre- 
served in the Suasoria of Seneca. (lib. i.) This 
fragment is usually entitled " De Navigatione 
Germanici per Oceanum Septentrionalem," and 
describes the voyage of Germanicus through the 
Aniisia (Ems) into the northern ocean, a. d. 16. 
(Comp. Tac. Ann. ii. 23.) It would seem from 
Martial (v. 5), that Albinovanus was also a writer 
of epigrams. L. Seneca was acquainted with him, 
and calls h'lm. fabtdator degantisdmus. {Ep. 122.) 

Three Latin elegies are attributed to Albino- 
vanus, but without any sufficient authority : 
namely, — 1. " Ad Liviam Aug. de Morte Drusi," 
which is ascribed to Ovid by many, and has been 
published separdtely by Bremer, Helmst. 1775. 
2. " In Obitura Maecenatis." 3. ** De Verbis Mae- 
cenatis moribundi." (^\'emsdo^f, Poctae Laiini 
Minores, iii. pp. 121, &c., 155, &c.) 



AL01NU& 

Tho ftigMwit af AlUaofaaaa «■ tha 
Oennaaieos, has baen paUiakad by U. 
Frwjm. Piirt., p. 416, PitbasM, Fjfigrmm, tt ftlim. 
rri., p. 239, liunaann, Amtk. IM. IL m. 131, 
VVeniiKiorf, PutU LaL Him. tv. L f. 321, tu. 
All that has been aaoribad ta Alhinavaaaa wm 
published at AmaMdaa, 1701, witb tha aataa af 
J. SMlitsr and atban. Tha kal alMaa is bjr 
Meinaa^ vfaiah eialahi tba int, and a Oanaaa 
translation in verse, Quedlinl' 

ALUINOVA'.NUS, P. 1 

to the party of Marius in tii;. waf^ aM 

waa ooa of tba tweiTa wbe wwa ittkutA mmim 
at tha alata in ■. c. 87. Ha th ui a f sn lad ta 
Hiemnsal m Nomidia. After tha dcfcat af Owba 
and Norbanas in b. c. 81, he oblafaiad tha pawlaa 
of Solla by tiaachaniaslr pattiiw to daalh bhmjt 
of tha oriaeiral afleen af Nafbaaaa, wfaaai ha had 
invited to a banqnal AiiaiBiBBi fat asaaa^asaea 
revolted to Sulk, whaaea tha PsaBdo-Aaeaaina (ia 
CSe. Vrrr. p. 1^8, cd. OidM) speaks of AHmm- 
ranii^ it. (Appian, K. C L 60, 62, 91 ; 

Flor 7.) 

AL..1 .. i .. .>r ALBU8, tba aaaM a( tha pria- 
cipii family of tba patridaa Pmhiiaia pn», Tha 
original naina waa Albaa, aaappaan btm tha 
Fasti, which ww aftanmda Iwfriiwiid into Albi- 
nus. We &ad fa paspat aaMoa » La lWK da ii » Bti >a a 
in oaas, saas, aad iaas, naad vhhoat aa J additiaaal 
waaning, ia tha sanaa saaaa aa tha aaapla %Kmt, 
(Comp. Niebuhr, HkL i^ Bomt, i. n. 219.) 

1. A. Po'iTCMlUH P. r. AtBLS RuilLLBNail^ 

was, according to Livy, dictator & c. 498, wbea 
he conquered the Latins in the great battle near 
lake RegiUni. Roman story related that Castar 
and Pollux were seen fi^tiM in thia battk ao tha 
side of tha Rowana, whwuie tha didatar afkarwaida 
dedicated a temple to Caator and Pollaz m tha 
forum. He was consul a c. 496, in whidi yaar 
some of the annals, according to Livy, plaeed tha 
battle of the lake RegiUus ; and it is to this year 
that Dionysius assigns it. (Liv. iL 19, 20, 21 ; 
Diouys. vi. 2, &c. ; VaL Max. i. 8. § 1 ; Cic. 4» 
Nal. Dear. ii. 2, iii. 5.) The sonMaae Ragfllfaaia 
is usually supposed to have been derired firom tUa 
battle ; but Niebuhr thinks that it was taken from 
a place of residence, just as the Claodii bore the 
same name, and that the later — »«»i«*- only spoka 
of Postumius as commander fa rnnseqasnrfi of tbe 
name. Livy (xxx. 45) states expres s l y, that Sdpio 
Africanus was the first Roman who obtained a 
surname from his conquests. (Niebahr, JIi$t.<^ 
Rome, L p. 556.) 

Many of the coins of the Albini conunemorato 
this Wctory of their ancestor, as in the one annexed. 
On one side the head of Diana is represented with 
the letters Roma underneath, which are partly 
e&ccd, and on the reverse are three horsemen 
tn.mpling on a foot-soldier. 




2. Sp. Postumius A. r. P. n. Albcs RRen^ 

LENSis, apparent!}-, according to the Fasti, thf- son 
of the preceding, (though it must be observed, that 
in these early times no dependance can be placed 



ALBINUS. 

upon these genealogies,) was consul B. c 466. 
(Liv. iii. 2 ; Dionys. ix. 60.) He was one of the 
three commissioners sent into Greece to collect in- 
formation about the laws of that country, and was 
a member of the first decern virate in 451. (Liv. 
iii. 31, 33 ; Dionys. x. 52, 56.) He commanded, 
as legatus, the centre of the Roman army in the 
battle in which the Aequians and Volsciaus were 
defeated in 446. (Liv. ilL 70.) 

3. A. PosTUMit's A. F. P. N. Albus Regil- 
LENSis, apparently son of No. 1, was consul b. c. 
464, and carried on war against the Aequians. 
He was sent as auiba»sador to the Aequians in 
458, on which occasion he was insulted by their 
commander. (Liv. iii. 4, 5, 25 ; Dionys. ix. 62, 65.) 

4. Sp. Postumius Sp. f. A. n. Albls Rkuil- 
LKNsis, apparently son of No 2, was consular tri- 
bune b. c. 432, and served as legatus in the war in 
the following year. (Liv. iv. 25, 27.) 

5. P. PosTUMius A. F. A. N. Albinus Reoil- 
LENsis, whom Livy calls Marcus, was consuhir 
tribune B.C. 414, and was killed iu an insurrection 
of the soldiers, whom he had deprived of the plun- 
der of the Aequiau town of Holae, which he had 
promised them. (Liv. iv. 49, 50.) 

6. M. PoSTUMIUS A. F. A. N. AtBINUS R£GIL- 

LENSI8, is mentioned by Livy (v. 1) as consular 
tribune in b. c. 403, but was in reality censor in 
that year with M. Furius Canullus. (FaiUi C'apitoL) 
In their censorship a fine was imposed upon all 
men who remained single up to old age. ( VaL Max. 
ii. 9. § 1 ; Plut Cam. 2 ; I>ict. o/Aitt. »■. r. Uxorium.) 

7. A. PosTt'Mius Albinus RE<ilLLEN^us, con- 
sular tribune a c. 397, collected with his colleague 
L. Julius an anny of volunteen, linoe the tribunes 
prevented them from making • regular lery, and 
cut oif a body of Tarquinienaea, who were return- 
ing home after plundering the Roman territory. 
(Liv. V. 16.) 

8. Sp. Postumius Albinus Rkuillknsis, con- 
suhir tribune b. c. 394, carried on the war against 
the Aequians ; he at first suffered a defeat, but 
afterwards conquered tliem completely. (Liv. t. 
26, 28.) 

9. Sp. Postumius Albinus, was consul & c. 
334, and invaded, with his colleague T. Veturius 
Calvinus, the country of the Sidicini ; but, on ac- 
count of the great forces which the enemy had col- 
lected, and the report tliat the Samnitea were com- 
ing to their assistance, a dictator «M appointed. 
(Liv. viii. 16, 17.) He waa oenaor in SS*2 and 
magister equitum in 327, when M. Claudius Mai^ 
celluB was appointed dictator to hold the comitia. 
(viii. 17, 23.) In 321, he waa consul a second 
time with T. Veturius Calvinus, and marched 
against the Samnites, but was defeated near Cau- 
dium, and obliged to surrender with his whole 
anny, who were sent under the yoke. As the 
price of his deliverance and that of the army, he 
and his colleague and the other commanders swore, 
in the name of the republic, to a humiliating peace. 
The consuls, on their return to Rome, laid down 
their office after appointing a dictator ; and the 
senate, on the advice of Postumius, resolved that 
all persons who had sworn to the peace should be 
given up to the Samnites. Postumius, with the 
other prisoners, accordingly went to the Samnites, 
but they refused to accept them. (Liv. ix. 1 — 10 ; 
Appian, de lied. Samn. 2 — 6 ; Cic de Off. iiL 30, 
C'uto, 12.) 

10. A. Postumius A. f. L. n. Albinus, was 



ALBINUS. 



91 



consul & c. 242 with Lutatiua Catulus, who de« 
feated the Carthaginians off the Aegates, and thus 
brought the first Punic war to an end- Albinua 
was kept in the city, against his will, by the Pon- 
tifex Maximus, because he was Flamen Martiulisi. 
(Liv. EpU. 19, xxiii. 13; Eutrop. iL 27 ; VaL 
Max. L 1. § 2.) He waa ceuaor in 224. {JFatti 
Capiiol.) 

ILL. PosTuifius. A. F. A. N. ALBOim, i^ 
porently a son of the preceding, waa eooaol Bi C. 
234, and again in 229. In hia aeoond conaolahip 
he made war upon the lUyrians. (Eutrup. iii. 4 ; 
Oros. iv. 13 ; Dion Cass. Fruif. 151 ; Polyb. ii. 11, 
&C., who erroneotuJj caila him AuUia inatead of 
Lucius.) In 216, the third jear of the aeeood 
Punic war, he waa mada pnetor, and aent into 
Cisalpine Gad, and wiiik afaMat waa elected con- 
sul the third tioM liir the CBilowing year, 215. But 
he did not live to enter upon his consulship ; for 
he and his army were deatroyed by the Boii iu the 
wood Li tana iu Cisalpine GauL His head was cut 
ot^ and after being Uned with gold was dedicated 
to the gods by the Buii, and used aa a lacred 
drinking-vesaell (Lir. xxiL 35, xxiii. 24 j PolyL 
iii. 106, 118; Cic Turn:. L 37.) 

12. Sf. Postumius L. f. A. n. Albinus, waa 
praetor peregriuua in B. & 18A (Liv. xxxvii. 47, 
5U), and consul in 186. In hia consulship the 
tenatusconsultum waa paaaed, which is still extant, 
auppreaaiag the worahip of Bacchus iu Rome, in 
winaennencw of the abominable crimes which went 
fwwitliiii in coanezion with it. (xxxix. 6, 11, 
&e.; VaL Max. tL 3. § 7 ; Plin. II. N. xxxiii. 
10; Diet.(/AnL p. 344.) He waa also augur, 
and died in 179 at an adTanead i^e. (Liv. xL 
42 ; Cic. Cuto, 3.) 

13. A. PoaxuMiua A. p. A. N. Albinus, 
waacurule aedile b. c. 187, when he exhibited 
the Great Gamea, piaetor 185, and consul 180. 
(Liv. xxxix. 7, 23, xL 35.) In hia consulship 
he conducted the war againat the Liguriaus. 
(xl. 41.) He waa eeoaar 174 with Q. Fulvius. 
Their eeoaonkip wm • mtm* cna ; tk^ expelled 
nine membera firan the aeaate, and degraded many 
of equestrian rank. They executed, however, many 
public woirka. (xli. 32, xliL 1 ; comp. Cic Verr. 
i. 41.) He waa elected in hia censorship one of 
the deceuTiri aacronun in the phv^e of L. Corueliua 
Lentulua. (Lir. xliL 10.) Albinua waa engaged 
in many public missions. In 175 he waa aant 
into northern Greece to inquire into the truth of 
the repreaentationa of the Dardaniana and Thes- 
aalians about the Baatamae and Peraeua. (Polyb. 
xxvL 9.) In 171 he was sent aa one of the am- 
basaadora to Crete (Liv. xliL 35); and after the 
conquest of Macedonia in 168 he was one of the 
ten commissioners appointed to settle the affairs 
of the country with Aemilius Paullus. (xlv. 17.) 
Livy not unifrequeutly calls him Luscus, from 
which it would seem that he was blind of one eye. 

14. Sp. Postumius A. f. A. n. Albinus 
Paullulus, probably a brother of No. 13 and 15, 
perhaps obtained the surname of Paullulus, aa 
being small of stature, to distinguish him more 
accurately from his two brothers. He was praetor 
in Sicily, b.c. 183, and consul, 174. (Liv. xxxix. 
45, xlL 26, xliii. 2.) 

15. L. Postumius A. f. A. n. Albinus, pro- 
bably a brother of No. 13 and 14, was praetor 
B. c. 180, and obtained the province of further 
Spain. His command was prolonged in the follow- 



92 



ALniNUS. 



inp; yi"nr. Aflor coiiqiU'riiiK llic Vnccai-i and Lu- 
HiUini, he rctunipfl to Home in 17)1, and o)itaini*<l 
a triunipli on iiccount of )ii« victnrici. (Liv. xl. 
.V), 44, 47, 4)t, .50, xlL 3, 11.) He wa« conwil in 
17.'}, with M. I'opiiliiiH Liu'niiN ; nnd the war in 
Lif^iria wiin nKHJ^ncd to Ixith conHulN. Albinu*, 
howovcr, wiw (ifHt sent into (.'iini|)iini:i to M'parnte 
the hmd of tlic BtJit<! from that of private imthomk; 
nnd this liiiHincKM occupied him nil tho Muninirr, v) 
thnt ho waH iinnhio to ffo into hiii province. He 
was tho hrHt Uoman ma^iiitratc who put the allies 
to any expi-nse in travfllin(( through their territo- 
ric*. (xli. Xi, xlii. 1, .'<.) The f.ntival of the 
^'lo^lliI^ which had been diKontinued, wa« riv 
stored in hi» coniuUhip. (Or. Fait. r. 3'J9.) In 
171, he wa* one of the nmboMadon ient to Ma«i- 
niHsa nnd tlio Cnrthaxinian* in order to raiie troopt 
for tho war against I'erwus. (Lir. xliL 85.) In 
H)f) ho wan nn unHucccititful candidate for Um eat- 
Hnrehip. (xliii. 10.) He acrred under A«BUini 
PaulluK in Macedonia in IGR, and oonunanded the 
second legion in tho battle with Pcrseui. (xUt. 
41.) The last time he is mentioned is in this 
wnr, when he was sent to plunder the town of the 
Aonii. (xlv. 27.) 

IG. A. I'osTUMiuo Aldinits, one of the officers 
in the army of Aemilius Faullus in Macedonia, 
B. c. 168. He was sent by Faullus to treat with 
Perseus ; and afterwards Perseus nnd his son Philip 
were committed to his can by PauIIus. (Liv. 
xlv. 4, 28.) 

17. L. PosTUMius Sp. f. L. n. Albinus, 
apparently son of No. 12, was cunile aedile B. c. 
]()1, and exhibited the Ludi Megalenses, at which 
the p]uniich of Terence was acted. He was consul 
in 154, nnd died seven dnys after he liad set out 
from Rome in order to go to his province. It was 
supposed that he was poisoned by his wife. 
(Obsoq. 7() ; Val. Max. vu 3. § 8.) 

18. A. Po.sTU.MU>K A. P. A. N. Albinus, appa- 
rently son of No. 13, was praetor B. c. 155 (Cic 
Acail. ii. 45 ; Polyb. xxxiii. 1), and consul in 151 
with L. Licinius Lueullus. He and his colleague 
were thrown into prison by the tribunes for con- 
ducting the levies with too much severity. (Liv. 
/>■/. 48; Polyb. xxxv. 3; Oros. iv. 21.) He 
was one of the ambassadors sent in 153 to make 
peace between Attains nnd Prusias ( Polyb. xxxiii. 
1 1 ), and accompanied L. Mummius Achaicus into 
Greece in 14C as one of his legates. There was a 
statue erected to his honour on the Isthmus. 
(Cic. ad Att. xiii. 30, 32.) Albinns was well ac- 
quainted with Greek literature, and wrote in that 
language a poem and a Roman history, the latter 
of which is mentioned by several ancient writers. 
Polybius (xl. 6) spe,iks of him as a vain and light- 
headed man, who disparaged his own people, and 
^vas sillily devoted to the study of Greek literature. 
He relates a tale of him and the elder Cato, who 
reproved Albinus sharply, because in the preface 
to his history he be^ed the pardon of his readers, 
if he should make any mistakes in writing in a 
foreign language ; Cato reminded him that he was 
not compelled to write at all, but that if he chose to 
write, he had no business to ask for the indulgence 
of his readers. This tale is also related by Gellius 
(xi. 8), Macrobius (Preface to Saturn.), Plutarch 
{Cato, 12), and Suidas (s. r. ASAoj Tloffr6fi.u>s). 
Polybius also says that Albinus imitated the worst 
parts of the Greek character, that he was entirely 
devoted to pleasure, and shirked all labour and 



ALBINUS. 

danger. He relate* that Im iMirad t« Thcbe^ 
when the ImiiIc wm fought at Pbeda, on the pic* 
of indiii]KiMtion, bat afterwards wrote an •ecmint 
of it to the senate as if be bad been present. 
Cicero sprvks with lather aai« iwpMt tt hie lil*> 
rary merits ; he eafla Ua iaitm km» tmk HMwm 
luM et JUerlut. (Ck. A«mi.iL4i^Bnt.7l.) Mm- 
criibius (ii. 16) quutr« apaiMgafiMi theCnt baek 
of the Annals of Albiooa respecting BrvtM^ and 
a« he uses the words of Albinus, it has bam M^ 
posed that the Greek history may have been tawk 
lated into I^atin. A work of AibiaM, o* tha 
arrival of Aeneas in Italy, ia w fc tfad la bjr 8af^ 
vius (»/ I'iry. Aen. ix. 710), and the anther of tha 
work ** lie Origiae Oantia Romanae," c lA. 
(Krauae, VUae *t Pragwt. Vtlarmm Uitlunoormm 
Howumormm, p. 127, Ace.) 

19. 8p. Po^ti-mii's AtatNva MAONca, waa 
eoaanl u. c US, in which year a mat fini hap- 
panad at Rama. (OhMtj. 7S.) It fa thb % 
Albinaa, of whoa Cfeera ipMhs ia the Bnbm (c 
25), and says that there were nuuiy orations of bia. 

20. Sp. Porrt;Miua 8r. r. 8p. n. Albini;«, 
probably mm of No. 19, waa coaanl a & 110, aad 
obtained the prorinea of Naaddia to carry on tha 
war againat Jacnrtha. Ha mtdm vifaroaa paapap 
rationa te war, bat whan ha naabad tha pHwiaae, 
he did not adopt any aetiva aMMana, hat aHawad 
bimseif to ba daeaiTed by tha artifteaa af Jofpntha, 
who eonatanthr pfooiaed to aan aadar . Many per* 
sons suppoiad uat Ua hiaetiTttT waa intantiaaal, 
and that Jngartha had bov^t him over. Wha« 
Albinus departed frara Afnea, be left bis b ro t h er 
Aulus in command. [See No. 21.] After tba 
defeat of the latter he returned to Nmnidia, but 
in consequence of the disorganised state of hia 
army, he did not prosecute the war, and handed 
over the army in this condition, in the following 
year, to the consul Metellua. (Soil. Jug. 35, 36, 
39,44; Oros. iv. 15; Eutrop. ir. 26.) He waa 
condemned by the Mamilia Lex, which was paased 
to punish all those who had been guilty of treason- 
able practices with Jngurtha. (Cic Brut. 34; 
comp. .Sail. Jug. 40.) 

21. A.P0STUMIUS AtBiNCR, brother of No. 20, 
and probably son of No. 1 9, waa lefk by his bro- 
ther as pro-praetor, in comnumd of the army in 
Africa in B. c. 1 10. [See No. 20.] He nwrefaed 
to besiege Suthal, where the treasures of Jngartha 
were deposited ; but Jngnrtha, under the promise 
of giving him a large sum of money, induced him 
to lead his army into a retired place, where he 
was suddenly attacked by the Numidian king, and 
only saved his troops from total destruction by 
allowing them to pass under the yoke, and under- 
taking to leave Numidia in ten days. (SalL Jug. 
36—38.) 

22. A. PosTUMius A. p. Sp. n. Albim.-s, grand- 
son of No. 19, and probably son of No. 21, waa 
consul B. c. 99, with M. Antonius. (Plin. H. N. 
viii. 7; Obseq. 106.) Gellius (ir. 6) quotes the 
words of a senatusconsultum passed in their con- 
sulship in consequence of the spears of Mars having 
moved. Cicero says that he was a good speaker. 
{Brut. 35, post Red. ad Quir. 5.) 

The following coin is supposed by Eckhel (toL 
V. p. 288) and others to refer to this Albinus. On 
one side is the head of a female with the letters 
HisPAN., which may perhaps have reference to the 
victory which his ancestor L. Albinus obtained in 
Spain. [See No. 15.] On the other side a mail 



ALBINUS. 

is represented stretching out his hand to an eagle, 
a military standard, and behind him are the fasces 
with the axe. On it are the letters a. post. a. f. 
N. s. AiiiN (so on the coin, instead of AtBiN.). On 
the coins of the Postumia gens the praenomen 
Spurius is alway writteu & and not sr. 



ALBINUS. 



93 




23. A. PosTUMius Albinus, a person of prae- 
torian rank, commanded the fleet, B. c. 89, in the 
Marsic war, and was killed by his own soldiers 
under the plea that he meditated treachery, but in 
reality on account of his cruelty. Sulla, who was 
then a legate of the consul Porcius Cato, incorpo- 
rated his troops witli his own, but did not punish 
the offenders. (Liv. Epit. 75 ; Plut. Sullu, 6".) 

24. A. PosTUMius Albinl's was placed by 
Caesar over Sicily, b. c. 48. (Appian, U. C ii. 48.) 

•25. D. Junius Brutus Albinus, adopted by 
No. 22, and commemorated in the annexed coin, 
where Brutus is called albinv(8) brvti. r. 
[Brutus.] 




ALBI'NUS, procurator of Judaea, in tbe reign 
of Nero, about a. d. (J3 and G4, succeeded Festus, 
and was guilty of almost every kind of crime in 
his government. He pardoned the vilest criminals 
for money, and shamelessly plundered the pro- 
vincials. He was succeeded by Florus. (Joseph. 
Ant. Jud. XX. 8. § 1 ; lidl. Jiut. ii. 14. § 1.) The 
LucKius Albinus mentioned below may possibly 
have been the same person. 

ALBI'NUS ('AAgii'oi), a Platonic philosopher, 
who lived at Smyrna and was a contemporary of 
Galen. (Galen, vol. iv. p. 372, ed. Basil.) A 
short tnict by him, entitled 'Ej(ra7«y^ «is toi)j 
llharwvos AioAo7oi/y, hiis come down to us, and is 
published in the second volume (p. 44) of the first 
edition of Fabricius; but omitted in the reprint 
by Harles, b<'cause it is to be found prefixed to 
Etwall's edition of three diiUogues of Plato, Oxoiu 
1771; and to Fischer's four dialogues of Plato, 
Lips. 1783. It contains hardly anythbg of im- 
portance. After explaining the nature of the 
Dialogue, which he compares to a Drama, the 
writer goes on to divide the Dialogues of Plato 
into four classes, XayiKovs, iKtyitriKovs, ^vcucovs, 
T^dtKovs, and mentions another division of them 
into Tetralogies, according to their subjects. He 
advises that the Alcibiades, Phaedo, Republic, and 
Timaeus, should be read in a series. 

The authorities respecting Albinus have been 
collected by Fabricius. (BiU. Cmec. iii. p. 658.) 
He is said to have written a work on the arrange- 
njsnt of the writings of Plato. Another Albinus 
is raentioned by Boethius and Cassiodorus, who 



wrote in Latin some works on music and geo- 
metry. [B. J.] 

ALBI'NUS, CLO'DIUS, whose full name 
was Decimus Clodius Ceionius Septimius Al- 
binus, the son of Ceionius Postumius and 
Aurelia Messalina, was bom at Adrumelum in 
Africa ; but the year of his birth is not known. 
According to Lis father's statement (CapitoL 
Clud. Albin. 4), he received the name of Albi- 
nus on account of the extraordinary whiteness of 
his body. Shewing great disposition for a military 
life, he entered the anny at an early age and 
served with great distinction, especially during the 
rebellion of Avidius Cassius against the emperor 
Marcus Aurelius, in a. D. 175. His meriu were 
acknowledged by the emperor in two letters {ib. 
lU) in which he eallt Albuuu an African, who re- 
sembled his countrymen but little, and who was 
praiseworthy for his military exparianes, and the 
gravity of his character. The emperor likewise 
deckr«d, tliat without Albinus the legions (in 
Bithynia) would have gone over to Avidius Ca*- 
sius, and that he intended to ha\ ' -eu 

consul. The emperor Commodus ^ ^ a 

command in Gaul and afterwards i;. A 

false rumour having been spread that Cummodus 
had died, Albinus harangued the anny in Britain 
on the occasion, attacking Commodus as a tyrant, 
and maintaining that it would be useful to the 
Roman empire to restore to the senate its ancient 
dignity and power. The senate was rery pleased 
with these sentiments, but not so the emperor, 
who sent Junius Severus to supersede Albinus in 
his coumiand. At this time .\lbinus must have 
been a very distinguished man, which we may 
conclude from the fiKt, that some time before 
Commodus had oAnd Uai tha title of Caesar, 
which he wisely inHamd. No(witha(udii« the 
»i,<...ii<tniont ef JuBina Be wr u a as his successor, 
t his command till after the murder of 
t und that of his successor Pertinax in 

a. i>. lU'S. It is doubtful if Albinus was the 
secret author of the murder of Pertinax, to which 
Capitolinns makes an allusion. (/6. 14.) 

After the death of Peninax, Didius Julianus 
purchased the throne by bribing the praetorians ; 
but immediately aftsrwards, C. Pesceuuius Niger 
was proclaimed onperor by the legions in Syria ; 
L. Septimius Severus by the troops in Illyricum 
and Pannonia ; and Albinus by the armies in Bri- 
tain and GauL Julianus having been put to death 
by order of the senate, who dreaded the power 
of Septimius Severus, the latter tamed his arms 
against Pescennius Niger. With regard to Al- 
binus, we must believe that Sevenu made a pro- 
visional arrangement 'with him, conferring upon 
him the title of Caesar, and holding with him 
the consulship in a. d. 194, But after the defeat 
and death of Niger in a. d. 194, and the complete 
discomfiture of his adherents, especially after the 
fall of Byzantium in a. d. 196, Severus resolved 
to make himself the absolute master of the Roman 
empire. Albinus seeing the danger of his position, 
which he had increased by his indolence, prepared 
for resistance. He narrowly escaped being 
assassinated by a messenger of Severus (ib. 7, 8), 
whereupon he put himself at the head of his army, 
which is said to have consisted of 150,000 men. 
He met the eqiuil forces of Severus at Lugdunum 
(Lyons), in Gaul, and there fought with him on 
the 19th of Februarj-, 197 (Spartian. Sever. 11), a 



.94 



ALBUNEA. 



Moody battle, in which ho wa« at first victorioiu, 
)mt at laKt wa» entirely lieU'aUid, and lout hia life 
cither by Buicide, or by order of Severn*, after 
having been made a prinoner. lli» body wai ill 
trcKited l)y SeveruH, who itent liis head to IlooM, 
and accoiniaiiiud it with an insolent letter, ia 
which ho mocked the iienate for their odiMlvaM to 
Aliiinuit. 'I'he town of Lugdiinuin waa phudind 
iiiid d(!)ttroyed, and the adherents of AlUlMU Wtn 
cnutlly prosecuted by Sevenu. 

Albinus was a man of great bodilj beantjr and 
htreii((tii ; lie woa an experienced general } a akil* 
fill gladiator; aierere, and often cruel conmiidari 
nnd he has been called the Catiline of his tiflM. 
ile had one son, or perhaps two, who were put to 
death with their mother, by order of Sevcrus. It 
is said that he wrote a treatine on agriculture, 
and a colK-c'tion of stories, called Milesian. (Capi- 
toliiiuH, CluttiuM Albinus: Dion Cass. Lxx. 
Ilerodian, ii. 15, iii. 5 — 7.) 

There are several medals of Albinas. 
one annexed he is caUod d. clod. bkpt. 



4-7 I 



In the 

AI.BIN. 



IW. P.J 




ALBI'NUS, LUCE'IUS, was made by Nero 
procunitor of Maiiretania Caeaariensis, to which 
Oalba added the province of Tingitana. After the 
death of (iaiba, a. d. 69, be espoused the side of 
Otho, and prepared to invade Spain. Clurios 
Rufus, who commanded in Spain, being alarmed at 
this, sent centurions into Mauretania to induce the 
Mauri to revolt against Albinus. They accom- 
plished this without much difficulty ; and Albinus 
was murdered with his wife. (Tac. Hist. ii. 58, 59.) 

A'LBION or ALE'BIO-N (* AASW or 'AAte/w), 
a son of Poseidon and brother of Dercynus or 
]Jergion, together with whom he attacked Heracles 
■when he passed through their country (Liguria) 
with the oxen of Geryon. But they paid for their 
presumption with their lives. (Apollod. ii. 5. § 10; 
Pomp. Mela, ii. 5. § 39.) The Scholiast on Lyco- 
phron (648) calls the brother of Alebion, Ligys. 
The story is also alluded to in Hyginus(Poe/..(4rfr. 
ii. 6) and Dionysius. (i. 41.) [L. S.] 

ALBUCILLA, the wife of Satrius Secundus, 
and infamous for her many amours, was accused in 
the List year of the reign of Tiberius (a. d. 37) of 
treason, or impiety, against the emperor (impieiatis 
VI principerti), and, with her, Cn. Domitius Aheno- 
barbus, Vibius Marsus, and L. Arruntius, as ac- 
complices. She was cast into prison by command 
of the senate, after making an ineffectual attempt 
to destroy herself. (Tac. Ann, vL 47, 48.) 

ALBU'NEA, a prophetic nymph or Sibyl, to 
whom in the neighbourhood of Tibur a grove was 
consecrated, with a well and a temple. Near it 
was the oracle of Faunus Fatidicus. (Virg. Aen, 
vii. 81, &c. ; Hor. Cam. i. 7. 12 ; Tibull. ii. 5. 
69.) Lactantius {De Sibyll. i. 6) states, that the 
tenth Sibyl, called Albunea, was worshipped at 
Tibur, and that her image, holding a book in one 



ALCAIU& 

ia th« ba af «h* ii« 
Her utrtM, or onclM, wkkk bilw y d U iJm Ukrl 
/atitUi, were, at the comoMUid of the Moato, dap»> 
situd and kvpt ia tlM CapitoL TIm mmJI aqaaM 
tonple at thia Sibrl Is atiU rataat at link. B*> 
■poeting tha locaitty, mo Kophalidaa, JSMwa 4mtk 
/ea/^, i. p. 125, &e. [L. 8.] 

ALBIVCIUS or ALBU'TICS, a pkyskitti at 
Home, who livi-d prot>ably aUiut the noginniiif or 
middle of the fint century after Christ, aad wiio ia 
mcntionad bv i'liny (//. A^ xxix. &) aa kavi^f 
ninad bj ma ma^ka tiM aiiaaal iaoona of two 
hnadiad and itj dMund imHwh (aboat l»&iL 
ii. 6dL). TUa ia loaaldiwd bj PBaj «• ba a Tarjr 
larga am,aadaMqrthaiafcta^Taaaaa»aaa<i«ioif 
the fMrtoaaa mada by pbyaidaas at Rome aboat tba 
beginning of the empire. [W. A. U.] 

T. ALBU'CIUM or ALBU'TIUS, fi&iahed hia 
atadiee at Athena at tba latiar aad af tba aaaaad 
aaotaiy & c, aad balaafad ta tba ^ataMaa aaal. 
Ha waa waD ac q a a iatad widi Oiaak HtcfMafa, ar 
rather, saya Ciearoi, waa afaaaat a Oraek. (lind. 
85.) On aoeoant of bia aSwtiaf on arery orrarioa 
the Greek bmnaga aad nbtloaopby, bo waa nti* 
riaed by Lneilras, wfaoaa linaa apoa bim aia p«»- 
aarrad by Ciaara (d^ /ii. L t)( aad Ciaaaa I ' 
spaakaoTUiaaaal^tHiiladadHaib Hat 
bat aaaoaaaaafblly, (^ lioeiaa 8eBav•fa^ tba i 
of maladMiiiiatratiiin (mpa h iw rf u f ) in bis pwriaaa. 
{Brut. 26, De Oral. u. 70.) In a. c. 105 Albaaiaa 
was praetor in Sardinia, and in coaa ac p i aBa a ai 
some insignificant success which ba bad pimad 
over soma robbara, ha oelefanted a triaaph ia tba 
prorinea. Oa bia ntaiB ta Boiaa, ha mKad to 
the senate for tba hoooor of a sapalicatta, bat tbio 
was refused, and he was accused in ac IU3 of 
repctundae by C. Julius Caesar, and condemned. 
Cn. Pompeius Strabo had offered himself as tha 
accuser, but he was not allowed to conduct tba 
proaecntion, because he had been tba qaaaalar af 
Albocins. {De Proc. Com. 7, ta iVsoa. M, XMn im 
Caeca. \9,deOf. ii. 14.) After hU wwdaanMriaii, 
he retired to Athens and pursued the study of ph^ 
losophy. {Tuic. ▼. 37.) He left Ijehind him soom 
orations, which had been read by Cicero. {BnU. 35.) 

Varro {de He Rutt. iiL 2. $ 17) speaks of soma 
satires by L. Albucius written in the style of Lao* 
lius ; he appears to be the same person as Titoa. 

C. ALBU'CIUS SILAS. [Silas.) 

ALBUS OVI'DIUS JUVENT1'NU& fJo- 

VENTINUS.] 

ALCAEUS OAA^owj). 1, A son of Perseus 

and Andromeda, and married to Hipponome, the 
daughter of Menoeceus of Thebes, by whom he 
became the &ther of Arophytrion and Anaxo. 
(Apollod. iu 4. § 5 ; SchoL ad Eurip. Hecub. 886.) 
According to Pausanias (viii. 14. § 2) his wife's 
name was Laonome, a daughter of the Arcadian 
Guneus, or Lysidice, a daughter of Pelops. 

2. According to Diodorus (i. 14) the original 
name of Heracles, given him on account of hia 
descent from Alcaeus, the son of Perseas. [Ha- 

RACLKS.] 

3. A son of Heracles by a female slave of Jar- 
danus, from whom the dynasty of the Heraclids 
in Lydia were believed to be descended. (Herod, 
i. 7.) Diodorus (iv. 31) calls this son of Hera- 
cles, Cleolaus. (Comp. Hellanicus, ap. Stepk. Byz, 
s. V. 'AkcAtj ; Wesseling, ad Diod. I. c.) 

4. According to Diodorus (v. 79) a general of 
Rhadamanthys, who presented him with the island 



ALCAEUS. 

of l'aro8. Apollodorus (ii. 5. § 9) relates that he 
was a son of Androgeus (the son of MIiiok) and 
brother of Sthenelus, and that when Heracles, on 
his expedition to fetch the girdle of Ares, which 
was in the possession of the queen of the Amazons, 
arrived at Paros, some of his companions were 
slain by the sons of Minos, residing there. He- 
racles, in his anger, slew the descendants of Minos, 
except Alcaeus and Sthenelus, whom he took with 
him, and to whom he afterwards assigned the 
island of Thasus as their habitation. [L. S.] 

ALCAEUS {'AXkoios), of Mkssknk, the author 
of a number of epigrams in the Greek anthology, 
from some of which his date may be easily fixed. 
He was contemporary with Philip III., king of 
Macedonia, and son of Demetrius, against whom 
several of his epigrams are pointed, apparently 
from patriotic feelings. One of these epigrami, 
however, gave even more offence to the Roman 
general, Flamininus, than to Philip, on account of 
the author's ascribing the viclor)' of CjTioscepha- 
lae to the Aetolians as much as to the Romans. 
Philip contented himself with writing an epigram 
in reply to that of Alcaeus, in which he gave the 
Messeuian a very broad hint of the fate he might 
expect if he fell into his hands. (Plut Flamin. 
9.) This reply has singuhirly enough led Salmasius 
{De Cruce, p. 449, ap. Fabric. BiUiolk. Graec. ii. p. 
S8) to suppose that Alcaeus was actually cruciiied. 
In another epigram, in praise of Flamininus, the 
mention of the Roman general's name, Titus, led 
Txetzes {Froley. in LycDjthnni) into the «rror of 
imagining the existence of an epigrannnatist flamed 
Alcaeus under the emperor Titus. Those epignuBa 
of Alcaeus which bear internal evidence of their 
date, were written between the years 219 and 
196 B.C. 

Of the twenty-two epigrams in the Greek An- 
thology which bear the name of "Alcaeus," two hare 
the word "Mytilenaeus" added to it ; but Jacobs 
seems to be perfectly right in taking this to be the 
addition of some ignorant copyist. Others bear 
the name of "Alcaeus Messenius," and some of 
Alcaeus alone. But in the last class there are 
severjd which must, from internal evidence, hare 
been written by Alcaeus of Messene, and, in fiict, 
there seems no reason to doubt his being the author 
of the whole twenty-two. 

There are mentioned as contemporaries of Al- 
caeus, two other persons of the same name, one of 
theui an Epicurean philosopher, who was expelled 
from Rome by a decree of the senate about 173 or 
154 u. c. (Perizon. ad Aeliatt. V. H. ix. '12 ; Athen. 
xii. p. 547, A.; Suidas, s. v. 'ZuiKovpoi): the other 
is incidentally spoken of by Polybius as being 
accustomed to ridicule the grammariiin Isocratea. 
(Polyb. xxxiL 6 ; B. c IGO.) It is just possible 
that these two persons, of whom nothing further is 
known, may have been identical with each other, 
and with the epigrammatist. 

(Jacobs, Anthol. Graec. xiii. pp. 836-838 ; there 
is a reference to Alcaeus of Messene in Eusebius, 
Pniepar. Evang. x. 2.) [P. S.] 

ALCAEUS ('AXKaloy), of Mytu,knk, in the 
island of Lesbos, the earliest of the Aeolian lyric 
poets, began to flourish in the 4'2nd Olympiad 
when a contest had commenced between the nobles 
and the people in his native state. Akaeus be- 
longed by birth to the former }«irty, and warmly 
espoused their cause. In the second year of the 
42nd Olympiad (b. c. 611), we find the brothers of 



ALCAEUS. 



95 



Alcaens, namely, Cicis and Antimenidas, fighting 
under Pittacus against Melanchrus, who is d*>- 
scribed as the tyrant of Lesbos, and who fell in the 
conflict. (Diog. Laert. L 74, 79 ; Strab. xiii. p. 
617 ; Suidas, », r. KUis and riiTToitoi ; Etymol. 
M. p. 513, s. V. KiOoftos, instead of K^ii ; Clin- 
ton, Fasti, L p. 216.) Alcaeus does not appear 
to have taken part with his brothers on this occa- 
sion : on the contrary, he speaks of Melanchrus in 
terms of high praise. (Fr. 7, p. 426, Blomfield.) 
Akaent is BMntioned in connexion with the war 
in Tnm, Iwt wee u the Athenians and My tilenaeans 
for the posaeasioB of Sigeum. (b. c. 606.) Though 
Pittacus, whp commanded the army of Mytileue, 
slew with his own hand the leader of the Athe- 
nians, PhrjTion, an Olympic victor, the Mytile- 
naeans were defeated, and Akaeus incurred the 
disgrace of leaving his arms behind on the field of 
battle ; these arms were hung up as a trophy by 
the Athenians in the temple of Pallas at Sigeum. 
(Herod, v. 95; Plut. ds Herod. AfaJuf. s, 15, p. 
858; Strab. xiii. pp. 599, 600; Kuseh. Ckrou. 
Oiym. xliiL 3; Clinton, Fiuti, I p. 219.) His 
sending home the news of this disaster in a poem, 
addressed to hia firieod MekiiipMis (Fr. 56, p. 
438, Blomf.), aeoM to ahaw tkat ha had a reputa- 
tion for courage;, indi aa a single disaster could not 
endanger ; and accordingly we find him spoken of 
by ancient writers as a brave and skilful warrior. 
(AnthoL Palat ix. 184 ; Cic Tu»c Dup. iv. 33; 
Hor. Carm. I 32. 6 ; Athen. xv. p. 687.) He 
thought that his lyre was beat em|Moyed in ani- 
■Mting hia friends to warlike deeds, and his house 
is desmbed hf himself as funtished with the wea- 
pons of war rather than with the instruments (rf' 
bis art (Athen. xiv. p. 627 ; Fr. 24, p. 430, 
Blomf.) During the period which fsUowed the 
war about Sigeaai, the e a at aat bo t woen the Bohlea 
and the people ef If TtSeae waa hno^ la a crisia ; 
and the pe^ie, headed bj a aaceaassna tt leaden, 
who an eaUsd tyianta, and aaMog whoaa an men* 
tioaed the Baaaaa af llynihu, Megalaginnu, and 
the flaaflantidi, ancmaemBd in driving om nehlaa 
intoadla. Dwiag thia aril war Aleaefla engi^ed 
aetiTaly on Aa aide af the noblea, whoae apirita ho 
endeavoured te cheer by a imraber of meet ani- 
mated odes full of invectives against the tyrants ; 
and after the defeat of his party, he, with his Ihx>- 
ther Antimenidas, led them again in an attempt to 
regain their country. To oppose this attempt Pit- 
tacus was unanimously chosen by the people as 
miwftrinis (dictator) or tyrant. He held his 
o£Sce for ten years (b. c. 589 — 579), and during 
that time he defeated all the etforts of the exiled 
nobles, and established the constitution on a popu- 
lar basis ; and then he resigned his power. 
(Strab. xiiL p. 617 ; Akaeus, Fr. 23, p. 230, 
Blomf. ; Arist. Rep. iii. 9. § 5, or iii. 14 ; Plut. 
AiHcit. % 18, p. 763 ; Diog. Laert. L 79; Dionys. 
V. p. 33C, Sylb.) [Pittacus.] 

Notwithstanding the invectives of Alcaeus 
against him, Pittacus is said to have set him at 
liberty when he had been taken prisoner, saying 
that " forgiveness is better than revenge." (Diog. 
Laert. L 76 ; Valer. Max. iv. 1. § 6.) Alcaeus 
has not escaped the suspicion of being moved by 
personal ambition in his opposition to Pittacus. 
(Strab. xiii. p. 617.) When Alcaeus and Anti- 
menidas perceived that all hope of their restoration 
to Mytilene was gone, they travelled over different 
couii tries. Alcaeus visited Egypt (Strab. L p. 37), 



M ALCAEU& 

and he nppcara to have writtni poem* in which hit 
advi-ntiircD by wa wcro dcacribod. (I lor. Conn. ii. 
13. '2(1.) AntiincnidoB enU:rcd tlio wrvici; uf the 
king (if ilahyldii, and pt-rfdnned an cx|iliiit which 
waH ((jjclimted iiy Alca<'u». (Slrub. xiii. p. *J17, 
Fr. >'{.'{, p. 43.'{, Hioini.) Nothing in known of tlie 
life of AicucuH after thii (Miriud ; hut from the 
political Rtatu of Mytileuo it u moit pruUtblv that 
hu died rn exile. 

Among the nine princi[>al lyric poett of Cirw-ce 
Rome ancient writer* awiiign the tiritt place, othi-m the 
■ocond, to Alcaeiis. llin writings preiient to ii« the 
Aeolian lyric at itiihigheHt ]K>int. Hut tht-ir circuUt- 
tiun in Orceco Hcems to have been limited by the 
btrangeneHR of the Acolic dialect, and perhap* their 
loRs to UK may be |>artly attributed to the lainc caiuc 
Two recennions of the worki of Alcaeui w«n 
by the gr.inuiiarians AriHtarchui and 
Borne fragment* of his [MN'm* wbidl 
the excellent imitation* of Horace, enable as to 
understand something of their character. 

His poem*, which consisted of at least ten books 
(Athen. xi. p. 4B1), were adied in general Odea, 
Hymns, or Songs (^ir/urra). ThoM which hare 
rcrrived the liighest praise are hia warlike or p*- 
ti'iotiu odes referring to the factions of hit state 
<TTO<r<wT(At<J or iixoarafftairruei, the "Alcaei mi- 
iiates Camoenac" of Horace. (Carm. ii. 13.27; 
Quintil. X. 1. § (>3 ; Dionyi. de Vet. Script. JCcum. ii. 
U, p. 73, Sylb.) Among the fragment* of these 
ore the commencement of a song of exultation over 
the death of Myrsilus (Fr. 4, lllomf.), and port of 
a conipiirison of liis ruined party to a disabled ship 
(Fr. '-', Dlouif.), both of which arc finely imitated 
by Horace. {(Jarm. i. 37, i. 14.) Many fragments 
arc preserved, especially by Athenaeus (r. pp. 4J9, 
4.'S0), in which the poet sings the praises of wine. 
(Fr. 1, 3, 1 «, 18, 20, Blomf.; comp. Hor. Carm. L 9. 
18.) MUllcr remarks, that '^it may be doubted 
whether Alcaeus composed a separate class of 
drinking songs ((rv^TortKa) ; ... it is more proba- 
ble that he connected every exhortation to drink 
with some reflection, either upon the particuLor 
circumstances of the time, or upon man's destiny 
in general." Of his erotic poems we have but few 
remains. Among them were some addressed to 
Sappho; one of which, with Sappho's reply, is 
preserved by Aristotle (lihet. L 9; Fr. 38, Blomf.; 
&ippho, fr. 30), and others to beautiful youths. 
(Hor. Carm. L 32. 10; Cic. de Nat. Deor. i. 28, 
Tuic. Qtutcst. iv. 33.) Most of his remaining poems 
are religious hymns and epigrams. Many of his 
poems are addressed to his friends individually. 

The poetry of Alcaeus is always impassioned. 
Not only with him, but with the Aeolic school in 
general, poetry was not a mere art, but the plain 
and warm outpouring of the writer's inmost- feelings. 

The metres of Alcaeus were generally lively, 
and his poems seem to have been constructed in 
short single strophes, in all of which the corres- 
ponding lines were of the same metre, as in the 
odes of Horace. He is said to have invented the 
well-known Alcaic strophe. 

His likeness is preserved, together with that of 
Pittacus, on a brass coin of Mytilene in the Royal 
Museimi at Paris, which is engraved by ViscontL 
{Icon. PL iii. No. 3.) 

The fragments of Alcaeus were first collected 
by Mich. Neander in his "Aristologia Pindarica," 
Basil. 1556, 8vo., then by Henry Stephens in his 
collection of the fragments of the nine chief lyric 



ALCAMENK8. 

poets of Orrece ( I .^.^7 ), of which there are term! 
edition*, ojul by Fulvius Ursinu*, l&titt, Mvu. The 
more modem eoUactions are tboae by Japi, Halao 
Sui. 17»0— 1782, 4U>.; by Htnrngr, lialW, lUlU. 
Ilvo.; by Blanfi^ in tiie '*MuMUBt t'rttiiiim,'* 
voL i. p. 421, Ate, Camh. 1896, up d a ted in (iai^ 
ford's '^I'oetae Gnect MinotM;" and the most 
complete edition is that of Matthiae, "Alcaci 
Mytiluiiaei reliquiae," Lip*. Iii27. Additional 
fragment* have been printed in the Ubrnish Mit- 
M-um for \W1'J, 1U33, and 1H.V< ; in Jabn'* '*Jahr- 
buch. f iir Philulog." for IK.'M); and in Cramer'* 
''Aneedota Onoca," toL i. Oxf. IM3.S. 

(Bode, OmekkkU dtr Lyntdte* JJkUhmtt d»t 
HeUemm, ii. p. 378, Ike.) I P. 8.] 

ALCAEUS (AAjroiet), the ton of Micctu, wm 
a native of Mytilbni, aeconliM te Hiridae, vIm 
may, however, have cwrfwwdwl vm \m tilia fiiaA 
with the lyric poet. He i* fsaad uJiMlbg at 
Athena ■• a poet of tlM old eoaMdy, or father ti 
that nixed oamedf, which fonaod the tianaitioa 
between the dd and the niddU-. In a. c. 888, he 
brought forward a plaj entitl<^i X\aai^ia% ia the 
MBM eooteat ia which Aiietopbaaee eihibiled Ua 
•eeoBd Pfartaa, tart, if tha mmaia^ ti htatkm ia 
rightly ondanlood, he oblaihid eoly the Mk. 
place. He left ten plaT*, of which soaM foff- 
menta remain, and the folbwing titles are known, 
'A8«A^ /MiX'wo/i^ixu, royvftrfdi)!, Et>tv/u««r, 'U^t 
yd^t, KoAAiO'TM, KM^Ufivrpaftfiia, naKauTrpa. 

Alcaeo*, a tragic poet, mealioned by Fabricsae 
{DiUiotk. Orate ii. p. 282), doea not ap|Mar ta ba 
a different person fran Akaess the rwasdian 
I'he mistake of calling him a tragic poet arose 
simply from an erroneous reading of the title of hia 
** Comoedo-tragoedia." 

(The Greek Argument to the Platns ; Snidaa, 
f. e. ; Pollux, X. 1 ; Caiaabon on Athen. iiL p. 
20G ; Meineke, Fragm. Ccmk. Gnue. L f. 244, 
ii. p. 824; Bode, GeadtiekU dtr Dnmatmim 
DickUauut dtr HtlUnen^ u. p. 386.) [ P. S.] 

ALCA'MENES ('AAiovisi^f), king of Sparta, 
1 0th of the Agids, ton of Teledua, eomaiaaded, ao- 
cording to Pauaanias, in the ni|lrt'««psditiwi 
against Ampheia, which commenced the first M sa 
senian war, but died before iu 4th year. Thia 
would fix the 38 years assigned him by ApoUodonia, 
about 779 to 742 b. c In hia reign Helos waa 
taken, a place near the mouth of the Eurotaa, 
the last independent hold most likely of the old 
Achaean population, and the supposed origin of the 
term Helot (Pans. iiL 2. § 7, iv. 4. § 3, S. § 3 ; 
Herod. viL 204 ; Pint. ApophtL Lac) [A. H. C] 

ALCA'MENES ('AAK<yi«i^5), the son of Sthe- 
nelaides, whom Agis appointed as harmost of the 
Lesbians, when they wished to revolt from the 
Athenians in b. c. 412. When Alcamenes put to 
sea with twenty-one ships to sail to Chios, he waa 
pursued by the Athenian fleet off the Isthmus of 
Corinth, and driven on shore. The Athenians at- 
tacked the ships when on shore, and Alcamenes 
was killed in the engagement. (Thuc. viiL 5, 10.) 

ALCA'MENES ('AAjco^'itjj), a distinguished 
statuary and sculptor, a native of Athens. (Plin. 
H. N. xxxvL 5. 8. 4.) Suidos («. r.) calls him a 
Lemnian (if by Alcamenes he means the arti&t). 
This K. 0. MuUer {Arch, der Kunst. p. 96) inter- 
prets to mean that he was a cleruchus, or holder of 
one of the KKijpoi in Lemnos. Voss, wlio is fol- 
lowed by Thiersch {Epochen der bUd. Kunst, p. 
130), conjectured that the true reading is Alfinoij 



ALCAMENES. 

and accordingly that Alcanienes was bom in the 
district called the Aifiyai, which is in some degree 
confirmed by his having made a statue of Dionysus 
in gold and ivory to adorn a temple of that god in 
the Lenaeum, a part of the Limnae. (Paus. i. 20. 
§ 2.) He was the most famous of the pupils of 
Phidias, but was not so close an imitator of bis 
master as Agoracritus. Like his fellow-pupil, he 
exercised his talent chiefly in making statues of 
the deities. By ancient writers he is nuikcd 
amongst the most distinguished artists, and is con- 
sidered by Pausanias second only to Phidias. 
(Quintil. xii. 10. § 8 ; Dionys. JJe JJemoxlh. ucuin. 
vol. vi. p. 1108, ed. Reiske ; Paus. v. 10. §2.) 
lie flourished from about 01. 84 (Plin. //. A'', xxxiv. 
8. 8. 19) to 01. 95 (b. c. 444-400). Pliny's date is 
confinned by Pausanias, who says (viii. 9. § 1), that 
Praxiteles flourished in the third generation after 
Alcamenes ; and Praxiteles, a« Pliny tells us, flour- 
ished about 01. 104 (b. c. 3(J4). The hist works 
of his which we bear of, were the colos&id statues 
of Athene and Hercules, which Thrasybulus erected 
in the temple of Hercules at Thebes after the ex- 
pulsion of the tyrants from Athens, (b. c. 403.) 
The most beautiful and renowned of the works of 
Alcamenes was a statue of Venus, called from the 
place where it was set up, 'H iv <cifiro*» 'A<pfH>- 
5/tt). (Lucian, Jmiujines, 4, 6 ; Paus. i, 19. § 2.) 
it is said that Phidias himself ])Ut the finishing 
touches to this work. (Plin. //. A^ xxxvi 5. s. 4.) 
The breasts, cheeks, and hands were especially 
admired. It has been supposed by some that this 
was the Venus for which he gained the prise over 
Agoracritus. There is no direct evidence of this, 
ajid it is scarcely consistent with what Pliny says, 
that Alcamenes owed his success more to the fa- 
vouritism of his fellow-citizens than to the -excel- 
lence of his statue. Another celebrated specimen 
of his genius was the western pediment of the 
temple at Olympia, ornamented with a representa- 
tion of the battle between the Centaurs and the 
Liipithae. (Paus. v. 10. § 2.) Other works of his 
were : a statue of Mars in the temple of that god 
at Athens (Paus. L 8. § 5); a statue of Hephae- 
stus, in which the lameness of the god was so in- 
geniously represented as not to give the appearance 
of deformity (Cic. De Nat, Lkor. i. 30; Val. Max. 
viii. 1 1. ext. 3) ; an Aesculapius at Mantiueia 
(Paus. viii. 9. § 1); a three-formed Hecate (the 
first of the kind), and a Procne in the Acroptdis at 
Athens (Paus. ii. 30. § 2, i. 24. § 3) ; and a bronze 
sUitue of a victor in the Pentathlon. (Plin. xxxiv. 
8. 8. 19.) A story of very doubtful credibility is 
told by Tzetzes (Chil. viii. 193), that Alcamenes 
and Phidias cont«>nded in making a statue of 
Athene, and that before the statues were erected 
in their destined elevated position, that of Alca- 
menes was the most admired on account of its de- 
licate finish ; but that, when set up, the etfect of 
the more strongly defined features in that of Phi- 
dias caused the Athenians to change tlieir opinion. 
On a Roman anaglyph in the villa Albani there 
is the following inscription : 

Q. LoLnus Alcamenes 
Dec. bt Duumvir. 
If this contains the name of the artist, he would 
seem to have been a descendant of an Ak-amenes, 
who had been the slave and afterwards the freed- 
man of one of the LoUian family, and to have at- 
tained to the dignity of decurio and duumvir in 
some municipium. He perhaps exercised the art 



ALCATHOUS. 



97 



of carving as an amateur. (Winckelmann, viii. 4, 
5.) [C. P. M.] 

ALCANDER ("AAjtoi^poi). There are three 
mythical personages of this name, who are men- 
tioned respectively in Hom. //. v. 078 ; Virg. Afit. 
ix. 7C0" ; Antonin. Lib. 14. A female Alcandra 
occurs in the Oil. iv. 125. [I* S.] 

ALCANDER ("AAjfovSpoi), a young Spartan, 
who attacked Lycurgus and thrust out one of his 
eyes, when his fellow-citizens were discontented 
with the kws he proposed. His mangled face, 
however, produced shame and repentance in his 
enemies, and they delivered up Alcander to him to 
be punished a« he thought fit But Lycurgus i<ar- 
doned his outrage, and thus converted hi.'u into 
one of his warmest friends. (Pint. Zvf. ! 1 ; Aelian, 
r. //. xiii. 23; VaL Max. v. 3. § e'xU 2.) 

ALCATHOE or ALCl'THOE ('AAxafl«Jn or 
'AAKifloij), a daughter of Minyas, and sister of 
Leucippe and Arsippe. Instead of Arsippe, Ae- 
lian ( V. II. iii. 42) calls the latter Aristippa, and 
Plutarch {Qiuient. Or. 38) Arsinoe. At the time 
when the worship of Dionysus was introduced into 
lioeotia, and while the other women and maidens 
were revelling and ranging over the mountains in 
liacchic joy, these two sisters alone remained at 
home, devoting themselves to their usual occupa- 
tions, and thus profaning the days sacred to the 
god. Dionysus punished them by chaiiging them 
into bats, and their work into vines. (Ov. Mei. 
iv. 1—40, 390 — 115.) Plutarch, Aelian, and 
Antoninus Liberalis, though with some ditferencet 
in the detail, relate that Dionysus appeared to the 
sisters in the form of a maiden, and invited them 
to partake in the Diooyaiac mysteries. When 
this request wm not eoiB{>lied with, the god meta- 
moiphoaed hiauelf aueeeaHvely into a buU, a Uoo, 
and a pantkei; and tli« ataten were leiaed with 
madneaa. In this state ther wen eager to honour 
the god, and Leucippe, who was chosen by lot 
to owr a sacrifice to Dionysus, gave up her own 
son Hippasus to be torn to pieces. In extreme 
Bacx-hic frenzy the sisters now roamed over the 
mountains, imtil at last Hermes changed them into 
birds. Plutarch adds that down to his time the 
men of Oahomenos descended from that family 
were called ^Atifir, that is, mourners, and the wo- 
men jAftcu or oioAftoi, that is, the destroyers. In 
what manner the neglect of the Dionysiac worship 
on the part of Alcathoe and her sister was atoned 
for everj' year at the festival of the Agrionia, see 
L^'t. ijf A Hi. ». V. 'Ayptufta ; comp. Buttmann, 
Mytholog. ii. p. 201, &c. [L. S.] 

ALCA'THOUS {'A\Kd9ooi). 1. A son of 
Pelops and Hippodameia, brother of Atreus and 
Thyestes, first married Pyrgo and afterwards 
Euaechme, and was the father of Echepolis, Cal- 
lipolis, Iphinoe, Periboea, and Automedusa. (Pans, 
i. 42. § I, 4, 43. § 4 ; Apollod. ii. 4. § 11, iii. 12. 
§ 7.) Pausanias (i. 41. § 4) relates that, after 
Euippus, the son of king Megareus, was destroyed 
by the Cythaeronian lion, Megareus, whose elder 
son Tiraalcus had likewise fallen by the hands of 
Theseus, offered his daughter Euaechme and his 
kingdom to him who should slay that lion. Al- 
cathous undertook the task, conquered the lion, 
and thus obtained Euaechme for his wife, and 
afterwards became the successor of Megareus. In 
gratitude for this success, he built at Megara a 
temple of Artemis Agrotera and Apollo Agraeus. 
He also restored the walls of Megara, which had 

H 



98 



ALCETAS. 



beon (IcHtroycd liy the Cretan*. (I'aut. L 41. | S.) 
In tliJH work lie w.-u Miid to havi; lM*)*n aMistwl ))J 
A|)iill(i, and tlic Ntone, upon which the gixl umhI to 

Ehici^ hi* lyri! whilu he wa« at work, wa» ••ven in 
ill- tiiiicH h<'Iit-v<>(l, when iitruck, to ^ivc forth a 
ftoiind kiinilar to that of a lyre. (I'au«. L 4'J. j$ 1 ; 
()v. Met. viii. l.l, &c. ; Vii^. C'ir. 10.5 ; Thcojfii- 
7 HI.) Fx'hfpolJK, OUR of the Koni of AicathouK, 
\YM killed during the Caiydoniait hunt in Aetolia, 
and when his brother Callipoliit hantcned to carry 
till! Mid tiding! to hi* father, he found hiin en- 
f(:>Hci\ in onVrinf( a Nicrihce to Apollo, and think- 
iu^ it unfit to offer aacrifice* at luch a moment, 
he Hniitched away the wood from the altar. Alc»- 
thous imagining this to be an act of aacrileffiou* 
wantonncM, killed hi* ion on the apot with a 
piece of wood. (Pan*. L 42. § 7.) The acropolli 
of Megara was called by a name derired from that 
ofAlcathous. (i. 42. g 7.) 

2. A son of I'urthuon and Euryte, who wm 
•lain by Tydeus. (Apollod. L 7. 8 lOf 8- § *; 
Diod. iv. 6.5.) 

3. A ton of Aeayete* and hasbuid of Ilippo- 
danieui, the daughter of Aochiae* and aster of 
Aeneas, who was edacated in hi* hou*e. (Horn. 
//. xiii. 4fi6.) In the war of Troy he wa« one of 
the I'rojan leader*, an4 waa one of the handsomest 
and bravest among them. (fl. xii. 93, xiii. 427.) 
He was shtin by Idomencu* with the assistance of 
Poseidon, who struck Alcathous with blindnew 
and paralyzed his limb* so that he could not flee. 
(//. xiii. 43.1, &.C.) — Another personajje of this 
uanie is mentioned by Virgil, Aen. x. 747. [L.8.] 

ALCKIDllS {'AAKtlSrti), according to tome ac- 
counts the name which Heracles originally bore 
(Apollod. ii. 4. § 12), while, according to Diodo- 
ru», his original name was Alcaeus. [Ij. S.] 

ALCESTIS or AIX^P^STE CAAotj<7T(j or 'AA- 
KtffTTi), a daughter of Pelias and Anaxibia, and 
mother of Einnelus and Adroetus. (Apollod. i. 9. 
§ 10, 15.) Homer (//, ii. 71.5) calls her the fair- 
est among the daughters of Pelias. When Adme- 
tus, king of Pherae, sued for her hand, Pelias, in 
order to get rid of the numerous suitors, declared 
that he would give his daughter to him only who 
should come to his court in a chariot drawn by 
lions and boars. This was accomplished by Ad- 
metus, with the aid of Apollo. For the further 
storj-, see Admktus. The sacrifice of herself for 
Admetus was highly celebrated in antiquity. 
(Aelian, V. //. xiv. 45, Animal, i. 15 ; Philostr. 
Her. ii. 4 ; Ov. Ars Am. iii. 19 ; Eurip. Akestis.) 
Towards her fatJier, too, she shewed her filial af- 
fection, for, at least, according to Diodorus (iv. 52 ; 
comp. however, Palaeph. De incredib. 41 ), she did 
not share in the crime of her sisters, who mur- 
dered their father. 

Ancient as well as modem critics have attempted 
to explain the return of Alcestis to life in a ration- 
alistic manner, by supposing that during a severe 
illrtess she was restored to life by a pliysician of 
the name of Heracles. (Palaeph. /. c. ; Plut. Ama- 
ior. p. 761.) Alcestis was represented on the 
chest of Cypselus, in a group shewing the funeral 
solemnities of Pelias. (Paus. v. 17. § 4.) In the | 
museum of Florence there is an alto relievo, the j 
■work of Cleomenes, which is believed to represent j 
Alcestis devoting herself to death. (Meyer, Gesch, 
dirbUdend. Kiinsie, i. p. 162, ii. 159.) [L. S.] 

A'LCETAS ('AAjc€Tay), whose age is imknown, 
was the author of a work on the offerings (dyaftj- 



AIX:iBIADE& 

^Mra) in Delphi, of which 
■ecoud b<M)k. (xiii. p. &'J],c) 

A'LCKTA.S I. ('AAir^Tat),kiaf of Emvti, waa 
the tun of Tharypus. For loaM fMMS or oUmt, 
which wo m sot inftiftil tt, hm «m oiialhi 
from hfa MmiiiM, md imk nAmo with tk* ddor 
iJiunyiiM, tyraat if flj i i a M , hj whoa Im «•• 
reiiuuted. Aftar hk notocMMi w* tad Urn tlw 
ally of the AUwnkiM, ud ol Jmm, tkc T«gw of 
Thestalj. In ■. & S7S, ke appoand at Atboa* 
with Jason, for tbo pwpooo of dofaadiaf lla^ 
thena, wiw, thfovgh tliair [ ' 
On hu doalk tlM kMo^ wkkh tB 
been goTened hf ona Idaf, waa difidad 
his two tont, Neopt4)lemu« and Arybbaa or Arjm- 
bat. Diodorut (xix. 88) callt him Arybilaik 
(Paut. I 11. f 3i Uem. Ttmotk. pp. 1187. liitO ^ 
Diod. XV. 13. 3«.) [C. P. M.J 

A'LCETAS lU king of Erimua, waa tka aoo af 
ArrmbM, and gmadaoa of Akatao I. Ob Maewat 
of hia uforarMbb toipa r , ba waa hawkhad bjr 
hit htket^ wfco ^poiatad kia yaaiyir ten, Aoaridaa, 
to oaeeoed kiflL On tka daslk of Aeaddaa, wka 
was killed in a baltia fMcht witk CasMmdor &c. 
31 3, the F:pirou nedad Akataa. Cattaadar oaat 
an army a^tioa* Mm ndar iha Baamad of Lyci»- 
cus, but tooa afhw aataiad tela M aBMaa with kka 
(b. c. 312). Tha Erivata, iaanaad at ika oatMfn 
of Alcetas, rose agalaat kia and pat kfaa to dcMk, 
together with his two iooa; oa wUek Pynkaa, 
the ton of Aeacides, waa piaead noa tka tknoa 
by hit protector Oiaodas, kiaf of tka IQyriaai^ 
B. c. 307. (Paoi. i. 11. { 5 ; Diod. ziz. 88, 89; 
Plut. Fj/rrh. 3.) [C. P. M.] 

A'LCETAS ('AXx^rat), the eighth kiiw of 
Macbdonu, counting fron CanuiaB, aad tka &k, 
counting from Perdtccaa, reigned, aeeordinf to 
Eusebius, twenty-nine years. He was tka fittkar 
of Amyntas I., who reigned in the latter part af 
the sixth century b. c. ( Herod. viiL 1 39.) 

A'LCETAS ('AXicfrat), the brother of Pkrdio- 
CAS and son of Orontes, is first mentioned as ona 
of Alexander's generals in his Indian expeditioa. 
(Arrian, iv. 27.) On the death of Alexander, ka 
espoused his brother's party, and, at hit orders, 
murdered in b. c. 322 Cyane, the half-titter of 
Alexander the Great, when the withed to marry 
her daughter Eurydice to Philip Arrhidaeot. 
(Diod. xix. 52 ; Polyaen. TiiL 60 ; Arrian, ap. 
Phot. p. 70, ed. Bekker.) At the time of Per- 
diccas' murder in Egypt in 321, Alcetas was with 
Eumenes in Asia Minor engaged against Cratems; 
and the army of Perdiccas, which had revolted 
from him and joined Ptolemy, condemned Alcetas 
and all the partizans of his brother to death. The 
wur against Alcetas, who had now left Eumenes 
and united his forces with those of Attalus, was 
entrusted to Antigonus. Alcetas and Attalus were 
defeated in Pisidia in 320, and Alcetas retreated 
to Termessus. He was surrendered by the elder 
inhabitants to Antigonus, and, to avoid falling into 
his hands alive, slew himsel£, (Diod. xviiL 29, 37, 
44 — 46 ; Justin, xiiL 6, 8 ; Arrian, ap. Phot. I. e.) 
ALCIBI'ADES (^ KKKiSM-ns), the son of 
Cleinias, was bom at .\thens about B, c 450, or a 
little earlier. His father fell at Coroneia b. c 447, 
leaving Alcibiades and a younger son. ( Plat. Protag. 
p. 320, a.) The last campaign of the war with 
Potidaea was in B. c. 429. Now as Alcibiades 
served in this war, and the young Athenians were 
not sent out on foreign military service before they 



ALCIBIADES. 

had attained their 20th year, he could not have 
been bom later than B.C. 449. If he served in the 
first campaign (b. c. 432), he must have been at 
least five years old at the time of his father's death. 
Nepos {AlcUi. 10) says he was about forty years 
old at the time of his death (b. c. 404), and his 
mistake has been copied by Mitford. 

Alcibiades was connected by birth with the 
noblest families of Athens. Through his father 
be tiaced his descent from Eurysaces, the son 
erf Ajax (Plat. Alcib. u p. 121), and through 
him from Aeacus and Zeus. His mother, Deiuo- 
mache, was the daughter of Megacles, the head of 
the house of the Alcmaeonids.* Thus on both 
aides he had hereditary claims on the attachment 
of the people ; for his paternal grandfiither, Alci- 
biades, took a prominent part in the expulsion of 
the Peisistratids (Isocrat. De Big. 10), and his 
mother was descended from Cleisthenes, the friend 
of the commonalty. His father Cleinias did good 
service in the Persian war. He fitted out and 
manned a trireme at his own expense, and greatly 
distinguished himself in the battle of Artemisium. 
(Herod, viii. 17.) One of his ancestors of the 
name of Cleinias earned a less enviable notoriety 
by taking fraudulent advantage of the Seisachtheia 
of SuloiL The name Alcibiades was of Laconian 
origin (Thuc. viii, 0), and was derived from the 
Spartan family to which the ephor Endius belong- 
ed, with which that of Alcibiades had been an- 
ciently connected by the ties of liospitality. The 
first who bore the name was the grandfather of 
the great Alcibiades. 

On the death of his father (a c. 447), Alcibiades 
was left to the guiirdiauship of his relations Pericles 
and Ariphron.f Zopyrus, the Thracian, is men- 
tioned as one of his instructors. (Plat. Ate. i. 
p. 122.) From his very ^yhood he ejihibited 
signs of that inflexible detenuiuation which nuirk- 
ed him throughout life. 

He was at every period of his life remarkable for 
the extraordinary beauty of his person, of which he 
seems to have been exceedingly vain. Even when 
on military ser^'ice he carried a shield inlaid with 
gold and ivory, and bearing the device of 2eus 
hurling the thunderbolt. When be grew up, he 
earned a disgraceful notoriety by his amours and 
debaucheries. At the age of 18 he entered uiwn 
the possession of his fortune, which had doubtless 
been carefully husbanded during his long minority 
by his guardians. Connected as he was with the 
most influential families in the city, the inheritor 
of one of the hu-gest fortunes in Athens (to which 
he afterwards received a large accession through 
his marriiige with Hipparete, the daughter of 
Hipponicus:^), gifted with a mind of singular ver- 



ALCIBIADES. 



S9 



* Demosthenes {Mid. p. 561) says, that the 
mother of Alcibiades was the daughter of Hippo- 
nicus, and that his father was connected with the 
Alcmaeoniilae. The latter statement may possibly 
be true. But it is difficult to explain the fonner, 
unless we suppose Demosthenes to have confounded 
the great Alcibuides with his son. 

+ Agariste, the mother of Pericles and Ariphon, 
was the daughter of Hippocrates, whose brother 
Cleisthenes was the grandfather of Deinouiache. 
(Herod, vi. 131; Isocr. De Biq. 10; Boeckh, 
Explic. ad Pind. Pylh. vii. p. 302!) 

+ He received a portion of 10 talents with his 
wife, which was to be doubled on the birth of a 



satility and energy, possessed of great powers of 
eloquence, and urged on by an ambition which no 
obstacle could daunt, and which wa« not over 
scrupulous as to the means by which its ends were 
to be gained, — in a city like Athena, amongst a 
people like the Athenians, (of the leading featorea 
of whose character he may not unaptly be legarded 
as an impersonation,) and in times like those 
of the Peloponnesian war, Alcibiades found a field 
ungularly well adapted for the exercise and display 
of his brilliant powers. Accuitomed, however, 
from his boyhood to the flattery of admiring com- 
panions and needy parasite*, he early imbibed that 
inordinate vanity and love of distinction, which 
marked his whole career ; and he was thus led to 
place the most perfect confidence in his own powers 
long before he had obtained strength of mind 
sufficient to withstand the seductive influence of 
the temptations which surrounded him. Sociatea 
saw his vast capabilities, and attempted ts win 
him to the paths of virtue. Their intimacjr 
was strengthened by mutual ser^'ices. In one of 
the engagements before Potidaea, Alcibiades was 
dangerously wounded, but was rescued by So- 
crates. At the battle of Delium (& c 424), Al- 
cibiades, who was mounted, had an opportunity of 
protecting Socrates from the pursuers. (Plat. 
Conrw. pp. 220, 221 ; Isocr. De Big. 12.) The 
lessons of the philosopher were not altogether 
without influence upon his pupil, but the evil ten- 
dencies of his character had taken too deep root to 
render a thoroogh reformation poaaible, and hs 
listened more re^lilv to thoM who advised him to 
secure by the readieal neani the gratification of 
his desires. 

Alcibiades was exoetsirely fond of notoriety and 
display. At the Olympic games (probably in 01. 
89, B. c. 424) he contended with seTen chariots 
in the sane nwe, and gained the first, second, and 
fourth prises. His liberality in discharging the 
office of trierarch, and in providing fur the public 
amusements, rendered him very popular with the 
multitude, who were ever ready to excvae, on ths 
score of youthful impetuosity and tboughtlraiaim, 
his most violent and extrava^at acts, into which 
he was probably as often le4 by his love of noto- 
riety as by any other motive. Accounts of various 
instaitces of this kind, as W» forcible detention of 
.\gatharchus, his violence to his wife Hipparete, 
his assault upon Taureas, and the audacious man- 
ner in which he saved Hegemon from a lawsuit, 
by openly obliterating the record, are given by 
Plutarch, Audocides, and Athenaeus. (ix. p. 407.) 
Even the more prudent citizens thought it safer to 
connive at his delinquencies, than to exasperate 
him by punishment As Aeschylus is made to 
say by Aristophanes {Froge, 1427), "A lion's 
whelp ought not to be reared in a city ; but if a 
person rears one, he must let him have his way." 
Of the early political life of Alcibiades we hear 
but little. While Cleon was alive he probably 
appeared but seldom in the assembly. From allu- 
sions which were contained in the AorroAtTj of 
Aristophanes (acted a c. 427) it appears that he 
had already spoken there. (For the story con- 
nected with his first appearance in the assembly, 
see Plutarch, AlcUi. 10.) At some period or other 



son, . His marriage took place before the battle of 
Delium (b. c. 424), in which Hipponicus waa 
slain. (Andoc Alab. p. 30.) 

u2 



100 



Aix:iniAi)BS. 



before B. c, 420, ho hiul tarriod a decree for in- 
crcUMing the trilxitu |>ui(l liy the »ubj<-L-t uilic* of 
AtlicriH, uiid by hi* nuuuigviiieiit it wtu raiM-d to 
doiililc; the uiiioiiiit fix«d by Amteidet. Aft<-r th<! 
ddatli of Cli-oii there wm no rival able at all to 
C4)|Mt witli Ali-ibiiidcit ex('<-pt Nicium To the politi- 
Cii! v'ww* of thi! latter, who wa» niixioti* for )ieacu 
and rc|>oH<! mid hvitko to all plunii of foreign coii- 
qilcKtH, Akiliiudcn wiim coinpli-tcly opmiitcd, and hi* 
jt'iiliiUKy of the inlliii'nco and lii^h chanicti-r of hi* 
rival, led hini to cnttTtiiiii a very cordijil diMJiki; 
towards him. On ono occakion only do wr find 
tlicni united in piirpoHU and ft'elin^;, and that wiu 
when IIyperbolu« threaU^uud one of them with 
baniHhmpiit. On this they united their influence, 
and llyperbolus himnolf wa* ottraciaed. The d«te 
uf thin occurrence in uncertain. 

Alcibiades had been deHirou« of rcnewin(( thote 
ties of honpitality by which his family had been 
connected with 8j)artit, but which hod been broken 
olV by his ^nindfather. With this view he Tied 
with Nicias in his good offices towards the Spartan 
prisoners t4ikcn in Sphacteria ; but in the negotia- 
tions which ended in the peace of 4-1, the Spartans 
preferred employing the intervention of Nicias 
iind Laches. Incensed at this slight, Alcibiades 
threw all his inHuence into the oppoeite icale, and 
in u.r.. 4*20, after tricking the Spartan onibaMador* 
who had come for the purpose of thwarting his 
])lanH, brought about an alliance with Argos, Klis, 
and Mantineia. In 419 he was chosen Strategos, 
and at the head of a small Athenian force marched 
into Peloponnesus, and in various ways furthered 
the interest* of the new confederacy. During the 
next three years he took a prominent part in the 
complicated negotiations and military operations 
which were carried on. Whether or not he was 
the instigator of the unjust expedition against the 
Melians is not clear ; but he was at any rate the 
author of the decree for their barbarous punish- 
ment, and himself purchased a Melian woman, by 
whom he had a son. 

In B. c. 41.5 Alcibiades appears as the foremost 
among the advocates of the Sicilian expedition 
(Thuc. vi.), which his ambition led him to believe 
would be a step towards the conquest of Italy, 
Carthage, and the Peloponnesus. (Thuc vL 90.) 
While the preparations for the expedition were 
going on, there occurred the mysterious mutilation 
of the Hennes-busts. A man named Pythonicus 
charged Alcibiades with having divulged and pro- 
faned the Eleusinian mysteries ; and another man, 
Androcles, endeavoured to connect this and similar 
otfences with the mutilation of the Hermae. In 
spite of his demands for an investigation, Alci- 
biades was sent out with Nicias and Lamachus in 
command of the fleet, but was recalled before he 
could carry out the plan of operations which at his 
suggestion had been adopted, namely, to endeavour 
to win over the Greek towns in Sicily, except 
Syracuse and Seliuus, and excite the native Sicels 
to revolt, and then attack Syracuse. He was 
allowed to accompany the Salaminia in his own 
galley, but managed to escape at Thurii, from 
which place he crossed over to Cyllene, and thence 
proceeded to Sparta at the invitation of the 
Spartan government. He now appeared as the 
avowed enemy of his countrj' ; disclosed to the 
Spartans the plans of the Athenians, and recom- 
mended them to send Gylippus to Syracuse, and 
to fortify Deceleia. (Thuc. vi. 88, &c., viL 18, 



ALCIDIADB& 

27,28.) Before he left Sicfly W ba< ■!■ igi I to 
defeat a pUin which had bw« kid far tlM tnid' 
tion of MinMM, At AlkMM wtww tt Imik 
woa paaeed iipMi Ua, Ua jmiy w tj tmtimatait Md 
a cune pronouneed apea kia bv tha aWalan af 
religion. At Sparta tie reodefM bJMialf rtpilar 
by the facility with which be adopted the ni^rlaii 
mjuineri. Through hia inafwaataHty may af 
the Aiiiatic ulliea eif Atkana wan iadaaad t« ratralt, 

and an ;>" ^ brought abaal witb Titm- 

phernes ( : vc); bot the MMUMrtiaM of 

liik enemy , II. J indofisd Ua to ahasdaa 

the Spurtuns and take refuge with TiMapharaaa 
(li. c 412), whuM favour he mmm gained by Ua 
unriraUed tolenta for ■odal intenaaiaai Tba 
ettranfamant af Tiaaphimaa ftaa hi» SpitMi 
alliea enaned Alcibiadaa, tha anaay af ^wt^ 
wished to return to Atbamu Ha 
ly entered into correapondaiiea with tha 
influential penons in the Athaniaa fleet at i 
offering to bring over Tinaphtmai to aa ^mf>t^ 
with Athena, bat aakintf it a paadilian. that oli- 
garchy •hoald ba aatebllahad thaca. TUa eoiacid- 
ing with tha wiahaa of tihaaa whh whaa ha waa 
negotiating, tboaa poiitieal awvaaenta wen eat on 
foot by PeiModer, which eodad (■. c. 41 1) b tha 
ettabliahmennt of the Poor Uundied. The ett- 

rha, however, finding he eoold not parftwa 
promiaet with respect to TianhaiBaai aad 
conicioua that he bad at heart no raal lildag f» aa 
oligarchy, would not recall him. Bat tha ae l di e r a 
in the armament at Samoa, headed by Thraajbulua 
and Thraayllua, decbued their reaolutirm to restore 
democracy, and paaeed a vote, by V, idea 

waa pardoned and recalled, and - of 

their generala. He conferred an import. . 
on his country, by reatraining the aol<: 
returning at once to Athena and ao cnn: 
civil war; and in the course of tb 
oligarchy was overthrown without i 
Alcibiades and the other exilea were recalled, Lut 
for the next four yeara he remained abroad, and 
under his command the Atbeniana gained the vic- 
tories of Cynoasema, Abydoa,* and Cycicua, and 
got possession of Chalcedon and Byzantium. In 
B. c 407, he returned to Athena, where he waa 
received with great enthusiasm. The recorda of 
the proceedings ogainat him were aunk in the aea, 
his property waa restored, the priesta were ordered 
to recant their curses, and he waa appointed com- 
mander-in-chief of all the land and sea forcea. 
(Diod. xiiL 69; Plat. Ale 33; Xen. JM. i. 4. 
§ 13 — 20.) He signalised his return by conduct- 
ing the m^'stic procession to Eleusis, which liad 
been interrupted since the occupation of Deceleia. 
But his unsuccessful expedition against Andros 
and the defeat at Notium, occasioned during his 
absence by the imprudence of his lieutenant, An- 
tiochus, who brought on an engagement against his 
orders, furnished his enemies with a handle against 
him, and be was superseded in his command. 
(b. c. 406.) 

Thinking that Athens would scarcely be a safe 
place for him, Alcibiades went into voluntary exile 



* Shortly after the victory at Abydos, Alci- 
biades paid a visit to Tissaphemes, who had ar- 
rived in the neighbourhood of the Hellespont, but 
was arrested by him and sent to Sardis. After a 
month's imprisonment, however, he succeeded in 
making his escape, (Xen. Heilen. L 1. § 9.) 



ALCIDAMAS. 

to his fortified domain at Bisanthe in the Thracian 
Chersonesus. He collected a band of mercenaries, 
and made war on the neighbouring Thracian 
tribes, by which means he considerably enriched 
himself, and afforded protection to the neighbour- 
ing Greek cities. Before the fatal battle of Aegos- 
Potami(B. c. 405), he gave an inetfectual warning to 
the Athenian generals. After the establishment 
of the tyranny of the Thirty (b. c. 404), he was 
condemned to banishment. Upon this he took 
refuge with Phamabazus, and was about to pro- 
ceed to the court of Artaxerxes, when one night 
his house was surrounded by a band of armed men, 
and set on fire. He rushed oat sword in hand, 
but fell, pierced with arrows, (b. c. 404.) Ac- 
cording to Diodorus and Ephorus (Diod. x'u. 11) 
the assfissins were emissaries of Phamabazus, who 
had been led to this step either by his own jealousy 
of Alcibiades, or by the instigation of the 8]«rtans. 
It is more probable that they were either employed 
by the Spartans, or (according to one account in 
Plutarch) by the brothers of a lady whom Alci- 
biades had seduced. His corpse was taken up 
and buried by his mistress Timandra. Athenaeus 
(xiii. p. 574) mentions a monument erected to his 
memory at Melissa, the place of his death, and a 
statue of him erected thereon by the emperor 
Hadrian, who also instituted cerUiin yearly sacri- 
fices in bis honour. He left a son by his wife 
Hipparete, named Alcibiades, who never distin- 
guished liimself. It was for him that Isocrates 
wrote the speech tltpl tou Ztv^'ovT. Two of 
Lysias's speeches (xiv. and xv.) are dinjcted 
against him. The fortune which he left behind 
him turned out to be smaller than his patrimony. 
(Plut. Alcib. and Nicitu; Thucyd. lib. v. — viiL; 
Xenophon, I/ellett. lib. i. ii. ; Andoc in Atcib. and 
deMyster.; laocT. Ik Hii/u ; Nepos, ^/«A.,- Diod. 
xii. 78—84, xiii. '2—5, 37—41, 45, 4b', 49—51, 
64—73 ; Athen. i. p. 3, iv. p. 184, v. pp. 215, 216, 
ix. p. 407, X). p. 506, xiL pp. 525, 534, 535, xiii. 
pp. 574, 575.) [C. P. M.] 

ALCIBI'ADES {'AXKtguiSrts), a Spartan exile, 
was restored to his country about B. c. 184, by the 
Achaeans, but was ungrateful enough to go as am- 
bassjidor from Sparta to Rome, in order to accuse 
Philopoemen and the Achaeans. (Polyb. xxiiL 4, 
11, 12, xxiv. 4; Liv. xxxix. 35.) 

ALCI'DAMAS ('AAjciSoMas), a Gr«ek rheto- 
rician, was a niitive of Elaea in Aeolis, in Asia 
Minor. (Quintil. iii. l.§ 10, with Spalding's Lote.) 
He was a pupil of Gorgias, and residetl at Athens 
between the years B.C. 432 and 411. Here he 
gave instructions in eloquence, according to Eudo- 
cia (p. 100), as the successor of his master, and 
was the last of that sophistical school, with which 
the only object of eloquence was to please the 
hearers Itty the pomp and brilliancy of words. That 
the works of Alcidamas bore the strongest marks 
of this character of his school is stated by Aris- 
totle {^Rhet. iiL 3. § 8), who censures his pompous 
diction and extravagant use of poetical epithets and 
phrases, and by Dionysius (/iu Isaeo, 19), who 
calls his style vulgar and inflated. He is said to 
have been an opponent of Isocrates (Tzetz. Chil. 
xi. 672), but whether this statement refers to real 
personal enmity, or whether it is merely an infer- 
ence from the fiict, that Alcidamas condemned the 
practice of writing orations for the purpose of deli- 
vering them, is uncertain. 

The ancients mention several works of Alcida- 



ALCIM.\CHUS. 



101 



mas, such as an Eulogy on Death, in which he 
enumerated the evils of human life, and of which 
Cicero seems to speak with great praise ( Tax. i. 
48) ; a shew-speech, called Kiyoi Vlt<T<n)vi.(XK6i 
(Aristot. HKet. i. 13. § 5) ; a work on music (Sui- 
das, «. r. 'KKKiiafiai) ; and some scientific works, 
viz. one on rhetoric {jix*^ AT''of>«<n), V\\iX. Demosth. 
5), and another called \6yot <f>uffiK6s (Diog. Laert. 
riii. 56) ; but all of thera are now lost. Tzetze» 
(Cftil. xi. 752) liad still before him several oration* 
of Alcidamas, but we now possess only two decla- 
mations which go under his name. 1. 'OSvaatvSj 
^ Kara XlaXafivSovs ■wpoioaias, in which Odysseu* 
is made to accuse Palamedes of treachery to the 
cause of the Greeks during the siege of Troy. 2. 
wtpl tTo^urriiv, in which the author aets forth the 
advantages of delivering extempore speeches over 
those which have previously been written out. 
These two orations, the second of which is the bet- 
ter one, both in fonn and thought, bear scarcely 
any traces of the iiiults which Aristotle and Dio- 
nysius censure iu the works of Alcidamas ; their 
fault is rather being frigid and insipid. It ha* 
therefore been maintained by several critics, that 
these orations are not the works of Alcidamas; 
and with regard to the first of them, the suppo- 
sition is supported by strong probability ; the se- 
cond may have been written by Alcidamas with a 
view to counteract the kitiuence of Isocrates. The 
first editien of them is that in the collection of 
Greek orators published by AldiM, Venice, 1513, 
foL The best modem editions are those in Reiske'* 
Oratore* Graeci, voL viiL p^ 64, iu. ; and in 
Bekker's Oratore$ Attui, vol. vii. (Oxford.) [L.S.J 
A'LCIDAS ('AAjttJat), was appointed, a. c 
428, commander of the Pelopannesiau tleet, which 
was sent to Lesbos for the relief of Mytilene, then 
besieged by the Athonkna. Bat Mytileas war- 
rendered to the AthwiiiM WTMi 4»p bate* tha 
Peloponnesian fleet arrived on the eoaat of Asia } 
and Alcidas, who, like most of the Spartan com- 
manders, had little enterprise, resolved to return 
home, although he was Tecaminended either to at- 
tempt the recovery of MytUene or to make a de- 
scent upon the looiaa coast While sailing along 
the coast, he c^itared nury TOMela, and put to death 
all the Athenian aBiea wbon he todu From Epheaos 
he sailed home with the utmost speed, being chased 
by the Athenian fleet, under Packet, as&r as Patmoa. 
(Thuc. iii. 16, 26 — 33.) After receiving reinforce- 
ments, Alcidas sailed to Coreyra, b. c. 427 ; and 
when the Athenians and Corcj-raeans sailed out to 
meet him, he defeated them and drove them back 
to the island. With his habitual caution, how- 
ever, he would Hot follow up the advantage he had 
gained ; and being informed that a large Athenian 
fleet was approaching, he sailed back to Pelopon- 
nesus, (iii. 69 — 81.) In b. c. 426, he was one 
of the leaders of the colcmy founded by the Lace- 
daemonians at Heracleia, near Thermopylae, (iii. 
92.) 

ALCI'DICE (*AA/ti«iKTi), the daughter of Aleua, 
and wife of Salmoneus, by whom she had a daugh- 
ter. Tyro. Alcidice died eariy, and Salmoneus 
afterwards married Sidero. (Diod- iv. 68 ; Apol- 
lod. i. 9. § 8.) [L. S.J 

ALCI'MACHUS, a painter mentioned by 
Pliny. (//. N. xxxt. 11. b. 40.) He is not 
spoken of by any other writer, and all that is 
known about him is, that he painted a picture of 
Dioxippus, a victor iu the pancratium at Olympia* 



102 



ALCIMU8. 



Dioxippu* lived in the time of Alexander the 
(Jreat. (Atliiin, K. //. x. l'-* ; Diod. xvii. lOO; 
Athen. vi. p. 'J.M, a.) Alcimachu* therefure pro- 
bably lived itliout the lame time. [C. 1'. M.] 

ALCl'MKDK ('AA/r</ui«r»), a dmisihter of Phy- 
liiciiHaiid t'iyracne, the daujfhter of Minyan. (A[M)i- 
luii. Uhud. i. 4.5 ; Schoi. ad toe mid wl i. '2'.W.) 
She married Aeson, by whom the iK-came tlie 
mother of Ja«<in (Ov. I/eroid. iv. lOS ; Hygin. 
J-'a/t. j.'iand 14), who, however, it called by othen 
a Kon (if Tolyinede, Anie, or Scaipbe. (ApoUod. i. 
U. § H ; coiii|). Aksun, J anon.) [I.. 8.] 

ALCI'MKIXJN ('A\KifUiuv). 1. An Area- 
dian hero, from whom the Arcadian plain Alcimc- 
don derived it* name. Ilu wax tiio father of 
I'hillo, by whom Heracles liegot a ton, Aechni»- 
goraH, whom Alcimedun exposed, but Ileracle* 
saved. (I'aus. viii. 12. tj 2.) [Akcumaooras.] 

2. One of the Tyrrhimian sailors, who wantad 
to carry otf the iiifaut Uionysus from Naxos, but 
waR metiunorphoHod, with his eoni|ianions, into a 
dolphiji. (Ov. Met. iii. 618 ; Hygin. Fab. 134 ; 
comp. Acuktkk) 

^3. A son of Laerceoa, and Mie of the comman- 
ders of the Myrmidons under Pmtnclus. (Ilom. //. 
xvi. 197, xvii, 475, &c) IL. S.] 

ALCI'MEDON, an embosser or chaaar, ipokeB 
of by Virgil (/iWoy. iii. 37, 44), who aentiona 
some goblets of his workmanKhip. [C. P. M.] 

ALCI'MENES ('AA«ifi«KT}i). 1. A son of 
OInucus, who wiu unintentionally killed by his 
brother Hellerophon. According to some tradi- 
tions this brother of Ikllerophon waa called Deli- 
ades, or Peiren. (ApoUod. ii. 3. § 1.) 

2. One of the sons of Jason and Medeia. When 
Jason Bubsciiuently wanted to marry Glauce, his 
sons Alcimenes and Tisander were murdered by 
Mcdcia, and were afterwards buned by Jason in 
the sanctimry of Hera at CorintL (Diod. iv. 54, 
55.) [L. S.] 

ALCI'MENESCAAKi/n^rrji), an Athenian comic 
poet, apparently a contemporary of Aeacbylas. 
One of his pieces is supposed to have been the 
KoKvfiSwacu (the female Swimmers). His works 
were greatly admired by Tynnichus, a younger 
contemporary of Aeschylus. 

There was a tragic writer of the same name, a 
native of Megara, mentioned by Suidas. (Meineke, 
Hist. Cnt. Comworum Graec. p. 481 ; Suid. s. r. 
'A\KifjJirrii and 'A.KKfidy ) [C. P. M.] 

A'LCIMUS ("AAKi/ioy), also called Jacimus, or 
Joachim ['loKftnos), one of the Jewish priests, who 
espoused the Syrian cause. He was made high 
priest by Demetrius, about b. c. 161, and was in- 
stalled in his oftice by the help of a Syrian army. 
In consequence of his cruelties he was expelled by 
the Jews, and obliged to fly to Antioch, but waa 
restored by the help of another Syrian army. He 
continued in his oftice, under the protection of the 
Syrians, till his death, which happened suddenly 
(b. c. 159) while he was pulling down the wall of 
the temple that divided the court of the Gentiles 
from that of the Israelites. (Joseph. Ant. Jud. xii. 
9. § 7 ; 1 Maccah. vii. ix.) 

A'LCIMUS ('AA.K1/X0S), a Greek rhetorician 
whom Diogenes Laertius (iL 114) calls the most 
distinguished of all Greek rhetoricians, flourished 
about B. c. 300. It is not certain whether he is 
the same as the Alcimus to whom Diogenes in 
another passage (iii. 9) ascribes a work TTf/ds 'Afwv- 
rav. Athenaeus in several places speaks of a Si- 



ALCIN0U8. 

cilian Alcimns, who app*«rs to k>«* baaa th* 
author of a great hist^itical work, parU af vUck 
are referred M uadar tka MUMa ai 'Ira^mi tmA 
liKtXiKi. EM wbadMT W WM Um mtm m tU 
rhetorician AlciiiMia«CMn"<>( *- «>"t*rm«ii«l ^Atk«au 
X. p.441, xii. p. 51H, | 

A'LCIMUS (AVI . . lU 

writer of seven short p<M m* iii iliv IjkUu i mt huJo g y, 
whom Wemsdorf has khewu (t'oi't. LaL Mim, voL 
vi. p. 2(j, ^ th« sHnajpanoa i 

the rhetor taiik,ia umI, vWki^ 

of in U-nui .. ...... , . uisa by Sidonina AnoUuiaria, 

{KpUt. viii. 11, V. 10,) and Au»'' . I'l-m. 

Hurdutal. n.) His date is detent 'nr-r*. 

nymtis in his Cbronicon, who says tkil .VlomM 
and l>elpludius taught in Aquitaiiia in A.i». 360. 
His poema ara anpoior to moat cf kia Imm. 
Thejr are pnntad %j Miiar, ia Ua •^Antliokfk 
Utina,** ep. 2A4^-.360, aad bj Wenaddri; v«L fi 
p. 194, &c 

ALCl'NOUS CAAxIroot). 1. A son of Nm- 
sithoas, and grandson of Poaetdon. Hia naae ia 
celebrated in the story of the Argoaaata, and atiM 
mon IB that of tha waadaringa Si Odyaaaa a . Ia 
the ((BroMr Aldaoaa ia fipMaalad aa Urii^ wMi 
y^M q aa an Anta ia tha idaad of Urapaaa. Tha 
Argoiwata, on their return from Cokhia, caaM ta 
hia iafauid, and were moat hospitably received. 
When the Colchians, in their pursoit of the Ana- 
nauta, likewise arrived in Drepane, and ilfannad 
that Madeia ahaold ba delivond as t« thaa^ Aki- 
noua dadand that if aha ma atiB a naidaa aha 
should ba reatotad to thaai, bat if aha waa already 
the wiiiB of Jaaon, he would protect her and her 
husband againat the Cokhians. The Cokhians were 
obliged, by the contrivance of Arete, to depart with- 
out their princeaa, and the Argonauts continued 
their voyage homewards, after they had received 
munificeot presents from Alcinous. (Apollon. Rhod. 
iv. 990-1225 ; Orph. Aryun. 1288, Ac ; ApoUod. 
i. 9. § 25, 26.) According to Homer, Akinoaa ia 
the happy ruler of the Phaeactans in the ialaad ti 
Scheria, who has by Arete five sons and one daugh- 
ter, Nausicaa. (Orf. vL 12, &c, 62, &c.) Tha 
description of his palace and hjs dofniniooa, tha 
mode in which Odysseus is received, tha enter- 
tainments given to him, and the stories he related 
to the king about his own wanderings, occupy a 
considerable portion of the Odyssey (from book vi. 
to xiii.), and form one of its most charming parta. 
(Comp. Hygin. Fab. 125 and 126.) 

2. A son of Hippothoon, who, in conjunction 
with his father and eleven brothers, expelled Ica- 
rion and Tyndareus from Lacedaemon, but waa 
afterwards killed, with his father and brothers, by 
Heracles. (ApoUod. iii. 10. §5.) [L. S.] 

A'LCINOUS ("AAicjVouj), a Platonic philoso- 
pher, who probably lived under the Caesars. No- 
thing is known of his personal history, but a work 
entitled 'Etito/x^ roiv TIXcltuvos hor/ijArttv, con- 
taining an analysis of the Platonic philosophy, as 
it was set forth by late writers, has been preserved, 
The treatise is written rather in the manner of 
Aristotle than of Plato, and the author has not 
hesitated to introduce any of the views of other 
philosophers which seemed to add to the complete- 
ness of the system. Thus the parts of the syUo- 
gism (c. 6), the doctrine of the mean and of the 
ef«iy and ivffjyuai (c. 2. 8), are attributed to 
Plato ; as well as the division of philosophy which 
was common to the Peripatetics and Stoics. It 



ALCIPHRON. 

was impossible from the writings of Plato to get a 
system complete in its parts, and hence the temp- 
tation of later writers, who sought for system, to 
join Plato and Aristotle, without perceiving the 
inconsistency of the union, while everj-thing which 
suited their purpose was fearlessly ascribed to the 
founder of their own sect. In the treatise of 
Alcinous, however, there are still traces of the spi- 
rit of Plato, however low an idea he gives of his 
own philosophical talent. He held the world and 
its animating soul to be eternal. This soul of the 
universe (ij i^/fx^ toO ndatiov) was not created by 
God, but, to use the image of Alcinous, it was 
awakened by him as from a profound sleep, and 
turned towards himself, "tluit it might look out 
upon intellectual things (c. 14) and receive forms 
and ideas from the divine mind." It was the first 
of a succession of intermediate beings between (jod 
and man, 'J'he ihian proceeded immediately from 
the mind of (Jod, and were the highest object of 
our intellect; the "form" of matter, the types of 
sensible things, having a real being in themselves, 
(c. 9.) He differed from the earlier Platouists in 
confining the iiiai to general laws : it seemed an 
unworthy notion that God could conceive an iiia 
of things artificial or unnatural, or of individuals 
or particulars, or of any thing relative. He seems 
to have aimed at hamionizing the views of Plato 
and Aristotle on the iZiai, as he distinguished 
them from the *t5»), forms of things, which he al- 
lowed were insepojable ; a view which seems ne- 
cessarily connected with the doctrine of the eternity 
and self-existence of matter. God, the first foun- 
tain of the (Sf'ai, could not be known as h« b : it 
is but a faint notion of him we obtain from negSr 
tious and analogies : his miture is equally beyond 
our power of expression or conception, lielow him 
are a series of beings (Sai/tiovfs) who superintend 
the production of all living things, and hold inter- 
course with men. The human soul passes through 
various transmigrations, thus connecting the series 
with the lower classes of being, until it is finally 
purified and rendered acceptable to (Jod. It will 
be seen that his system was a compound of I'lato 
and Aristotle, with some parts borrowed from the 
east, and perhaps derived from a study of the 
Pythagorean system. (Hitter, Ge^kicItU der Fkilv 
so})hie, iv. p. 24y.) 

Alcinous first appeared in th« Latin version of 
Pietro IJjilbi, which was published at Rome with 
Apuleius, 14(iJ), fol. The (ireek text was printed 
in the Aldine edition of Apuleius, 15"21, 8vo. 
Another edition is that of Fell, Oxford, 1667. 
The best is by J. F. Fischer, Leipzig, 1783, 8vo. 
It was translated into French by J. J. Combe»- 
Dounous, Paris, 1800, 8vo., and into English by 
Stanley in his Historj- of Philosophy. [B. J.] 

ALCIPHKUN {'k\Kl<ppuv), a Greek sophist, 
and the most eminent among the Greek epistolo- 
graphers. Respecting his life or the age in which 
he lived we possess no direct information what- 
ever. Some of the earlier critics, as La Croze and 
J. C. Wolfy placed him, without any plausible 
reason, in the fifth century of our aera. Bergler, 
and others who followed him, placed Alciphron 
in the period between Lucian and Aristaenetus, 
that is, between a.d. 170 and 350, while others 
again assign to him a date even earlier than the 
time of Lucian. The only circumstance that 
suggests anything respecting his age is the fact, 
that aiuong the letters of Aristaenetus there are 



ALCIPPE. 



103 



two (u 5 and 22) between Lucian and Alciphron ; 
now as Aristaenetus is nowhere guilty of any great 
historical inaccuracy, we may safely infer that 
Alciphron was a contemporary of Lucian — an infe- 
rence which is not incompatible with the opinion, 
whether true or false, that Alciphron imitated 
Lucian. 

We possess under the name of Alciphron 116 
fictitious letters, in 3 books, the object of which 
is to delineate the characters of certain classes of 
men, by introducing them as expressing their pe- 
culiar fcenliraents and opinions upon subjects with 
which they were iamiliar. The classes of person* 
which Alciphron chose for this purpose are fisher- 
men, country people, panaitea, and ketaenw or 
Athenian courtenaik All an Bade to exptcM 
their sentiments in the Bioat graeefoi and elegant 
language, even where the subjecta are of a low 
or obscene kind. The characten are thus some- 
what raised above their common standard, without 
any great violation of the truth of reality. The 
form of these letters ia ezquiaitely beautiful, and 
the language is the pan Attic dialect, such as it 
was spoken in the beat timea b fiuniliar but re- 
fined conversation at Athens. The scene from 
which the letters are dated is, with a few excejv 
tions, Athens and its vicmtty ; and the tinit-. 
ever it is disceniible, is the period after th' 
of Alexander tke Oiati. The new Attic cui:it<iy 
was the prineipal aoone bom which the author de- 
rived his infonouUion respectinf the characters and 
manners which he describes, and fur this reason 
these letters contain muvh valuable iiifurmatiou 
about the private life of the AthwiisBa of that tioM. 
It haa beat aaid, that Akiphna ia aa iaiMar ot 
Lucian ; but baaidta tka itTK aad, ia a fcv in- 
stances, the aal^aet mtlar, ttaaa ia aa wae»Mawca 
between the twa wiilara: tha spirit ia whidi tha 
two treat their subjecU ia totally different Doth 
derived their materials froai the same sources, and 
in style both aimed at the gnateat periactioii of the 
genuine Attic Greek. Be^jiav haa traly nnaiked, 
that Alciphron ataada ia tha taaM Mlatiaa to Me- 
nander as LacJia ta AriatnylnBaa Tka first edi- 
tion of Alciphiaa'a lettera ia Qmt of Aldaa, in his 
collection of the Greek Epiatolographers, Venice, 
I49i^, 4toi. This edition, hewever, oontains only 
those letten which, in more Biodem editions form 
the first two books. Sevent3r-two new letters were 
added from a \'ienna and a Vatican MS. by Bergler, 
in his edition (Leipzig, 1715, 8vo.) with notes and 
a Latin translation. These seventy-two epistles 
form the third book in Bergler 's edition. J. A. 
Wagner, in his edition (Leipzig, 1798, 2 vols, 8vo., 
with the notes of Beigler), added two new letters 
entire, and fragaiaita of five others. Gne long 
letter, which has not jti been pubHshed entire, 
exisu in several Paris MSS. [L. S.] 

ALCIPPE {'AXKi-nrn). 1. A daughter of 
Ares and Agraulos, the daughter of Cecrops. Ha- 
lirrhothius, the son of Poseidon, intended to violate 
her, but was surprised by Ares, and killed, for 
which Poseidon bore a grudge against Ares. (Paus. 
i. 21. § 7 ; ApoUod. iii. 14. § 2.) 

2. A maiden, who was dishonoured by her own 
brother, Astraeus, unwittingly. When Astraeus 
became aware of his deed, he threw himself into a 
river, which received from him the name of Astrae- 
us, but was afterw'ards called Caicus. (Plut JUe 
Fiur.2\.) 

Other personages of this name are mentioned in 



101 



ALCMAFCON 



AliCMAEON. 



Apollotl. iii. irj. §»; Diod. iv.lG; KuntMh. ad Him. 
1). 77»i; lloiii. 0(/. iv. 124. [Au.vosidkh.] [I..S.] 
AI.CIS ('AAkit), tliiit i», the .Slrimj{. 1. A 
■unminc uf AthHtiii,iiii(lt;r which »hc wiu worthip 
peiJ in Miici'ilonia. (Liv. xlii. .11.) 

2. A deity among the Naharvali, an anci'-nt 
Gennan tribe. (Tacit. Germ. 4.'J.) Oriinin {Deul- 
ikIis Afi/tho/, ]t. ;J9) coHKidcrs Alci« in the |)iw»aj,'o 
of Tacitus to be the j^enitivi; of Alx, which, ac- 
cording to him, lignihci a lacred grove, and ii 
conncctod with the (ireek iKffot. Another Alcii 
occurH in Apollodorun, ii. 1. § 5. [L. S.] 

AL/CI'STHKNK, a fi-raaic paint^'r spoken of by 
Pliny (//. iV. XXXV. 1 1. g. 40), who mention* one 
of her picturo« reprcnentiiig a dancer. [C. P. M.J 
ALCITHOK. [Au:athok.J 
A'liClTiniS ("AAxidot), M-nt aa ambaMMlor by 
the Achaeani to Ptolemy Philometor, B.C. 169, 
when they heard that the An(uJei«ria (tee Diet. <f 
Ant. (.V.) were to be celebrated in hi* konoar. 
(Polyb. xxviii. 10, 16.) 

ALCMAKON ('AAw^fwf), a »on of Amphia- 
rauR and Kriphyle, and brother of Amphilochui, 
Kurydice, and DemomtMa. (Apollod. iii. 7. S '-^'j 
lliH mother wai indsced by the neckUc« of Har- 
monia, which the racoived from Polyneicet, to p«r^ 
Buade her husband Amphiaraus to take port in the 
expedition against Thebes. (Horn. Od. xt. 'J47, 
&c.) But Ixifore Amphioroas set out, ho enjoined 
bit sons to kill their mother as soon as they should 
bo grown up. (Apollod. iii. 6. 8 2 ; Hygin. Fall. 
73.) When the Kpigoni prepared for a second 
expedition against Thebes, to avenge the death of 
their fathers, the oracle promised them success and 
victory, if they chose Alcmacon their leader. He 
was at first disinclined to undertake the command, 
as he had not yet taken vengeance on his mother, 
according to the desiiro of bis father. But she, 
who had now received from Thersander, the son 
of Polyneices, the peplua of llanuonia also, in- 
duced him to join the expedition. Alcmaeon dis- 
tinguished himself greatly in it, and slew Laoda- 
mus, the son of Eteocles. (Apollod. iii. 7. § 2, &c. ; 
comp. Diod. iv. 66.) When, after the fall of 
Thebes, he learnt the reason for which his mother 
had urged him on to take part in the expedition, 
he slew her on the advice of an oracle of Apollo, 
and, according to some traditions, in conjunction 
with his brother Aniphilochus. For this deed he 
became mad, and was haunted by the Erinnyea. He 
first came to Oicleus in Arcadia, and thence went 
to Phegeus in Psophis, and being purified by the 
latter, he married his daughter Arsinoe or Alphe- 
siboea (Paua. viii. 24. § 4), to whom he gave the 
necklace and peplus of Harmonia. But the coun- 
try in which he now resided was visited by scar- 
city, in consequence of his being the murderer of 
his mother, and the oracle advised him to go to 
Achelous. According to Pausanias, he left Psophis 
because his madness did not yet cease. Pausanias 
and Thucydides (ii. 102 ; coinp. Plut De Exil. p. 
602) further state, that the oracle commanded 
him to go to a country which had been formed 
subsequent to the nmrder of his mother, and was 
therefore under no curse. The country thus point- 
ed out was a tract of land which had been recently 
formed at the mouth of the river Achelous. Apol- 
lodorus agrees with this account, but gives a de- 
tailed history of Alcmaeon's wanderings until he 
reached the mouth of Achelous, who gave him his 
daughter Calirrhoe in marriage. Calirrhoe had a 



desire to pOMMtth* iMiriiliw nd pepku of Hai^ 
monio, and AienMoo, to fntify Mr wiah, went to 
i'wiphia to get thMB frMi PWfMHt mimt tiM !«•> 
text that ha iatrnkUd t» iadiwto th«B at IM^ 
in order to be Craed tea kb wmAMmm. PbefMW 
complied with hi* requeat, bat viMn ha bawd dMt 
the treasures were (etcbad Uk Calinbac, ba aaat 
bis wns Praaooa and Afcaar (Apallod. UL 7. |<) 
or, acoardiaf t» PinMaiM (nil 24. | k\1mmmm 
and Axion, aftar Ua, witb tba mmmamk «• UU 
him. This mu dona, bat (ka iMwa<AlaHM«b]r 
Calirrhoe took bloodj vangauoa tX tha tultpiriwi 
of their mother. (Apollod. Pau. U, ee. ; Or. MtC 
ix. 407, &c) 

The itorj abont AkaaaoB faraiahad ridi aarta* 
rials for tka apie and tcafie paata at Oi aaea , aad 
tkair Rooian iinitaton. Bat nana of thaaa poaaM 
ia BOW extant, and we onl^ kaow bom Apollo* 
donu (iii. 7. i 7), that Eunpidea, ia kia tngadjr 
** Alcmaeon," atotad that after the fiUi of Tbebea 
he married Manto, tba daughter of Teireaiaa, aad 
that ba bad two ekildiaa bjr bar, Anphilaehaa aad 
Tisipkoaa, whan ba fava lo Craao, ki^ af Co- 
riatb, to adaata. Tba wib at Craoa, jaaloat af 
tba extraordinary beauty of Tiaipboaa, afterwaida 
•old ber aa a aUve, and AIcbhwob biaaalf bocfht 
her, without knowing that she was bis daogbter. 
(Uiod. iv. 66 ; Paus. viL S. 8 1, ix. 33. f 1.) 
AicBiaaon a&ar his deatb waa wonbippad aa a 
b«ro,aad at Tbabaa ba aaaaa to lanra bad an aliar. 
Bear tb« booaa of Piodar (Pftk. riii. 80, &&), wbo 
calls him bis neighbour and the guardian of bia 
property, and also seems to suggest that propbetic 
powers were ascribed to him, as to his fiuher Aoi- 
phiaraus. At Psophis his tomb was shewn, sur- 
rounded with lofty and sacred cypresses. (Paua. 
viii. 24. § 4.) At Oropus, in Attica, where Am- 
phiaraus and Amphilochos were worshipped, Ale- 
maeon enjoyed no such honours, because be waa a 
matricide. (Paus. L 34. § 2.) He was represented 
in a stiitue at Delphi, and on the chest of Crpae- 
lus. (x. 10. §2, V. 17. §>.) [L.8.] 

ALCMAEON (AAj(/ta(«r), son of the Megaclea 
who was guilty of sacrilege with ntpect to the fol- 
lowers of Cimon, was invited by Croesus to Sardis 
in consequence of the services he had rendered to 
an embassy sent by Croesus to consult the Delphic 
oracle. On his arrival at Sardis, Croesus made 
him a present of as much gold as he could carry 
out of the treasury. Alcmaeon took the king at 
his word, by putting on a most capacious dresa, 
the folds of which (as well as the vacant space of 
a pair of very wide boots, also provided for the 
occasion) he stuffed with gold, and then filled his 
mouth and hair with gold dust. Croesus laughed 
at the trick, and presented him with as much again 
(about 590 B. c). The wealth thus acquired is said 
to have contributed greatly to the subsequent pros- 
perity of the Alcmaeonidae. (Ilerod- vi. 125.) 

Alcmaeon was a breeder of horses for chariot- 
races, and on one occasion gained the prize in a 
chariot-race at Olympia. (Herod. Lc; Isocrates, 
de Biffis, c. 10. p. 351.) We are informed by 
Plutarch (Solon, ell), that he commanded the 
Athenians in the Cirrbaean war, which began 
a c. 600. [P. S.j 

ALCMAEON ('AXKfuuaiv), one of the most 
eminent natural philosophers of antiquity, was a 
native of Crotona in Magna Graecia. His fether's 
name was Pirithus, and he is said to have been a 
pupil of Pythagoras, and must therefore have lived 



ALCMAEON. 

in the latter half of the sixth century before Christ 
(Diog. Laert. viii. 83.) Nothing more is known of the 
events of his life. His most celebrated anatomical 
discover)' has been noticed in the Diet, of Ant. p. 
756", a ; but whether his knowledge in this branch 
of science was derived from the dissection of ani- 
mals or of human bodies, is a disputed question, 
which it is difficult to decide. Chalcidius, on 
whose authority the fdct rests, nierelj' says {Com- 
ment, in Plat. " ZVot." p. 368, ed. Fabr.), " qui 
primus exsectionem aggredi est ausus," and the 
word earsedio would apply equally well to either 
case. He is said also (Diog. Laert. I.e.; Cle- 
mens Alexandr. Strom, i. p. 308) to have ^leen the 
first person who wrote on natural philosophy 
{jpvaiKdv K6yov), and^o have invented fables (/a- 
bulas, Isid. Ori<j. i. 39). He also wrote several 
other medical and philosophical works, of which 
nothing but the titles and a few fragments have 
been preserved by Stobaeus {Edog. I'hys.), Plu- 
tarch {Dti Fhys. ridlos. Deer.), and Galen. {Ilixtor. 
PhUosoph.) A further account of his philosophical 
opinions may be found in Menage's Notes to Dio- 
genes Laertius, viii. 83, p. 387 ; Le Clerc, Hist, de 
la Med. ; Allons. Ciacconius up. Fabrii: BiUioth. 
Graex: vol. xiii. p. 48, ed. vet. ; Sprengel, Hist, de 
la Med. vol. i. p. 239 ; C. G. Kiihn, De PhUosoph. 
ante Hippocr. Medicinae Cultor. Lips. 1781, 4 to., 
reprinted in Ackennann's Opusc. ad Histor. Medic. 
Perti/tentia, Norimb. 1797, 8vo., and in Kiihn's 
Opusc. Acad. Med. et Philol. Lips. 18-27-8, 2 voU. 
8vo. ; Iseuiee, Gesch. der Medicim, [ W. A. O.] 



ALCMAEONIDAE. 



105 



Although Alcmaeon is termed a pupil of Pytha- 
goras, there is great reason to doubt whether he 
was a Pythagorean at all ; his name seems to have 
crept into the lists of supposititious Pythagoreans 
given us by later writers. (Brandis, Geschichte 
der PhUosophie, vol. i. p. 507.) Aristotle (^Mda- 
pliys. A. b) mentions him as nearly contemporary 
with Pythagoras, but distinguishes between the 
(TTOix«Ta of oppositet, under which the Pythago- 
reans included all things, and the double principle 
of Alcmaeon, according to Aristotle, less extended, 
although he does not exphiin the precise differ- 
ence. Other doctrines of Alcmaeon have been pre- 
served to us. He said that the human soul wa« 
immortal Und partook of the divine nature, because 
like the heavenly bodies it contained in itself a 
principle of motion. (Arist. tie Anima, L 2, p. 
40o ; C'ic de Aal. Deor. i. II.) The edipae of 
the moon, which was also eternal, he mppoaed to 
arise from its shape, which he aaid was like a boat. 
AH his doctrines which have come down to us, 
relate to physics or medicine ; and seem to have 
arisen partly out of the speculations of the Ionian 
school, with which rather than the Pythagorean, 
Aristotle appears to connect Alcmaeon, partly fruui 
the traditionary lore of the earliest medical science. 
(Brandis, vol. L p. 508.) [B. J.] 

ALCMAEO'NIDAE (AXitfuMtyiSai), a noble 
family at Athens, members of which fill a space in 
Grecian history firon 1100 to 400 & c. The fol- 
lowing is a genealogical table of the family. 



1. Alcmaeon, founder of the fiimilr, 1 100 b. c 

2. (Meeacles), 6tli perpetnal aichon. 

3. (Alcmaeon), last perpetnal archon. (a. c, 755 — 753.) 

4. Megacles, archon in u. c. 612. 

6. Alcmaeon, about 590 b. c. (See Aicuamos.) 

I 
6. Megacles, the opponeut=pAguiste, daughter of Cleisthenes, 
of Peisistratua. j tyrant of Sicyon. 



lO.Alcibiades. Ilispa- 
rent'ige is unknown, 
but he WHS siiid to be 
an Alcmaeonid on 
the father's side. ( De- 
mobth. xnMid. p. 56 1 . ) 



7. Cleisthenes, (the re- 
former. See Clkis- 

THKNBS.) 
I 

11. Megacles, \nctor 
in the Pythian 
games. (Piud. 
Pyth. viL 15.) 



8. Hippocrates. (Herod, vi. 131; 
SchoL />«</. /yA.vii. 17.) 



9. Coesyra, mar. 
to Peisistratus. 



12. Megacles. 
(Hei^ vL 
13L) 



13. Agariste.= 
( Herod, vi. 
131; Plut. 
Pericd.) 



^Xanthippus. 



14. Axiochus. 15.Cleinias-pl6.Deinomache=T=Hipponicu8,17.Eurj'ptolemu8. 18.PericIes, 19.Ariphron. 



Plat. Eu- commanded 



thyd. p. 
265.) 



a trireme at 
Artemisiura 
B.C. 480; fell 
at Coroneia 
a c. 44-2. 
(Herod, viiu 
17 ; Plut. 
Ale. 1.) 



(Plut. Ale. 
1) 



commanded 
at Tanagra 
B. c 246. 
(Thuc.ui.91.) 
He is thought 
by some to 
have been 
himself an 
Alcmaeonid. 

Hjl'PONlCUS. 



(Plut CHm. 4.) 



(the great 
states- 
man. Pk- 

RICLBS.) 



(Plut^/c 
1; Plat 
Proioff. p. 
320.) 



lUC 



ALCMAKONlDAli. 
6 



ALCMAN. 

d • 



I I I I I I I 

20.Alci-21.C<-liiiiai. 22.Al<.i»jiade», 23.(;icinia». 24.riilliai. 2.1. 1«odice=Ciinon. 2fi.P»nJB«, 



27.Xm> 



biiuli-a. 
(XcMioph. 
IHlcn. i. 
2. §13.) 



(Xfiioph. 
Conviv. 
iv. 12.) 



(tlip i'Tcat 

general. 

Alcihi- 

ADEH.) 



(riiiL 

J'roUuf. 
p. 320.) 



(Therkh 
Calliaa.) 



(i'lut. 



28. Alcibindct. 

(Al.CIIJIADBS.) 



Tho Alcmnoonidao were n hmnch of the {amily 
of the Nki.kioak. The Neleitlne were driven out 
of I'ylii* ill Meaiteniii by the Uorinnii, nl>i)ut ]1UU 
11. r., and went to Atheim, where Meimithus, the 
rcprcHentative of the elder bnuicb of the family be- 
came kiii^, and Alcmacon, the reptMCOtatiTe of the 
•ccoiid bninch, became a noble and the MiMWtor of the 
Alcmiu'onidoc. Alcmacon wu the gmt-gnuidaon 
of NeHtor. (I'aiis. ii. 18. § 7.) Among the aithoiM 
for life, the sixth is named MegBcle*, and th* bat 
Aicmaeon. But, om the aithont for life appetf 
to have b<>cn always taken from the fiunily of Me- 
don, it is probable that theee wen onlj Almwen 
nids on the mother's side. The fint remarkable 
man among the Alcmoeonids was the archon Me- 
gnclcB, who brought upon the family the guilt of 
sacrilege by his treatment of the insurgents under 
Cylon. (b. cG12.) [CiMON Mkuaclkh.] The ex- 
pulnion of the Alcmaconids was now loudly de- 
manded, and Solon, who probably nw in such an 
event an important step towards his intended re- 
forms, advised them to submit their cause to a 
tribunal of three hundred nobles. The result was 
that they were banished from Athens and retired 
to Phocis, probably about b'Jd or .iiio B. c. Their 
wealth having been augmented by the liberality of 
Croesus to Aicmaeon, the son of Mcgacles [Alc- 
makon], and their influence increased by the mar- 
riage of Megacles, the son of Aicmaeon, to Agariste, 
the daughter of Cleisthenes, tyrant of Sicyon, they 
took advantage of the divided state of Athens, and 
by joining the party of Lycurgus, they effected 
their return ; and shortly afterwards, by a similar 
union, they expelled Peisistratus soon after he had 
seized the government ( b. c. 559.) [ Peisistratus. ] 
This state of things did not last long ; for, at the end 
of five years, Megacles gave his daughter Coesyra in 
marriage to Peisistratus, and assisted in his restora- 
tion to Athens. But a new quarrel immediately 
arose out of the conduct of Peisistratus towards his 
wife, and the Alcmaeonids once more expelled him. 
During the following ten years, Peisistratus col- 
lected an army, with which he invaded Attica, 
and defeated the Alcmaeonids, who were now once 
more driven into exile. They were, however, still 
formidable enemies. After the death of Hippar- 
chus, they took possession of Lipsydicum, a fort- 
ress on the frontier of Attica, and made an at- 
tempt to restore themselves, but were defeated by 
Hippias. They had, however, a more important 
source of influence. In the year 548 b. c. the 
temple of Apollo at Delphi was burnt, and the 
Alcmaeonids having contracted with the Amphic- 
tj'onic council to rebuild it, executed the work in 
a style of magnificence which much exceeded their 
engagement. They thus gained great popularity 
throughout Greece, while they contrived to bring 
the Peisistratids into odium by charging them with 
having caused the fire. The oracle, besides, fa- 



(FlaUJl/*- thippua. 
WNi, 94; 

SI&;Pluk 
Per. 87.) 



Toured thea theneHbrtll; nd wbeaever it was 
consulted by • l^Mitaa, en whatenr waier« tiie 
answer alwaya coalaiMd m eslMftMiaa to give 
AtheM fraedoai I aad tiw naak WW (kal at iHtftk 
the Byaitam expelled Hiraiaa, aid ml and iIm 
AlcnaeoBida. (b. c 510.) The ratond bafly 
found theaaahres in an iaulated poaittea, hetw w 
the noblea, who appear to hare baaa eppoaed t* 
tlMa, aad tka popolar party which had wai h^ 
tberto Bttaifced to tlw raiawliBlida 
anr the head of tiM AkaMonidM, Wwd I 
tar pat^, aad g^ra a bow t aa rt i talf ia to i 
Parthfa paftkalan mpiirtiiit the fiunily an 
giroa ander the aaaea « ita aieaibera. ( HerwL 
vi 121-131 ; Pindar, /y*. TIL., and Bock h's note* { 
Clinton's F>uti, u. p, 4, 2flfl.) [P. S.J 

ALCMAN ('AAiMtirL called h^ the Attic aad 
kter Greek writera Alcaaeen {A^tiaim>), tho 
chief lyric poet of Sparta, waa by birth a Lydiaa 
of Sardis. His father's name waa Damaa or Titi^ 
rus. He waa brought into Laconia as a slare, evi* 
dently when rerj young. His master, wboae 
name waa Ageaidaa, discorered his genioa, aad 
emancipated him ; and he then began to distingniah 
himself as a lyric poet. (Suidas, «. e.; Heraclid. 
Pont. PUiL p. 206 ; Veil. Pat. L 18 ; Akman, fr. 
11, Welcker; Epigrams by Alexander Aetolua, 
Leonidas, and Antipater These., in Jacob's AntkoL 
Grate. L p. 207, No. 3, p. 175, No. 80, ii. p. 1 10, 
No. 56; in the Anthol. PalaU rii. 709, 19, 18.) 
In the epigram last cited it is said, that the two 
continents strove for the honour of bis birth ; and 
Suidas (/. c.) calls him a Laconian of Metaoo, 
which may mean, howerer, that he was enrolled 
as a citizen of Meaaoa after his emancipation. The 
above statements seem to be more in accordance 
with the authorities than the opinion of Bode, that 
Alcman's father was brought from SardLs to Sparta 
as a slave, and that Alcman himself was bom at 
Messoa. It is not kno^^-n to what extent he ob- 
tained the rights of citizenship. 

The time at which Alcman lived is rendered 
somewhat doubtfxd by the different statements of 
the Greek and Armenian copies of Eusebios, and 
of the chronographers who followed him. On the 
whole, however, the Greek copy of Eusebius ap- 
pears to be right in placing him at the second year 
of the twenty-seventh Olympiad, (n. c 671.) He 
was contemporary with Ardys, king of Lydia, 
who reigned from 678 to 629, b. c, with Lesches, 
the author of the "Little Iliad," and ■with Ter- 
pander, during the later years of these two poets ; 
he was older than Stesichorus, and he is said to 
have been the teacher of Arion. From these cir- 
cumstances, and fiwm the fact which we learn 
from himself (i^r.29), that he lived to a great age, 
we may conclude, with Clinton, that he flourished 
from about 671 to about 631 B. c. (Clinton, Fast. 
i. pp. 189, 191, 365 ; Hermann, Antiq. Lacon. pp. 



I 



ALCMAN. 

76, 77.) He is said to have died, like Sulla, of 
the morbus pedicularu, (Aristot. Hist. Anim. v. 
31 or 25 ; Plut. Sdla, 36 ; Plin. //. N. xi. 33. 

The period during which most of Alcman's 
poems were composed, was that which followed 
the conclusion of the second Messenian war. Dur- 
ing this period of quiet, the Spartans began to 
cherish that taste for the spiritual enjoyments of 
poetrj-, which, though felt by them long before, 
had never attained to a high state of cultivation, 
while their attention was absorbed in war. In 
this process of improvement Alcman was imme- 
diately preceded by Terpander, an Aeolian poet, 
who, before the year G76 B. c, had removed from 
Lesbos to the mainland of Greece, and had intro- 
duced the Aeolian lyric into the Peloponnesus. 
This new style of poetry was speedily adapted to 
the choral form in which the Doric poctrj- had hither- 
to been cast, and gradually supplanted tliat earlier 
style which was nearer to the epic. In the 33rd 
or 34th Olympiad, Terpander made his great im- 
provements in music. [Terpanukr.J Hence 
arose the peculiar character of the poetry of his 
younger contemporary, Alcman, which presented 
the choral lyric in the highest excellence which 
the music of Terpander enabled it to reach. But 
Alcman had also an intimate acquaintance with 
the Phrygian and Lydian styles of music, and he 
was himself the inventor of new forms of rhythm, 
some of which bore his name. 

A large portion of Alcman 's poetry was erotic. 
In fact, he is said by some ancient writer* to have 
been the inventor of erotic poetry. (Athen. xiii. 
p. 600 ; Suidas, «. r.) From his poems of this 
class, which are marked by a freedom bordering on 
licentiousness, he obtained the epithets of "* sweet" 
and " pleasant " (yKvtcvs, x<V**'*)- Among these 
poems were many hymeneal pieces. But the Par- 
tkenia, which form a bninch of Alcman 's poems, 
must not be confounded with the erotic. They 
were so allied because they were composed for the 
purpose of being sung by choruses of virgins, and 
not on account of their subjects which were very 
various, sometimes indeed erotic, but often reli- 
gious. Alcman 's other poems embrace hymns to 
the gods. Paeans, Prosodia, songs adapted for diffe- 
rent religious festivals, and short ethical or philo- 
sophical pieces. It is disputed whether he wrote 
any of those Anapaestic war-songs, or marches, 
which were called «>i^*Wp'« ; but it seems verj* 
unlikely that he should liave neglected a kind of 
composition which had been rendered so popular 
by Tyrtaeus. 

His metres are very various. He is said by 
Suidas to have been the tirst poet who composed 
any verses but dactylic hexameters. This state- 
ment is incorrect ; but Suidas seems to refer to the 
siiorter dactylic lines into which Alcnum broke up 
the Homeric hexameter. In this practice, how- 
ever, he had been preceded by Archilochus, from 
whom he borrowed several others of his peculiar 
metres: others he invented himself. Among his 
metres we find various forms of the dactylic, ana- 
paestic, trochaic and iambic, as well as lines com- 
posed of different metres, for example, iambic and 
anapaestic. The Cretic hexameter was named 
Alcman ic, from his being its inventor. The poems 
of Alcman were chietly in strophes, composed of 
lines sometimes of the same metre throughout the 
strophe, sometimes of different metres. From their 



ALCMENE. 



107 



choral character we might conclude that they some- 
times had an antistrophic form, and this seems to 
be confirmed by the statement of Hephaestion 
(p. 134, Gaist), that he composed odes of fourteen 
strophes, in which there was a change of metre 
after the seventh strophe. There is no trace of an 
epode following the strophe and antistrophe, in his 
poems. 

The dialect of Alcman was the Spartan Doric, 
with an intermixture of the Aeolic. The popular 
idioms of Laconia appear most frequently in his 
more familiar poems. 

The Alexandrian grammarians placed Alcman 
at the head of their canon of the nine lyric poeta. 
Among the proofs of his popularity may be aen> 
tioned the tradition, that his songt wen ma%, 
with those of Terpander, at the first peifimntuiee 
of the gymnopaedia at Sparta (b. c. 665, Aeliau, 
V. II. xii. 50), and the asoertaioed fact, that they 
were frequently afterwards used at that festival. 
(Athen. xv. p. 678.) The few fimgmenta which 
remain scarcely allow us to judge how &r he d&- 
served his reputation ; but some of them disphty a 
true poetical spirit. 

Alcman 's poems comprised six books, the ex- 
tant fragments of which are included in the col- 
lections of Neander, H. Stephens, and Fulrius 
Ursinus. The latest and best edition is that of 
Welcker, Gie«aen, 181&. [P. S.] 

ALCME'NE CAAayt^). • daoghter of Elec- 
tr}'on, king of Meeeene. by Aoazo, the daughter 
of Alcaeus. (Apollod. iL 4. § 5.) According to 
other accounts her mother was called Lysidice 
(Schol. ad Find. Ot TiL 49; Plut Tke*. 7), or 
Eurydice. (Diod. ir. 9.) The poet Asius repre- 
senu-d Akmiene aa a daqgiitflr of Amphiaraus and 
Eriphyk. (PImm. ▼. 17. % 4.) Apollodorus totn^ 
tions tao bntkan of AlowNie, who, with the ex- 
ceptMB tt M*, Lkymniaa, fell in a contest with 
the MMM tt Ptafehus, who bad carried off the cattle 
of Be rti i w L Eleetryoa, oa setting out to avenge 
the dMth of hk mm, left hia kingdom and his 
danghter Akmeaa to AwphitiyoB, who, onin- 
tentionally, killed Beetrjoo. Sthmnhii there- 
upon expelled AapUtiyvB, who, togethef with 
Aktnene and Lieyaniw, went to Thebes. Ak- 
now dedamd tkrt the would marry him who 
ihoali anoge the deftth of her brothers. Amphi- 
tiywi vadertiMk the task, and invited Creon of 
Thebee to aacist bira. During his absence, Zeus, 
in the disguise of Amphitryon, visited Alcmene, 
and, pretending to be her husband, related to her 
in what way he had avenged the death of her 
brothers. (Apollod. iL 4. § 6 — 8 ; Ov. Amor. L 
13. 45; Diod. iv. 9; Hygin. Fab. 29; Lucian, 
Dialog. Dear. 10.) When Amphitryon himself 
returned on the next day and wanted to give an 
account of his achievements, she was surprised at 
the repetition, but Teiresias solved the mysterj-. 
Alcmene became the mother of Heracles by Zeus, 
and of Iphicles by Amphitryon. Hera, jealous 
of .'Ucmene, delayed the birth of Heracles for 
seven days, tliat Eurystheus might be bom first, 
and thus be entitled to greater rights, according to 
a vow of Zeus himself, (Hom. IL xLx. 95, &c ; 
Ov. Met. ix. 273, &c. ; Diod. I. c.) After the 
death of Amphitryon, Alcmene married Rhadaman- 
thys, a son of Zeus, at Ocaleia in Boeotia. (Apollod. 
ii. 4. § 11.) After Heracles was raised to the 
rank of a god, Alcmene and his sons, in dread of 
Eurystheus, fled to Trachis, and thence to Athena, 



108 



ALCYONE. 



and whon IlylliiH had cut off the hr'nd of Eiiry«- 
thoun, AlcnieiKf MitiHt'icd her ri'vcngo by picking 
the cyoii out of tho hciul. (Apollod. ii. 8. g 1.) 
The accouutH of her death arc very dittcrcjmnt. 
According to I'auMtiiiaH (i. 41. § 1), iitin died in 
Megarii, on her way from ArgoK to Thi-lx-*, and 
U the Honx of Ileniclcii diMi^reed an to whether 
■ho wa« to 1)0 carri(!d to Arn"» or to Thelx-x, nhe 
was buried in the phicc where nhe had died, at the 
command of an oracle. According to Phitarch, 
(/)e(i'rn. .So<t. p.-'iTH.) her tomb and that of Ithada- 
inanthyti were at IlaliartiiH in lJ<K'otia, and hen 
wan opened by AgeKilaus for the puqwiic of carry- 
ing her remains to Si)arta. According to Fhere- 
cyde» {Cap, Aiilim. JAK WA), iihe lived with her 
iKins, after the death of KiiryttheuH, at 'I'helx-*, 
and died there at an advanc<!d age. When the 
tons of IlenicleD winhed to bury her, Zcu* *ent 
Hermes to take her liody away, and to carry it to 
tho islands of the blenrntd, and give her in nuirriage 
there to Rhadanumthys. llennes accordingly look 
her out of her coffin, and (lut into it a stone to 
heavy that the Ilemclids could not move it frvMB 
the spot. When, on opening the coffin, they found 
the stone, they erected it in a grove near Thebes, 
which in later times contained the sanctuary of 
Alcmene. (Pans. iz. Hi. § 4.) At Athens, too, 
she was worshipped as a heroine, and an altar was 
erected to her in the temple of Heracles. {Cynotarye*, 
PauH. i. 1 !). § .3.) She was represented on the chest 
of Cypselus (Paus. t. 18. § 1), and epic as well as 
tragic poets made frequent use of her story, though 
no poem of the kind is now extant, (llet. Scut. Here. 
init; Paus. v. 17. § 4, 18. § 1.) [L. S.] 

ALCON or ALCO ('AA^wv). 1. A son of Ilip- 
pocoon, and one of the Calydonian hunters, was 
killed, together with his father and brothers, by 
Heracles, and had a heroum at Sparta. (Apollod. 
iii. 10. § 5 ; Hygin. Fab. 173; Paus. iii. 14. § 7, 
15. § 3.) 

2. A son of Erechtheus, king of Athens, and 
father of Phalerus the Argonaut. (Apollon. Rhod. 
i. 97 ; Hygin. Fab. 14.) Valerius F'laccus (i. ;{99, 
&c.) represents him as such a skilful archer, that 
once, when a serpent had entwined his son, he 
shot the serpent without hurting his child. Virgil 
(Ecloi/. V. 11) mentions an Alcon, whom Servius 
calls a Cretan, and of whom he relates almost the 
same story as that which Valerius Flaccus ascribes 
to Alcon, the son of Erechtheus. 

Two other personages of the same name occiir in 
Cicero (t/e Nat, Dear. iii. 21), and in Hvginus. 
{Fab. US.) [L^S.] 

ALCON, a surgeon {vul/ierum medicus) at Rome 
in the reign of Claudius, A. d. 41-54, who is said 
by Pliny (//. N. xxix. 8) to have been banished 
to Gaul, and to have been fined ten million of 
sesterces : H. S. centies cent. mill, (about 78,125/.). 
After his return from banishment, he is said to 
have gained by his practice an equal sum within a 
few years, which, however, seems so enormous 
(compare Ai.bucius and Arruntii's), that there 
must probiibly be some mistake in the text. A 
surgeon of the same name, who is mentioned by 
^Martial {Epiffr. xi. 84) as a contemporary, may 
possibly be the same person. [W. A. G.] 

ALCON, a statuary mentioned by Pliny. {H.N. 
xxxiv. 1 4. s. 40.) He was the author of a statue 
of Hercules at Thebes, made of iron, as symbolical 
of the god's endurance of labour. [C. P. M.] 

ALCY'ONE or HALCY'ONE q'AAkwvtj). 



A LEA. 

1. A I'l.i,.!, ri.!:. 1 PleioiU-, by 

whom r •' 1 1 11 I "• and Hy- 

IMTuniir. (A|" :: ,..,., ;; /•.,../■ 

Fit),, p. 11, .1. -t.n.i.n; Ov. Ihrn 
To theM* thililr.ii I'.ni-.iiiian (ii. .'JO. !- . 
othi-rn, Hy(»«Te» and AiiiImv 

2. A duught<'rof Aeolin ;i!. t V.UAU-r,- i.r \ 
She wa» married t'i ' ' 
him, that they wi 

each other Zeus ui... i. ... : 

moqihom-d them into birdu, <iAifi«*. 

(AjwlM. i. 7. g :<, Ac. ; Hy-in. /•/'. • 

relates that CrjfX p«>ri"l i 

Alcyone for grief threw 1 

that the goda, oat • '^ 

into birdtk It Wflh 

days beftm, and a* i . 

the year, while the bird dAKtwc was brredinv, 

there always prevailed calms at lea. An rm\f\- 

liiihrd form n\ the same story is given br Ovid, 

{Mrt. xi. 410, kc ; comp. Virg. (ieory. \. 39f>.) 

8. A MtraaaM of CiMpatn, tho wilt of McJm- 
gw, tHw dM witk tend at bar kwhad biiaf 
kOlod bjr ApoDo. (Horn, /t ix. 663 ( Ewtatk 
ad /f<m. p. 776 ; Hygin. Fab. 174.) (L. 8.] 

ALCY'oNEUS CAXt(vop»6i). 1. A giant, who 
kept poMonioo of the latlnmH of Coriath at the 
time wImb Howdoa dwfo smj tk* ozrn of 
Oerjoo. Tho gfanit attadnd Ua, Bnwhid twelve 
wanona nd tweatj4imt «f lb* am of HomIm 
with a hnge block of ttoiM. Hendeo kiaarif 
warded off the stone with his dob and slew Aky- 
oneus. The block, with which the giant had at- 
tempted the life of Heradea, waa abewn on the 
Isthmus down to a very kte period. (Piad. Nem. 
iv. 44, with the Schol.) In anotlwr patiage {/M, 
vi. 45, &c.) Pindar calls Alcyoneas a Tbfaeiaii 
shepherd, and placet the struggle with him in tho 
Phlegraean plains. 

2. One of the gianU. [Oioantm.] [L. &] 

ALCYO'NIDES {'AXHvwliti), the dnghtan 
of the giant Alcyoneuit (2). After their firtha*a 
death, they threw themaelves into the MS, aid 
were changed into ice-birdt. Their nanea are 
Phthonia, Anthe, Methone, Alcippe, PaUene, 
Drimo, and Asteria. (Eostath. a</ //om. p. 776; 
Suidas, $. V. 'AAicuoKtSf t.) [ L. S.] 

A'LEA ('AA«a), a surname of Atbena, nnder 
which she was worshipped at Alea, Mantineia, 
and Tegea. (Paus. viiL 2.3. § 1, 9. 8 3, iL 17. § 7.) 
The temple of Athena Alea at Tegea, which waa 
the oldest, was said to have been built by Aleut, 
the son of Apheidaa, fi'om whom the goddess pro- 
bably derived this somame. (Paus. viiL 4. § 5.) 
This temple was burnt down in B. c. 394, and 
a new one built by Scopas, which in size and 
splendour surpassed all other temples in Pelopon- 
nesus, and was surrounded by a triple row of 
columns of different orders. The statue of the 
goddess, which was made by Endoeus all of ivory, 
was subsequently carried to Rome by Augustus to 
adorn the Forum Augusti. (Paus. viii. 45. § 4, 46 
§ 1 and 2, 47. § 1.) The temple of Athena Alea 
at Tegea was an ancient and revered asylum, and 
the names of many persons are recorded w^ho saved 
themselves by seeking refuge in it. (Pans. iiL 5. 
§ 6, ii. 17. § 7, iii. 7. § 8.) The priestess of 
Athena Alea at Tegea was always a maiden, who 
held her office only until she reached the age of 
puberty. (Paus. viii. 47. § 2.) Respecting the 
architecture and the sculptures of this temple, see 



[ 



ALEUAS. 

Meyer, Gesch. der bildend. Kiinste, iL p. 99, &c. 
On the road from Sparta to Therapne there was 
likewise a statue of Atliena Alea. (Paus. iiL 19. 
§ 7.) [L. S.] 

ALEBION. [Albion.] 

ALECTO. [FuRiAK.] 

ALECTOR {'AXfKTwp). 1. The father of 
Leitus, the Argonaut. (Apollod. i. 9. § 16.) Ho- 
mer {II. xvii. 602) calls liim Alcctryon. 

"2. A son of Anaxagoras and father of Iphig, 
king of Argos. lie was consulted by Polyneices 
as to the manner in which Amphiaraus might be 
compelled to take part in the expedition against 
Thebes. (Apollod. iii. C. § 2 ; Paus. ii. 18. § 4.) 
Two others of tlie same name are mentioned in 
Homer. (Od. iv. 10; Eustath. ad Horn. pp. 303 
and 1.598.) [L. S.] 

ALE'MON, ALEMO'NIDES. [MyscKLUs.] 

ALE'TES ('AAt/ttjj), a sou of llippotes and a 
descendant of Heracles in the fifth degree. He is 
Buid to have taken possession of Corinth, and to 
have expelled the Sisyphids, thirty years after the 
first invasion of Peloponnesus by the Heraclids. 
His family, sometimes called the Aletidae, main- 
tained themselves at Corinth down to the time of 
Uacchis. (Paus. ii. 4. § 3, v. 18. § 2; Strab. viii. 
p. 389; Callim. Frapm. 103; Pind. Ol. xiii. 17.) 
Velleius Paterculus (i. 3) calls him a descendant 
of Heracles in the sixth degree. He received an 
oracle, promising him the sovereignty of Athens, if 
during the war, which was then going on, its king 
should remain uninjured. This oracle became 
known at Athens, and Codrus sacriticed himself 
for his country. (Conon, Narrut. 26.) [CoDHi's.] 

Other persons of this name are mentioned iu 
Apollod. iii. 10. § 6; Hygiu. Fab. 122, and in 
Virg. Aen. i. 121, ix. 462. [L. S.] 

ALEUAS juid ALEU'ADAE (*AAtua» and 
AAf udSoi). Aleuas is the ancestorial hero of the 
Thessuliaii, or, more particularly, of the Lurisftaean 
£uuily of the Aleuadae. (Piud. Path. x. 8, with 
the Schol.) The Aleuadae were the noblest and 
most powerful among all the fiunilies of Thessalr, 
whence Herodotus (vii. 6) calls its members ficuji- 
\th. (Comp. Diod. xv. 61, xvi. 14.) The first 
Aleuas, who bore the suriuune of nii/i^os, that is, 
the red-haired, is called king (here synonymous 
with Tagus, see Did. of Ant. p. 932) of Thessaly, 
and a descendant of Heracles through Thessaliu, 
one of the many sons of Heracles. (Suidaa, «. r. 
'AAcudStu ; Ulpian, ad Den. Olyitth, L ; SchoL 
ad ApolLn. RJmmI. iii. 1090 ; Vellei. i. 3.) Plutarch 
(deAm. Frai. in tin.) states, that he was hated by 
his father on account of his haughty and savage 
character ; but his uncle nevertheless contrived to 
get him elected king and simctioned by the god of 
Delphi. His reign was more glorious than that of 
any of his ancestors, and the nation rose in power 
and importance. This Aleuas, who belongs to the 
mytliical period of Greek history, is in all proba- 
bility the same as the one who, according to Hege- 
mon (up. Ael. Aniin. viiL 11), was beloved by a 
dragon. According to Aristotle (tip. Ilurpocnit. 
s. V. TtTfiapx'ii) the division of Thessiily into four 
parts, of which traces remained down to the latest I 
times, took place in the reign of the first Aleuas. 
Buttmann places this hero in the period between 
the so-called return of the Heraclids and the age of 
PeisistKitus. But even earlier than the time of 
Peisistratus the fiunily of the Aleuadae appears to 
have become divided into two branches, the Aleu- 



ALEUAS. 



109 



adae and the Scopadae, called after Scopas, proba- 
bly a son of Aleuas. (Or. /Wu, 512.) The Sco- 
padae inhabited Crannon and perhaps Pharsalus 
also, while the main branch, the Aleuadae, remain- 
ed at Larissa. The influence of the families, how- 
ever, was not confined to these towns, but extended 
more or less over the greater part of Thessaly. 
They formed in reality a powerful aristocratic 
party (PaaiXfts) in opposition to the great body of 
the Thessalians. (Herod, vii. 172.) 

The earliest historical person, who probably be- 
longs to the Aleuadae, is Eurj-lochus, who termi- 
nated the war of Cirrha about ii.c. 590. (Strab. ix. 
p. 418.) [Et'RYLOcuu8.] In the time of the post 
Simonides we find a second Aleuas, who waa a 
friend of the poet. He is called a son of Echecra- 
tides and Syris (SchoL ad Theoerit. xvL 34); but 
besides the suggestion of Ovid (V&w, 225), that he 
had a tragic end, nothing is known about him. 
At the time when Xerxes invaded tireece, thre« 
sons of this Aleuas, Thoiax, Eurj-pylus, and I'hra- 
sydaeus, came to him as ambassadors, to request 
him to go on with the war, and to promise him 
their assistance. (Herod. viL 6.) [Thorax.] 
When, after the Persian war, Leotychides was 
sent to Thessaly to diastise those who had acted 
as traitors to their country, he allowed himself to 
be bribed by the Aleuadae, although he might 
have subdued all Thetaaly. (Herod. vL 72 ; Paus. 
iii. 7. § 8.) This fiurt ihewt that the power of the 
Aleuadae was then still as great as before. About 
the year B. c. 460, we find an Alenad Orestes, son 
of Echecratides, who came to Athens as a fugitive, 
and persuaded the Athenians to exert themielvM 
for his restoratiou. (Thuc L 111.) He had 
been expelled either by the Tbetseliana or more 
probably by a fiKtion ef kk own &nulj, who 
wished to exdnde him from the dignity of ^mrtX*6t 
(i. e. probably Tagus), for such feudJi among the 
Aleuadae themselves are frequently meulioued. 
(\en.Anub.\. 1. § 10.) 

After the end of the Peloponnesian war, another 
Themalian fiunily, the dToaita of Pberae, gradually 
rose to power and tnftMinw, and gave a gnat shock 
to the power of the Aleaadae. As early as & c. 
375, Jason of Pherae, after various struggles, suc- 
ceeded in raising himself to the dignity of Tagus. 
(Xen. HelUH. iL 3. § 4 ; Diod. xiv. 82, xv. 60.) 
When the dynasts of Pherae became tyrannical, 
some of the Larissaean Aleuadae conspired to put 
an end to their rule, and for this purpose they invited 
Alexander, king of Macedonia, the son of Amyntas. 
(Diod. XV. 61.) Alexander took Larissa and 
Crannon, but kept them to himself^ Afterwards, 
Pelupidas restored the original state of things in 
Thessaly; but the dynasts of Pherae soon reco- 
vered their power, and the .'Vleuadoe again solicited 
the assistance of Macedonia against them. Philip 
willingly complied with the request, broke the 
power of the tyrants of Pherae, restored the towns 
to an appearance of freedom, ami made the Aleua- 
dae his faithful friends and allies. (Diod. xvi. 14.) 
In what manner Philip used them for his purposes, 
and how little he spared them when it was his 
ijiterest to do so, is sofliciently attested. (Dem. 
de Cur. p. 241 ; Polya^n. iv. 2. § 11; Ulpian, /.c.) 
Among the tetrarchs whom he entrusted with the 
administration of Thessaly, there is one Thrasy- 
daeus (Theopomp. ap. Atlien. vi. p. 249), who un- 
doubtedly belonged to the Aleuadae, just as the 
Thessoliaji Medius, who is mentioned as one of 



no ALEXANDER. 

tlio coni[>aiiinnH of Alexander the Grrat. (Pint Jh 
'J'riuii/itU. i;J; ci>ni|). Strub. xi. p. .530.) The t^ 
niily now Mink into imti^niHcancc, and the latt 
certain tmci; of an Aicund is 'I'honix, a frimd of 
Antixonuii. (I'liit. Jhmetr. 'lU.) Whether the 
•ciilptor* AhnuiH, mentioned by IMiny (//. N. xxxiv. 
ti), iuid Sco{MU uf Puoi, were iii any way con- 



ALRXANDEB. 

BWtod with the Alraadae, canaot b* Mcartaiaad* 
8«e Boeckh'i (hmmentary tm Piml. Jytk. x. ( 
Schneider, on AhaM. PoUL v. A, 9( but Man paiti- 
culariy Kuttraann, Vom dmm OmcUtekt 4ar Almairn^ 
in hit MytJujl. ii. p. 246, fte^ who kM maim oat thm 
following genealogical taUe of tba Aieuadiu . 



KiNU, OR TAU17IS or TlilMALY. 

Mother Archedice, 



01. 40. Echccratidei. 
„ 4.'-.. 
« 50. 



Eurylochna. 



70. 



Echccnitidc*. 

I wife Uyierii. 

Antiochut, Tagua, 



Simua. 
Ateuaa II. 



Scopail. 

/ ' N 

Creon. Viactandm. 



Scopaa II. 



ThonOf Eurypylua, Tbnuydacaa. 



80. Oreatet. 

8.5. 

90. 

95. 



Mediut. 



Eurylochns. 



Ariitipput. 



Scopaa III., Tagw. 



100. 

105. 
110. 
115. 



Hellnnocratet. 
Eurylochu*. Eudicua. Simoa. Thraajdaesa. 

[L.8.] 



Mcdius. 

ALKUAS, an artist who wa« fanioui for hit 
statues of philosopherB. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8. t. 
19, -2(5.) [C. P. M.] 

A'LKUS {'A\*6s), a ton of Apheidot, and 
grandson of Areas. He was king of Tegea in 
Arcadia, and married to Neaera, and is said to 
have founded the town of Alea and the first tem- 
ple of Athena Alea at Tegea. (Paus. viii. 2.3. § 1, 
4. § 3, &c.; Apollod. iii. 9. § 1.) [Alka.] [L. S.] 

ALEXA'MENUS ('A\t^atity6s), was general 
of the Aetolians, b. c. 196 (Polyb. xviii. 20"), and 
was sent by the Aetolians, in B. c. 1 92, to obtain 
possession of Lacedaemon. He succeeded in his 
object, and killed Nabis, the tyrant of Lacedae- 
mon ; but the Lacedaemonians rising against him 
shortly after, he and most of his troops were killed. 
(Liv. XXXV. 34 — 36.) 

ALEXA'MENUS {'AXt^afKvSs), of Teos, 
■was, according to Aristotle, in his work upon 
poets (irtpl iroirtrmv), the first person who wrote 
dialogues in the Socratic style before the time of 
Plato. (Athen. xi. p. 505, b. c; Diog. Laert. iiu 48.) 

ALEXANDER. [Paris.] 

ALEXANDER ('AAtlovSpos), the defender of 
men, a surname of Hera under which she was 
■worshipped at Sicyon. A temple had been built 
there to Hera Alexandres by Adrastus after his 
flight from Argos. (Schol. ad Pind. Nem. ix. 30 ; 
couip. Apollod. iii. 12. § 5.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER ('AA.sioj'Spos), a man ■ft-hom 
Mithridates is charged by Sulla ■ft-ith having sent 
to assassinate Nicomedes. (Appian, Xte Zfe//. 3/iMr. 
57.) He seems to be the same person as Alexan- 
der the Paphlagonian, who is afterwards (76, &c.) 
mentioned as one of the generals of Mithridates, 
and was made prisoner by Lucullus, who kept him 
to adorn his triumph at Rome. [L. S.] 



ALEXA'NDER CAAi(<u«pot), a aaint and 
martyr, whoae memory it celebrated by the Romiall 
church, together with the other martyn of Lyons 
and Vienne, on the second of June. He waa • 
native of Phrj'gia, and a physician by profetaion, 
and was put to death, a. d. 177, during the perae- 
cution that raged against the churches of Ljona 
and Vienne under the emperor Marcus Anrelint. 
{Epitt. Ecdet. Lugdun. et Vienn. apod £ai«b. Hitt. 
£<W.v. l.p. 163.) He waa condemned, together with 
another Christian, to be devoured by wild beaata 
in the amphitheatre, and died (a* the historian 
expresses it) ^neither uttering a groan nor a syl- 
lable, but conversing in his heart with GodL" 
(Bzovius, Nomtndator Sanctorum Pro/mioM Me- 
dicorum ; Mariyrol. Roman, ed. Baron. ; Ada Sanc- 
torum, June 2.) [W. A. G.] 

ALEXANDER, an Acarna.sian, who had 
once been a friend of Philip III. of Macedonia, 
but forsook him, and insinuated himself so much 
into the favour of Antiochus the Great, that he 
was admitted to his most secret deliberations. He 
advised the king to invade Greece, holding out to 
him the most brilliant prospects of victory over the 
Romans, B. c. 192. (Liv. xxxv. 18.) Antiochua 
followed his advice. In the battle of Cynoscephalae, 
in which Antiochus ■was defeated by the Romans, 
Alexander was covered with ■wounds, and in this 
state he carried the news of the defeat to his king, 
■who was staying at Thronium, on the Maliac gult 
When the king, on his retreat from Greece, had 
reached Cenaeum in Euboea, Alexander died and 
was buried there, b. c. 191. (xxivi. 20.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER of AEGAE {'AXi^aySpos Ai- 
ya7os), a peripatetic philosopher, who flourished at 
Rome in the first century, and a disciple of the 
celebrated mathematician Sosigenes, whose calcula- 



ALEXANDER. 

tions were used by Julius Caesar for his correction 
of the year. He was tutor to the emperor Nero. 
(Suidas, s. v. 'A\4^av^pos Ai-/a7os ; Suet. 7tA. 57.) 
Two treatises on the writings of Aristotle are attri- 
buted to him by some, but are assigned by others 
to Alexander Aphrodisieusis. I, On the Meteoro- 
logy of Aristotle, edited in Greek by F. Asulanus, 
Ven. 1327, in Latin by Alex. Piccolomini, 1540, 
fol. n. A commentary on the Metaphysics. The 
Greek has never been published, but there is a 
Latin version by Sepulveda, Rom. 1527. [B. J.] 

ALEXANDER AEGUS. [Alkxa.ndkr IV., 
King of Macedonia.] 

ALEXANDER {'Axi^avSpos), a son of Aemb- 
Tus, was one of the commanders of the Macedo- 
nian x*^'*'"''''** in the army of Antigonus Doson 
during the battle of Sellasia against Cleomenes I IL 
of Sparta, in b. c. 222. (Polyb. ii. 66.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER AEMILIANUS. [Aemili- 
ANUS, No. 3.] 

ALEXANDER {'A\i(av1ipos), son of Akro- 
FUR, a native of the Macedonian district called 
Lyncestis, whence he is usually called Alexander 
Lyncestes, Justin (xi. 1) makes the singular 
mistake of calling him a brother of Lyncestaa, 
while in other passages (xi. 7, xii. 14) he uses the 
correct expression. lie was a contemporary of 
Philip of Macedonia and Alexander the Great. 
He had two brothers, Heromenes and Arrhabaeui ; 
all three were known to have been accomplices in 
the murder of Philip, in b. c. 336. Alexander 
the Great on his accession put to death all those 
who had taken part in the murder, and Alexander 
the Lyncestian was the only one that was par- 
doned, because he was the first who did honiage to 
Alexander the Great as his king. (Arrian, AHob. 
i. 25 ; Curtius, vii. 1 ; Justin, xi. 2.) But king 
Alexander not only pardoned him, but even made 
him his friend and raised him to high honours. 
He was first entrusted with the command of an 
army in Thrace, and afterwards received the com- 
mand of the Thessiilian horse. In this capacity 
he accompinied Alexander on his eastern ex- 
pedition. In B. e. 334, when Alexander was 
st^iying at Phaselis, he was informed, that the 
Lyncestian was carrying on a secret correspondence 
with king Darius, and that a large sum of money 
was promised, for which he was to murder his 
sovereign. The bearer of the letters from Darius 
was taken by Pamienion and brought before Alex- 
aiuier, and the treachery was manifest. Yet 
Alexander, dreading to create any hostile feeling 
in Antipater, the regent of Macedonia, whose 
daugliter was married to the Lyncestian, thought 
it advisable not to put him to death, and had him 
merely deposed from his office and kept in cus- 
tody. In this manner he was dragged about for 
three years with the army in Asia, until in a. c. 
330, when, Philotas having been put to death for 
a similar crime, the Macedonians demanded that 
Alexander the Lyncestian should likewise be tried 
and punished acconling to his desert. King Alex- 
ander gave way, and as the traitor was unable to 
exculpate himself, he was put to death at Proph- 
thasia, in the country of the Drangae. (Curtius, 
/. c, and viii. 1 ; Justin. xiL 14 ; Diod. xvii. 32, 80.) 
The object of this tnutor was probably, with the 
aid of Persuu, to gain possession of the throne of 
Macedonia, which previous to the reign of Amyn- 
tas II. had for a time belonged to his family. [L.S.] 
ALEXANDER ('AAetoySpoy), au Aktoi-Ian, 



ALEXANDER. 



Ill 



who, in conjunction with Dorymachus, put himself 
in possession of the town of Aegeira in Achaia, 
during the Social war, in b. c. 220. But the con- 
duct of Alexander and his associates was so inso- 
lent and rapacious, that the inhabitants of the 
town rose to expel the small band of the Aetolians. 
In the ensuing contest Alexander was killed while 
fighting. (Polyb. iv. 57, 58.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER AETOXUS ('AAffovJpoi 6 
AiTuAot), a Greek poet and grammarian, who lived 
in the reign of Ptolemaeus Philadelphui. He waa 
the son of Satyrus and Stratocleia, imd a native of 
Pleuron in Aetolia, but spent the greater part of 
bis life at Alexandria, where he was reckoned one 
of the seven tragic poets who constituted the tragic 
pleiad. (Suid. i.v.; Eudoc. p. 62 ; Paus. il 22. § 7; 
Schol. aj Horn. IL xvi. 233.) He had an offioa 
in the library at Alexzmdna, and was commis- 
sioned by the king to make a ooU«ctiou of all the 
tragedies and satyric dramas that were extanC 
He spent some time, together with Antagoras and 
Aratus, at the court of Antigonus Gonatas. (Ara- 
tus, Phatnomena et Dio$em. ii. pp. 431, 443, iic. 
446, ed. Buhle.) Notwithstanding the distinctioo 
he enjoyed as a tragic poet, he appears to have had 
greater merit as a writer of epic poems, elegfiea, 
epigrams, and cynaedi. Among his epic poems, 
we possess the titles and some fragments of three 
pieces : the Fisherman (dAifOr, Athen. vii. p. 296), 
Kirka or Krika (Athen. vii. p. 283), which, how- 
ever, is designated by Athenaeus as doubtful, and 
Helena. (Bekker, A»eed. p. 96.) Of his elegie^ 
some beautiful fri^^ments are still extiuit (Atnen. 
ir. p. 170, xL p. 496, xt. p. 899 ; Strab. xii. p. 556, 
xiv. p. 681 ; Partheo. ErtM. 4 ; Tzetx. ad. Lycophr, 
266; Schol. and Eustath. ad II. iiL 314.) His 
Cynaedi, or 'Iwruni wot^ftarUf are mentioned by 
Stiabo (xiv. p. 648) and Athenaeus. (xiv. p. 620.) 
Some anapaestic verses in praise of Euripides are 
preserved in Gellius. (xv. 20.) 

All the fragments of Alexander Aetoltu are col- 
lected in " Alexandri Aetoli fragmenta colL et ilL 
A. Capellmann,** Bonn, 1829, 8vo. ; comp. Welc- 
ker, Die GriecL Trayiodieu, p. 1263, &c.; D'untzer, 

Die Fr-j '•- '■'rnxk. Foesie der GrieeAcM, ro» 

Alejcan: <, il'C- P- "» ^c. [L. S.] 

ALKX [^ AXftayipos), (ST.,) of Alkx- 

AN'DRiA, succeeded as patriarch of that city St. 
Achillas, (as his predecessor, St. Peter, had pre- 
dicted. Martyr. S. Petri, ap. Surium, voL vL p. 577,) 
A. D. 312. He, " the noble Champion of Apostolic 
Doctrine," (Theodt Hiil. Eed. i. 2,) first laid bare 
the irreligion of Arius, and condemned him in his 
dispute with Alexander Baucalis. St. Alexander 
was at the Oecumenical Council of Nicaea, a. d. 
325, with his deacon, St Athanasius, and, scarcely 
five months after, died, April 17th, a. d. 326. 
St. Epiphanius {adv. Haere*. 69. § 4) says he wrote 
some seventy circular epistles against Arius, and 
Socrates (//. E. L 6), and Sozomen (//. E. i. 1), 
that he collected them into one volume. Two 
epistles remain ; 1. to Alexander, bishop of Con- 
stantinople, written after the Council at Alexan- 
dria which condemned Arius, and before the other 
circular letters to the various bishops. (See Theodt. 
H.E. 14; Galland. BiU. Pair. vol. iv. p. 441.) 
2. The Encyclic letter announcing Arius's depo- 
sition (Socr. //. E. i. 6, and Galland. I.e. p. 451), 
with the subscriptions from Gelasius Cyxicen. 
{Hist. Con. Nicaen. iL 3, ap. Mans. Concilia, vol iL 
p. 801.) There remains, too. The Deposition of 



112 ALEXANDER. 

Arlu» find hill, i. c. nn AdflrcM to the Priort* «n<l 
l)ca(-oiiH, drhiriiig thoir coiifurrfiicis therein (ap. 
S. Athiwiiiit. vol. i. \'». 1. p. 3f»';, Pari*, Ui'M; m-c 
(iiilluiiil. /. c. p. 4.'j.'i). Two fniffinfiit» iiior(!, iipud 
(iulhiiid. (/. ('. p. 4.^>().) St. Athuiiu*iu» uIro )(ivct 
the second epiHtlc. (/. c. p. 397.) [A. J. C.] 

AliKXANDEIl ('AA*{oi'8^f), commander of 
the horse in the nnny of ANTKiONim I)om>n dur- 
inu; the war RKiiiuKt Ch-oniene* III. of SpurtiL 
(I'olyb. ii. ()(!.) lie foiixlit a^^aiiiKt IMiilojiopnien, 
then a younf; man, wIiom- prmience an<l valour 
forced him to a dinndvanUij^eoun engnxement at 
Scllania. (ii. (>H.) Thin Alexander is prolwbly the 
same person as the one whom Antif^onus, iw the 
jfiiardiaii of I'liilip, had ap|>ointed commander of 
J'hilip'n biidy-^uard, and who was calumniated by 
Apelies. (iv. (17.) Subsequently he was sent by 
Philip as amlMissudor to Thebeu, to |»cr»<'cut<' Mo- 
Kiileas. (v. '2».) Polybius states, that at all times 
no manifested a roost extraordinary attachment to 
his kinK. (vii. 12.) [L. S.] 

ALKXANDEIl {'KXilavZpoi), of Antiochia, 
a friend of M. Antonius who \ye'\ng acquainted 
with the Syriac language, acted twice as interpreter 
))etween Antonius and one Mithridatea, who be- 
trayed to liim the plans of the Porthiani, to UTe 
the Romans. This hapjiened in B. c. 36*. (Pseudo- 
Appian, I'urth. pp. 9:i, !i(i, ed. Schweigh.) [ \j. S.J 

ALEXANDER {'Kxilwipot), son of Anto- 
nius the triumvir, and (JleojMitm, queen of Egypt 
Ilo and his twin-sister Cleopatra were bom a t. 
40. Antonius bestowed on him the titles of "He- 
lios," and " King of Kings," and called his sister 
" Selene." He also destined for him, as an inde- 
pendent kingdom, Armenia, and such countries as 
might yet be conquered lx!tween the Euphrates 
and Indus, and wrote to the senate to have his 
grants confinued ; but his letter was not suffered 
to be read in public, (a c. 34.) After the con- 
quest of Armenia Antonius betrothed Jotape, the 
daughter of the Median king Artavasdet, to his 
son Alexander. When Octavianui made himself 
master of Alexandria, he sjiared Alexander, but 
took him and his sister to Rome, to adorn his 
triumph. They were generously received by Oc- 
taviii, the wife of Antonius, who educated them 
with her own children. (Dion Cassias, xlix. 32, 
40, 41, 44, 1. 25, IL 21 ; Plut. Anton. 36, 54, 87; 
Liv.7s>iM31, 132.) [C. P. M.] 

ALEXANDER ('AAt|ovJpos), bishop of Apa- 
NEA, sent with his niunesake of Hicrapolis by 
John of Antioch to the Council of Ephesus. A 
letter by him is extant in Latin in the A'oro Col- 
Icctio Conciliorum d Stephan. Baluzio, p. 834. c. 
132. fol. Paris, 1683. [A. J. C] 

ALEXANDER APHRODISIENSIS ('AAtf 
cwSpos ^A<ppo5iffi(vi), a native of Aphrodisias in 
Cariii, who lived at the end of the second and the 
beginning of tlie third centurj- after Christ, the most 
celebrated of the commentators on Aristotle. He 
was the disciple of Henninus and Aristocles the 
Messenian, and like them endeavoured to free the 
Peripatetic philosophy from the syncretism of Am- 
monias and others, and to restore the genuine in- 
terpretation of the writings of Aristotle. The title 
o e^riyrrr-^s was the testimony to the extent or the 
excellence of his commentaries. About half his 
voluminous works were edited and translated into 
Latin at the revival of literature ; there are a few 
more extant in the original Greek, which have 
never been printed, and an Arabic version is pre- 



ALEXANDRR. 

senred of several others, whose titles may be teem 
in the IJil.liotlicfa of (ju.iri. (VoL i. p. 243.) 

If we vii'w him as a nhil'Mopher, his merit caiH 
not t)e rated highly, liis exc^IU-ncics aud defects 
arc all on the model of hii great master; there is 
the MUM pm^kuity and power of onaJysia, united 
with mIummM mor» than Aristotelian phunncM of 
style; cv. : m flat surface," with nuthinj^ 

to inti-rn the attention. In a mind so 

thoroughly .i -ith Ariktotle, it caiiuot be ex- 

p<*cted there should Ix- much pUcc for original 
thought. His oidy endeavour is to adapt the 
works of his master to the spirit and lan((uage of 
his own age ; but in doing so he is cotislantly re- 
called to the earlier philoMjjihv, and attacks by- 
gone opinions, as though they hod the saiiie living 
power as when the writings of Aristotle were it- 
rected against them. (Hitter, (JftcJuckU <Ur I'kdff 
laphu^ Tol. iv. p. 255.) 

The Platonists and earlier Stoics are his chief 
opponents, for he regarded the Epicureans aa too 
sensual and nnphilosophical to be worth • wrioaa 
answer. Against the notion of th« first, that tlM 
world, altboogh created, might jet bj tho win of 
Ood be mad* unperiababia, m nifed that (hA could 
not alter the natm of thinga, sad quoted tho 
Platonist doctrine of the neceasory coexistence of 
evil in all corruptible things. (Hitter, p. 262.) 
Ood himself, he said, waa the very fonn of 
things. Yrt, however diflcolt it bmit ba to 
enter into this abstract notion of Ood, it woold 
be unjust, aa some have done, to charge him with 
atheism, as in many paaaagea he attributes mind 
and intelligence to the divine Beins. This ia 
one of the points in which he haa Mooght oat 
the views of Aristotle more clearlr, from hu living 
in the light of a later age. Ood, he aaya (m Melit- 
phy*. ix. p. 320), is "properly and simply one, the 
self-existent substance, the author of motion him- 
self unmoved, the great and good I^ity, without 
beginning and without end:" and again (inAfeiapJk. 
xii. p. 381) he asserts, that to deprive Ood of pro- 
vidence is the same thing as depriving honey of 
sweetness, fire of warmth, snow of whiteneaa and 
coolnesa, or the soul of motion. The providence t£ 
God, however, is not directed in the same way to 
the sublunary world and the rest of the tmiverse : 
the latter is committed not indec*d to fate, but to 
general laws, while the concerns of men are the 
immediate care of God, although he find not in 
the government of them the full perfection of his 
being. (Quaeit. Nat. L 25, iL 21 .) He saw no incon- 
sistency, as perhaps there was none, between these 
high notions of God and the materialism with 
which they were connected. As God was the 
form of all things, so the human soid was likewise 
a form of matter, which it was im{x>s6ible to con^ 
ceive as existing in an independent state. He 
seems however to have made a distinction between 
the powers of reflection and sensation, for he says 
(deAnima, i. p. 138), that the soul needed not the 
body as an instrument to take in objects of thought, 
but was sufficient of itself; unless the latter is to 
be looked upon as an inconsistency into which he 
has been led by the desire to harmonize the early 
Peripateticism with the purer principle of a later 
philosophy. (Bnicker, vol iL p. 481.) 

The most important treatise of his which ha« 
come down to us, is the "De Fato," an inquiry 
into the opinions of Aristotle on the subject of 
Fate and Freewill. It is probably one of his latest 



ALEXANDER. 

■works, and must have been written between the 
years 199-211, because dedicated to the joint em- 
perors Severus and Caracalla. Here the earlier 
Stoics are his opponents, who asserted that all 
things arose from an eternal and indissoluble chain 
of causes and effects. The subject is treated 
practically rather than speculatively. Universal 
opinion, the common use of language, and internal 
consciousness, are his main arguments. That fate 
has a real existence, is proved by the distinction 
we draw between fate, chance, and possibility, and 
between free and necessary actions. It is another 
word for nature, and its workings are seen in the 
tendencies of men and things (c. 6), for it is an all- 
pervading cause of real, but not absolute, power. 
The fatalism of the Stoics does away with free- 
will, and so destroys responsibility : it is at vari- 
ance with every thought, word, and deed, of our 
lives. The Stoics, indeed, attempt to reconcile 
necessity and freewill ; but, properly speaking, 
they use freewill in a new sense for the ttecesnary 
co-openition of our will in the decrees of nature : 
moreover, they Ciinnot expect men to carry into 
practice the subtle distinction of a will necessarily 
yet freely acting ; and hence, by destroying the 
accountableness of man, they destroy the founda- 
tion of morality, religion, and civil government 
(c. 12 — 20.) Supposing their doctrine true in 
theory, it is impossible in action. And even spe- 
culatively their argument from the universal chain 
is a confusion of an order of sequence with a series 
of causes and eifects. If it be said again, that the 
gods have certain foreknowledge of future events, 
and what is certainly known must necessarily be, 
it is answered by denying that in the nature of 
things there can be any such foreknowledge, as fore- 
knowledge is proportioned to divine power, and is a 
knowledge of what divine power can perfonu. The 
Stoical view inevitably leads to the conclusion, that 
all the existing ordinances of religion are blasphe- 
mous and absurd. 

This treatise, which has been edited by Orelli, 
gives a good idea of his style and method. Upon 
the whole, it must be allowed that, although with 
Ritter we cannot place him high as an independent 
thinker, he did much to encourage the accurate 
study of Aristotle, and exerted an influence which, 
according to Julius Scaliger, was still felt in his 
day. (Urucker, vol. ii. p. 480.) 

The following list of his works is abridged from 
Harles's Fabricius. (Vol. v. p. (ioO.) I. Tltpi 
fllMpfiivvs Koi ToO t(j>' ^fuf, De Futo, deque eo 
guo(l in nostra potestate est: the short treatise 
mentioned above, dedicated to the emperors Se- 
verus and CanicalL'i ; first printed by the suc- 
cessors of Aldus Manutius, 1534, folio, at the end 
of the works of Themistius : translated into Latin 
by Orotius in the collection entitled "Veterum 
Philos. Sententiae de Fato," Paris, l0'48, 4to., 
Lond. 11)88, 12mo., and edited by Orelli, Zurich, 
1824, 8vo., with a fragment of Alexander Aphrodis. 
/fe /or/Mwa, and treatisesof Ammonias, Plotinus,6LC. 
on the same subject. II. Comi>u-ntarius{^Tw6fxyrifia) 
in priinum librum Analylkorum I'riorum A rutoldus, 
Venet. Aldi, 1520, fol.; Floren. 1521, 4tQ., with a 
Latin translation by J. Bap. Felicianus. III. Com- 
nietUanas in VIH libros Topieorum, Yen. Aldi, 
1513 ; with a Latin version by Ci. Dorotheas, V'en. 
I52(i and 1541 , and Paris, 1542, folio ; and another 
by Rassirius, Yen. 1563, 1573, folio. IV. Com- 
ment, in Elcttckon S<^)kiiiiicos ; Graece, Veu. Aldi, 



ALEXANDER. 



113 



1 520, fol. ; Flor. 1520, fol. : translated into Latin by 
J. B. lUisarius. V. Comment, in Ahtaphysicorum 
XII lihros; ex versione J. G. Sepulvedae, Rom. 
1527, Paris, 1536, Ven. 1544 and 1561. The 
Greek text has never been printed, although it 
exists in the Paris library and lereral other*. 
VI. In lUjrum deSensu et iit tptae $tib ttiimm eadmut; 
the Greek text is printed at the end of the com- 
mentary of Simplicius on the De Anima, Ven. Aldi, 
1527, folio ; there is also a I^atin version by Luci- 
lius Philothaeus, Ven. 1544, 1549, 1554, 1559, 
1573. VII. In ArittoUli* MeteroUiyiea ; Ven. 
Aldi, 1 527 ; supposed by some not to be the 
work of Alexander Aphrod. VIII. De MiUione; 
bound up in the Muoe edition as the preceding. 
IX. I)e AnimA Ubri dmo (two distinct works), 
printed in Greek at the end of Themistius : there 
is a Latin version by Ilieronymus Donatus, Ven. 
1 502, 1514, folio. X . Pkynicu ScJkJioy duhitutiouet 
et tolHtionet ; in Greek, Ven. TrincavellL, 153(>, 
folio; in Latin, by Ilieronvmus liagolinus, Ven. 
1541, 1549, 1555, 1559, 1563. XL 'UtrpmA 
'Awopl^^uera koI ^vauca UpoSKi^fiara, QHamHomm 
Medicae et ProliUmaia Fhytica. XII. 11*^ niijp*- 
rwv, LiMius de Febribtu. The hut two treatises 
are attributed by Theodore Gaca and many other 
writers to Alexander Trallianus. They are spokeo 
of below. 

His commentariet on the Categories, on the lat- 
ter Analytics (of the last there was a translation 
by St. Jerome), on the De Anima and Rhetorical 
works, and also on those v«pl y*viatmt icol ^Bopis^ 
together with a work entitled Liber I de Theologia, 
probably ' iii the Conunentariea on the 

Meiaph\ ~ extant in Arabic. A Cobh 

mentary ^ , — ; Analytics, on the De Inter- 

preiatioiie, a treatise on the Virtues, a work enti- 
tled ttfi hauijuivw* A^ot, a treatise against Zeno- 
bius the Epicurean, and another on the nature and 
qualities of Stones, also a book of Allegories from 
mythological &blea, an all eilhar quoted by other* 
or reftired to by himaott [B. J.] 

Beaidea the works nniwrwlly attributed to 
Alexander Aphrodisiensis, there are extant two 
others, of which the author is not certainly known, 
but which are by loaie penona suppoted to belong 
to him, and which eonmoolj go under hia name. 
The tirst of these is entitled '^mrpatk 'Awafi^Mtrc 
Kol 4>iMrMcd IVoCMmts, t^innitfraw Medieae et 
FroUemata Ph/tiai, which there are strong reasons 
for believing to be the work of some other writer. 
In the first place, it is not mentioned in the list of 
his works given by the Arabic author quoted by 
Casiri {UtUioth. Arabico-Higp. E»citrud. voL i. 
p. 243) ; secondly, it appears to have been written 
by a person who belonged to the medical profession 
(ii. praefl et § 11), which was not the case with 
Alexander Aphrodisiensis ; thirdly, the writer re- 
fers (L 87) to a work by himself, entitled 'A\At/- 
yopiixi Twf «<i dfovs 'AvwrKaTToixivuiv nSaviiv 
'liTTopuiv, AUe^riae Hiitoriurum Credibilium de 
Diis FidirietUarum, which we do not find mention- 
ed among Alexander's works ; fourthly, he more 
than once speaks of the soul as immortal (ii. praef. 
et § 63, 67), which doctrine Alexander Aphrodi- 
siensis denied ; and fifthly, the style and language 
of the work seem to belong to a Liter age. Several 
eminent critics suppose it to belong to Alexander 
Tralliaims, but it does not seem likely that a 
Christian writer would have comjwsed the mytho- 
logical work mentioned above. It consists of two 

I 



114 



ALKXANDKU. 



booki, nnd contniiiK neviTal inU-reiitiiijf im'dieal ol>- 
iMTVHtioiiH aliMiK will) iniicli that in trivoliMm ttiid 
tritliiif(. It wiiH iirHt pulili«lie<i in a I^itiii traiixla- 
tioii l.y (Ji-orn(! Valk Vcia-t. 141111, fol. TIk; 
Orci-k text in to l>e found in th« Aldino edition of 
AriHtotle'i worku, Venet fol, 149.'), and in that by 
Syll)iir)(iiiii, Krancof. 1.'>)1.'), Kvo. ; it wh» puhliiiliMl 
vvitli a Ijdtiii tninKJation by. J. Davinn, i'ariit. 1.540, 
l.'>41, KiriKi.; and it in inMTt<*d in the tlritt volume 
of Id(!l(!r'» J'Jiytu'i et Medici O'racci Minora, lierol. 
1841, «vo. 

The other work it a ihort treatii«, Xltpl Tlvprrmy, 
J)f l-'flirihuK, which i« addremed to a niiHlical pupil 
whom the author otferi to iniitrui-t in any othrr 
bnmch of medicine ; it ii also omitted in the 
Arabic lint of Alexander's works mentioned above. 
For theiu> rciwons it doe* not icera likely to be the 
work of Alexander Aphrodiiiien»iii, while the whole 
of the twelfth book of the ffrcat medical work of 
Alexander Trnllianu* (to whom it haa alao been 
attributed) is taken up with the subject of Ferer, 
and he would hardly have written two trMtlaea on 
the lame disease without makinf^ in either the 
•li){hte»t allusion to the other. It ntay poaaibly 
b<don^ to one of the other numeroiu pbjaieiana of 
the name of Alexander. It waa fint pabliiked in 
a I^itin trunsUitioii by Oeorgc Valla, Vraot. 1498, 
fob, which waH several times reprinted. TheOfcek 
text first appeared in the Cambridn Mmmtm 
CriiieuHt, vol. ii. |ip. 3o9 — 389, tanaanbod by D»- 
metrius S<'hiuiu from a raamncript at Flonooe; it 
was published, to);ether with Valla's tnuMlation, by 
Kninz Passow, Vratislav. 1H22, 4ta, and also in 
Passow's ( tftuscula AcudeinioOj Lip*. 18.'i5, Bvo., 
p. .5"21. The (ireek text alone is contained in the 
first volume of Ideler** I'hytici et Medici Graed 
Minores, HeroL 1841, Bvo. [W. A. G.] 

ALEXANDER ('AA^gavSpoi), the eldest ton of 
Aristobum'8 II., king of Judaea, waa taken pri- 
soner, with his fitther and brother, by Pompey, on 
the capture of Jerusalem (b. c. 63), but made his 
escape as tliey were being conveyed to Ilome. In 
B. c. .57, he appeared in Judaea, raised an army of 
10,000 foot and 1500 horse, and fortified Alexan- 
dreion and other strong posts. Hyrcanus applied 
for aid to Gabinius, who brought a large army 
against Alexander, and sent M. Antonius with a 
body of troops in advance. In a battle fought 
near Jerusalem, Alexander was defeated with great 
loss, and took refuge in the fortress of Alexan- 
dreioii, which was forthwith invested. Through 
the mediation of his mother he was permitted to 
depart, on condition of surrendering all the for- 
tresses still in his power. In the following year, 
during the expedition of CJabinius into Egypt, 
Alexander again excited the Jews to revolt, and 
collected an army. He massacred all the Romans 
who fell in his way, and besieged the rest, who had 
taken refuge on Mount Gerizim. After rejecting 
the terms of peace which were offered to him by 
Gabinius, he was defeated near Mount Tabor with 
the loss of 10,000 men. The spirit of his ad- 
herents, however, was not entirely crushed, for in 
B. c. 53, on the death of Crassus, he again collected 
some forces, but was compelled to come to terms by 
Cassias, (b. c. 52.) In b. c. 49, on the breaking 
out of the civil war, Caesar set Aristobulus at 
liberty, and sent him to Judaea, to further his in- 
terests in that quarter. He was poisoned on the 
jouniey, and Alexander, who was preparing to 
support him, was seized at the command of Pompey, 



ALEXANDER. 

and bell' '. :>ti(Kh. (Jo«cph. AnI. JmL 

XIV. .5- , i. 8,9.) IC P. .M.J 

A I ' i ATMKwa, a C4<iuic port, the 

»<>! < name occur* in an inkcn|>- 

ti"i {Oorp. Iifcr.i. p. Hih), who 

rettnit tu tbe 1 ^o^i Olympiad, (a. c. 200.) Tbrni 
■eam also to have been a poet of the smoc na<u« 
who was a writer of the luiddl* comMly, quuti-d 
by the Schol. on Homer (//. ix. 216), and Ari»t4iph. 
{Han. mA), and Atheiu (iv. p. 17», e. x. p. 49«i. r.; 
Meineke, Frtupn. (mm. vol. L p. 487.) (C P. M.J 

ALKXANDKR ('AA«{a»4poi), au amba—dor 
of king Attali;m, tent to Rmm ia AC 198, t» 
negotiate peace with the Rmhb aiMlii (Poljrhb 
xviL 10.) [I«-8.J 

ALEXANDER HAL.\8 fAAf^i^Vt Wd^tu), 
a person of low origin, luarped the tkfooo id 
the Greek kingdom of Syria, in the year IM, 
B. c, pretending that be waa the too of AntiodMM 
Epiphanea. Hm ckim waa att Mp by Hemtkiiatt 
who had bam tht Itmnum of tho hMo ki^ Aatio- 
choa EpiphMMa, bat had hi«i kaiahod to Bhadea 
by tho nipaaf kiaf^ 



waa a ap por to d hj P%tkmf Wkmittm, kiaf af 
EgTpt, Ariarthoa Philiptnr. king of Cappadeda, 
aad Attalua PhOaddphaa, hii« of Po 
H eradoi doa alia, hariag lnkMi Aloaador to1 
t acc aoda d b abtoiaiac a di— a of tho aaatto ia 
hia fwoar. Famiahod with feataa bjr thoae alHoa, 
Alenador aatand 8jm ia 152, a. c, took po»> 
ienioo at Ptdwarii, aod CMght a battJo with 
Demetriua Soter, in which, howorer, ho waa do- 
feated. In the year 150 a. c Alexaador aa^ 
met DeoMtriaa in battlo with btttor wicfiaa. Tho 
army of Deaotriua waa ooapktoljr natod, aad ho 
bimaelf periahed in tho iiaht No aooaor had 
Alexander thoa obtained tho kiagdoai thaa ho 
gave up tho adainiatiatioa of afiura to hia luaio- 
ter Ammoniot, and himaelf to a life of aioaaare. 
Anunoniut put to death all the mem b eia of the Into 
royal family who were in hia power; bat two oaao 
of Demetrius won afe in Cnte. Tho oldar of 
them, who waa named Demetiioa, took the field ia 
Cilicia against the usurper. Alexander applied 
for help to hit iather-in-hiw, Ptolemy Philomietor, 
who marched into Syria, and then dedared hiat- 
self in favour of Demetriua. Alexaader now re- 
turned from Cilicia, whither he had gone to Meet 
Demetrius, and engaged in battle with Ptolemy at 
the river Oenoparas. In tbii battle, thoogh 
Ptolemy fell, Alexander was completely defaotMl, 
and he was afterwards murdered by an Arabian 
emir with whom he had taken refuge, (b. c. 1 46.) 
The meaning of his surname (Balas) is doubtfuL 
It it most probably a title signifying ** lord " or 




" king." On some of his coins he is called 
" Epiphanes" and '* Nicephortts" after his pre- 
tended father. On others " Euergetes " and 
" Theopator." (Polyb. xxxiii. 14, 16 ; Li v. EpiL 
L liii. ; Justin, xxr. ; Appian, iyriaca, c 67 ; 1 



ALEXANDER. 

Maccab. x. 11 ; Joseph. Ant. xiii. 2. § 4 ; Euseb. 
Clirmiicun ; Clinton, Fasti, iii. p. 324.) [P. S.] 

ALEXANDER, of Beroea ; he and Thyrsis 
suffocated Demetrius, the son of Philip III. of 
Macedonia, at Heracleia, in b. c. 179. (Liv. xl. '24 ; 
comp. Demetrius son of Philip.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER ('AA«'{oj'5poj), at first bishop 
in Cappadocia, flourished a. d. 212. On the 
death of Severus, a. D. 211, he visited Jerusalem, 
and was made coadjutor of the aged Narcissus, 
bishop of that city, whom he afterwards succeeded, 
lie founded an ecclesiastical library at Jerusalem, 
of which Eusebius made great use in writing his 
History. After suffering under Severus and Cara- 
calla, he was at last thrown into prison at Caesarea, 
and, after witnessing a good confession, died a. d. 
230. Eusebius has preserved fragments of a letter 
written by him to the Antinoi'tes ; of another to 
the Antiochenes {Hist. Evd. vi. 11); of a third 
to Origen (vi. 14); and of another, written in con- 
junction with Theoctistus of Caesarea, to Deme- 
trius of Alexandria, (vi. 19.) [A. J. C] 

ALEXANDER, CARBONARIUS ('A\*i- 
avZpos 6 'Av0paKfvs)j flourished in the third 
centurj'. To avoid the dangers of a hand- 
some person, he disguised himself and lived as 
a coal-heaver at Cumae, in Asia Minor. The see 
of this city being vacant, the people asked St. 
Gregory Thaumaturgus to come and ordain them a 
bishop. He rejected many who were offered for 
consecration, and when he bade the people prefer 
virtue to rank, one in mockery cried out, ** Well, 
then! make Alexander, the coal-heaver, bishop!" 
St. Gregory had him summoned, discovered his 
disguise, and having arrayed him in sacerdotal 
vestments, presented him to the people, who, with 
surprise and juy, accepted tlie ap^H>iiitmeut. lie 
addressed them in homely but diguitied phrase, 
and ruled the church till the Decian persecution, 
when he was burnt, a. d. 251. (S. Greg. Nyssen. 
Vit. S. Greg. Tluiumatury. §§ 19, 20, ap. Gallund. 
liMoth. Pair. vol. iii. pp. 457— 4G0.) [A. J. C] 

ALEXANDER {'KKilavipos), third sou of 
Cassanukr, king of Macedonia, by Thessalonica, 
sister of Alexander the Great. In his quarrel 
with his elder brother Antipater for the govern- 
ment [Antipatkr], he called in the aid of 
PyrrhuB of Epirus and Demetrius PolioroetM. 
To the former he was compelled to surrender, as 
the price of his alliance, the land on the seft-coast 
of Macedonia, together with the provinces of Am- 
bnicia, Acarnania, and Amphilochia. (Plut. 
Pyrrk. p. 386, b.) Demetrius, according to Plu- 
tarch {Pyrrh. 386, d., Demetr. 906, a.), arrived 
after Pyrrhus had retired, and when matters, 
through his mediation, had been arranged between 
the brothers. Demetrius, therefore, was now an 
unwelcome visitor, and Alexander, while he re- 
ceived him with all outward civility, is said by 
Plutarch to have laid a plan for murdering him at 
a banquet, which was buttled, however, by the 
precaution of Demetrius. (Demetr. 906, a. b.) 
The next day Demetrius took his depjirture, and 
Alexander attended him as far as Thessaly. Here, 
at Larissa, he went to dine with Demetrius, and 
(taking no guards with him by a fancied refine- 
ment of policy) was assassinated, together with his 
friends who attended him, one of whom is said to 
have exclaimed, that Demetrius was only one day 
beforehand with them. (Plut. Detiu-ir. p. 906, 
c. d. ; Just. xvi. 1 ; Diod. xxL Exc. 7.) [E. E.] 



ALEXANDER. 



115 



ALEXANDER ('AAffco'Spos), emperor of Con- 
STANTINOPI-K, was the third son of the emperor 
Ba&ilius and Eudocia. He was bom about a. d. 
870, and, after his father's death, he and his bro- 
ther Leo, the philosopher, bore the title of iinperator 
in common. Leo died on the 11th of May, 911, 
and Alexander received the imperial crown, toge- 
ther with the guardianship of his brother's son, 
Constantinus Porphyrogenitus, whom be would 
have mutihited so as to render him nnfit to gorem, 
had he not been prsTented. The reign of Alex- 
ander, which lasted onlj for <me jtmi and some 
days, was one uninterrupted series of acts of 
cruelty, debauchery', and liceutiousoess ; for the 
restraints which he had been obliged to pat on 
himself during the lifetime of his brother, were 
thrown off immediately after hia ■cression, and 
the worthiest pen>ons were remored from the court 
wliile the ministers to his huts and passions were 
raised to the highest honoors. He involved hia 
empire in a war with Suneon, king of the Bulgn- 
riuns, but he did not live to see ita enthnnk. He 
died on the 7th of June, 912, in eaueqwaee ef k 
debauch, after which be took violent exeraae en 
horseback. (Constant, in Btutii. 26 ; Scylitz. pp. 
569, 608 ; Zonaras, xvi. 15, &c.) ["L. S.] 

ALEXANDER (ST.), patriarch of Constanti- 
nople. [Arius.] 

M ' ^ • M >ER CORN E'LI US ('AA«'{a*«po» 
K rnamed Polvuiktuh (no\vtarmp)^ 

a ( ' : and eontemporary of Sulla. Act-ord- 

ing to buidas he was a native of Kphesus and a 
pupil of Crates, and during the war of Sulla in 
Greece was made priaoner and sold as a slave to 
Cornelius lientnhw, who took him to Home and 
made him the fiJenmn af his ahildNa. After- 
wards Lentulus le stow d Um te frndn«t ¥nm 
Suidas it would aeea ae if he had leemvad the 
gentile name Ce r neli e e fnm Lentulus, while 8er- 
vius (ad Am. x. S88) tBya, that he received the 
RooHHi ftaachiee from L. CamaliHa Salk. He 
died at laweatM in a fire whick CMMnaed his 
house, and as soon as his wiit heard ef the cala- 
mity, she hung hersell The etateitint of Suidas 
that he was a native of Epheaaa is eontradicted by 
Stephanus Byiantius («. «. Kemdeer), who says 
that he was a native of Cotiaeom in Leaier Phrygia, 
and a son of Aadepiadea, and who is bonie out by 
the EtymologieMB Mafnun («. ev. UioiKa and 
w*pt^pitfi4s\ where Alexander is called Koruuus. 
The surname of Polyhiator was given to him on 
account of his prodigious learning. He is said to 
have written innumerable works, but the givatest 
and most important among them was one consisting 
of 42 books, which Stephanus Byzantius calls 
rioj^oSaT^s "TAni A6yoi, This work appears to 
have contained historical and geographical accounts 
of neariy all countries of the ancient world. Each 
of the forty books treated of a separate country, 
and bore a corresponding title, such as Phrygiaca, 
Carica, Lyciaca, &.C. But such titles are not al- 
ways sure indications of a book forming only a 
part of the great work ; and in some cases it is 
manifest that particular countries were treated of 
in separate works. Thus we find mention of the 
first book of a separate work on Crete (Schol. a<^ 
Apollun. Rhod. iv. 1492), and of another on the 
" Tiactus Illyricus." (VaL Max. viii. 13, ext. 7.) 
These geographico-historical works are referred to 
in innumerable passages of Stephanus Byzantius 
and Pliny. A separate work on the Phrjgiaji 



iia 



ALEXANDKR. 



iniiHicinn)) in motitinnod \>y I'liitarch (A; ^flu, A), 
itiiil tlicro in rvrry pniKiliility tliat Alrxmuicr I'oly- 
liiHtor in iiIho tli<! author of the work Auidoxai 
4>i\()it6<Pui', which wciiu to he the (groundwork of 
DioKciicK I,ii<TtiuH. (Ai.kxanhkk Lvciinijk. ] A 
work oil tlic HyuiboU of the I'ythajjorcnn* in moii- 
tioiiud by OhMiicnii AlpxandriiiUH(.Ny/-«m. i. i>. 1 ."11 ) 
nnd CynlUiH (dilr. JuJuin. ix. p. 133). lie al*o 
wrote a hiHtory of .ludsu-a, of which a connidfrable 
fni({ni<'nt Ih preiwrvcd in Kuwhiun. {/'niq^. J'Jvtimf, 
ix. 17; comji. (Ili'in. Ah-xuiid. Strom, i. ji 143; 
Stcph. Hyz. *.r. 'louicda.) A hiittory of Home in five 
l)ook» in incntioTicd by Suida*, and a few fruKtnentii 
of it arc prewrvcd in Serviu*. {Ad Am. viii. 330, 
X. 3>lfl.) A complete lint of all the known title* 
of the works of Alexander I'olyhi»tor i» ffiven in 
Vossius, IM Iliat. Uniec. p. 187, &c., ed. Wenter- 
inann. (L. S.] 

ALEXANDER I. II., king* of Egypt. [1'to- 

LBMAKUft.] 

ALEXANDER ('AX^favJfwt) I., king of Efh 
Rus, was the ton of Neoptolemus and brother of 
Olympiaa, the mother of Alexander the Oraftt. 
He came at an early ago to the court of Philip of 
Macedonia, and after the (irecian fn«hion became 
the object of hix attachment. Philip in requital 
made him king of Epirus, after dethroning his cou- 
sin Aeacides. When Olympias wos repudiated 
l)y her huxlmnd, she went to her brother, and en- 
deavoured to induce him to make war on I'hilip. 
Philip, however, declined the contest, and formed 
n second alliance with him by giving him his 
daughter Cleopatra in marriage. (li.c. 33(i.) At 
the wedding Philip was assassinated by Pauaanias. 
In R. r. 33*2, Alexander, at the request of the 
larentines, crossed over into Italy, to aid them 
ngiiinst the I^ucanians and linittii. After a victory 
over the Samnites and Lucanians near Paestum 
he made a treaty with the Romans. Success still 
followe<l his arms. He took Heraclea and Consen- 
tia from the Lucanians, and Terina and Sipontum 
from the Bruttii. Rut in B. c 3"26, through the 
treachery of some Liicanian exiles, he was com- 
pelled to engage under unfavourable circumstances 
near Pandosiik, on the banks of the Acheron, and 
fell by the hand of one of the exiles, as he was 
crossing the river; thus accomplishing the prophecy 
of the oracle of Dodona, which had bidden him be- 
ware of Pandosia and the Acheron. He left a son, 
Neoptolemus, and a daughter, Cadmea. (Justin, 
viii. 6, ix. (5, 7, xii. 2, xvii. 3, xviii. 1, xxiii. 1 ; 
Liv. viii. 3, 17, 24 ; Diod. xvi. 72.) The head on 
the annexed coin of Alexander I. represents that 
of Jupiter. [C. P. M.] 




ALEXANDER II., king of Epirus, was the 
Bon of Pyrrhus and Lanassa, the daughter of the 
Sicilian tyrant Agathocles. He succeeded his fa- 
ther in B. c. 272, and continned the war which his 
father had begun with Antigonus Gonatas, whom 
he succeeded in driving from the kingdom of 
Macedon. He was, however, dispossessed of both 



ALEXANDER. 

Macedon and Epims lijr Detnetrius, the SAn of 
AntigriiiuK; u|i<in which he t<Mik n-fiifte Btiioti(r»t 
the AQinianian*. I)y their aMJsUuicc aiid that uf 
hi* own Kubjects, who rntert!tiii«Hl a ^tntX attarb- 
ment fur him, he n-covervd Kbirut. It apfirars 
tliat he was in alliance with the Aetolians. lie 
married hi* ki(t<-r OlynipLaa, by wb»m he had two 
sons, Pyrrhus and PtJiU-iiuii-u*, and a daughter, 
Phthia. On the death uf Alexander, Olympiaa 
asMUBed tbfl ngracr ob bahatf of ker mm, aad 
married Pkthk !• faimrtriiifc Than mm «stMt 
silver and enppcr wiaa of tUa kiaf. TIm tutmm 
liear a youthful head coverad with Um ikte af aa 
elephant's head, aa afifMara in Um one Agurad b** 
low. The reverse f UBwa a nU Paliaa hoidiaf a spatf 
in one hand and a anield ia Um oUmt, aad bnbf* 
her stands an eagle on a thunderbolt. (Joatin, xviL 
I, xxvi. 2, 3, xxviiL 1 ; Poljrb. iL 4.S, ix. 34; 
Plut. I'yrrK 9.) [C. P. M.J 




ALEXANDER f AAi(a»<pot), a Oreek GaAM. 
MARIAN, who is mentioned among the instnictora 
of the emperor M. Antoninus. (Capitol. M. Atd.l; 
M. Antonin. L § 10.) We still possess a AoTot 
^iriT((^u>t pronounced upon him by the rhetorician 
Aristeides. (Vol. i. Oral. xii. p. 142, &c.) (L.S.] 

ALEXANDER, son of Herrxi. [Hkrodbs.] 

ALEXANDER ('AA^(ai^^«). 1. Bishop of 
HiERAFOLis in Phrygia, flourished A. D. 253. He 
WBS the author of a book entitled. On tit neie tkmff$ 
intro(fiuxd by Chriit inlo tke vxnid ri k«up6* tic^ 
vtfKt %puTT6t tls T^¥ mia^um. ae^. 0' ; not extant. 
(Suid.) V, 

2. Bishop of Ilierapolis, a. n. 431. He waa 
sent by John, bishop of Antioch, to advocate the 
cause of Nestorius at the Council of Ephesus. His 
hostility to St. Cyril was such, that he openly 
charged him with Apollinaranism, and rejected 
the communion of John, Theodoret, and the other 
E)astem bishops, on their reconciliation with him. 
He appealed to the pope, but was rejected, and 
was at last banished by the emperor to Famotbis 
in Egypt Twenty-three letters of his are extant in 
Latin in the Synodicon advergus Tragoediam Irtjuui 
ap. Noram CoUectionem Conciliorum a Baluxio, p. 
670, &c. Paris, 1683. [A. J. C] 

ALEXANDER ('AXi^tpoi), ST., HIERO- 
SOLYMITANUS, a disciple, first, of Pantaenns, 
then of St. Clement, at Alexandria, where he be- 
came acquainted with Origen, (Euseb. Iliit. Eccl. vi. 
14,) was bishop of Flaviopolis, (Tillemont, Hist. 
Eccl. iii. 415,) in Cappadocia. (S. Hier. Vir. IlL 
§ 62.) In the persecution under Sevenrs he vras 
thrown into prison, (circ. a-d. 204, Euseb. vL 11,) 
where he remained tUl Asclepiades succeeded 
Serapion at Antioch, a. d. 211, the beginning of 
Caracalla's reign. (See [a] the Epistle St. Alex- 
ander sent to the Antiochenes by St Clement of 
Alexandria. Euseb. H.E.yi, 11.) Eusebius re-. 



ALEXANDER. 

lates (/. c), that by Divine revelation he be- 
came coadjutor bishop to Narcissus, bishop of 
Aolia, i. e. Jerusalem, a. d. 212. (See Euseb. 
//. E. vi. 8; Chronic, ad A. D. 228, and Alexan- 
der's [i3] Epistle to the AntinoVtes ap. Euseb. //. E. 
vi. 11.) During his episcopate of nearly forty 
years (for he continued bishop on the death of 
St. Narcissus), he collected a valuable library of 
Ecclesiastical Epistles, which existed in the time of 
Eusebius. (//.£. vi. 20.) He received Origen when 
the troubles at Alexandria drove him thence, a. d. 
21 fi, and made him, though a layman, explain the 
Scriptures publicly, a proceeding which he justified 
in [7] an epistle to Bishop Demetrius, of Alexandria, 
(ap. Euseb. H. E. vi. 19,) who, however, gent 
some deacons to bring Origen home. As Origen 
was passing through Palestine, on some necessary 
business, St. Alexander ordained him priest, 
(S. llier. /. c. §§ 54, 6"2,) which caused great dis- 
turbance in the church. [Ohigkn.] A fragment of a 
[8] letter from St. Alexander to Origen on the sub- 
ject exists, ap. Euseb. II. E. vL 14. St Alexander 
died in the Decian persecution, a. d. 251, in prison 
(S. Dion. Alex. up. Euseb. II. E. vi. 46) after great 
Bufferings {Euseb. vi. 39), and is commemorated in 
the Easteni church on 12th December, in the West- 
ern on l()th March. Ma/abanes succeeded him. 
St. Clement of Alexandria dedicated to him his De 
Canone Ecdesiastico about the observance of Easter. 
(II. E. vi. 13.) His fragments have been men- 
tioned in chronological order, and are collected 
in Oalhmdi, Bibl. Pair. ii. p. 201, and in Routh's 
Be/it/uiae &icnie, ii. p. 39. [A. J. C] 

ALEXANDER, JANNAEUS {'AKiiayipos 
'lavyalus), was the son of Johannes Hyrcaniu, and 
brother of Aristobuius L, whom he succeeded, as 
King of the Jews, in B. c. 104, after putting to 
death one of his brothers, who hiid claim to the 
crown. He took advantage of the unquiet state of 
Syria to attack the cities of Ftolemais (Acre), 
Dora, and Gaza, which, with several others, had 
nuide themselves independent The people of 
Ptolemais applied for aid to Ptolemy Lathynu, 
then king of Cyprus, who came with an army of 
thirty thousiind men. Alexander was defeated on 
the banks of the Jordan, ajid Ptolemy ravaged the 
country in the most barbarous manner. In b. c. 
1 02, Cleopatra came to the assistance (^ Alexan- 
der with a tleet and army, and Ptolemy waa com- 
pelled to return to Cyprus, (b. c. 101.) Soon af- 
terwards Alexander invaded Coele Syria, and re- 
newed his attacks upon the independent cities. In 
B. c. 96 he took Gaza, destroyed the city, and 
massacred all the inhabitants. The result of these 
undertakings, and his having attached himself to 
the piirty of the Sadducees, drew upon him the 
hatred of the Pharisees, who were by far the more 
numerous party. He was attacked by the people 
in B. c. 94, while officiating as high-priest at the 
feast of Tabernacles ; but the insurrection was put 
dowai, and six thousand of the insurgents slain. In 
the next year (b. c. 93) he made an expedition 
against Arabia, and made the Arabs of Gilead and 
the Moabites tributarj*. But in b. c. 92, in a 
campaign against Obedas, the emir of the Arabs of 
Gaulonitis, he fell into an ambush in the moun- 
tains of Gadara ; his army was entirely destroyed, 
and he himself escaped with difficulty. The Pha- 
risees seized the opportunity thus aiforded, and 
broke out into open revolt. At first they were 
successful, and Alexander was compelled to Hy to 



ALEXANDER. 



117 



the mountains (b. c. 88) ; but two years after- 
wards he gained two decisive victories. After the 
second of these, he caused eight hundred of the 
chief men amongst the rebels to be crucified, and 
their wives and children to be butchered before 
their eyes, while he and his concubines banqueted 
in sight of the victims. This act of atrocity pro- 
cured for him the name of ** the Thracian." It 
produced its effect, however, and the rebellion was 
shortly afterwarda tuppressed, after the war had 
lasted six year*. During the next three years 
Alexander made some succcMful campaigni, leoo- 
vered several cities and fortreMea, and pushed his 
conquests beyond the Jordan. On his return to 
Jerusalem, in a. c. 81, his excessive drinking 
brought on a quartan ague, of which be died three 
years afterwards^ wkila engigad in the siege ot 
Ragaba in Genaeaa, aftar a niga of twaatynven 
years. He left his kingdom to his wife Alexandra. 
Coins of this king are extant, from which it ap- 
pears that his proper name was Jonathan, and that 
Alexander was a name which be aasamed accord* 
ing to the prevalent custom. (Josephna, AtU. Jwi. 
xiii. 12-15.) (a P.M.] 

ALEXANDER ('AA^foi'Vi). nniamed luus 
the chief commander of the Aetolians, was a man 
of considerable ability and eloquence for an Aeto- 
lian. (Liv. xxxii. 33; Polyb. xviL 3, &c.) In 
B. c 198 he was present at a colloquy held at 
Nicaea on the Malkc gnU^ and spoke against Phi- 
lip III. of Macedonia, saying that the king ought 
to be compelled to quit Greece, and to nstom to 
the Aetolians the towns which had fetmeriy been 
subject to them. Philip, indignant at such a de- 
mand being made by an Aetolian, answered him 
in a speech from his ship. (Lir. zxxiL Si.) Soob 
after this meetti^ ha was sent as ■mhassadnr of 
tha Aetolians to Rene, where, together with other 
envoys, he was to treat with the sniate about 
peace, but at the same time to bring accusations 
against Philip. (Polyb. xviL 10.) In a c 197, 
Alexander again took part in a meeting, at which 
T. Quinctias Fkmiainoa with his allies and king 
Philip wan pwaoBt, and at whidi peace with Phi- 
lip was disnuaed. Alexander dissnaded his friends 
friHn any peaceful arrangement with Philip. (Po- 
lyb. xviiL 19, &c. ; Appian, Mtuxd. viL 1.) In 
B. c. 1 95, when a oooness of all the Greek states 
that were allied with Rome was convoked by T. 
Quinctias Fhunininns at CMinth, for the purpose 
of MMldoriag the war that was to be undertaken 
agaiast Nahis, Alexander ^loke against the Atho- 
nians, and also insinuated that the Romans were 
acting fraudolently towards Greece. (Liv. xxxiv. 
23.) When in b. c. 189 M. Fulvius NobUior, 
after his victory over Antiochus, was expected to 
mareh into Aetolia, the Aetolians sent envoys to 
Athens and Rhodes ; and Alexander Isius, toge- 
ther with Phaneas and Lycopus, were sent to 
Rome to sue for peace. Alexander, now an old 
man, was at the head of the embassy ; but he and 
his colleagues were made prisoners in Cephalenia 
by the Epeirots, for the purpose of extorting a heavy 
ransom. Alexander, however, although he was 
very wealthy, refused to pay it, and was accord- 
ingly kept in captivity for some days, after which 
he was liberated, at the command of the Romans, 
without any ransom. (Polyb. xxiL 9.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER ('AAt|o»^poi), sumamed Lych- 
Nus (Aux''os), a Greek rhetorician and poet He 
was a native of Ephesus, nv hence he is sometimes 



J18 



ALEXANDER. 



cnllod Aloxnndpr Kphoiiiun, and inu»t hare lived 
•hortly Wforn tlic liini! of Htraf>o (xiv. p. 042), 
wild rnontioiiR him amon)^ ilm moro rweiit Kphciiian 
iiiitliorK, ami ai»o MUitm, that he took a |iHrt in the 
piiiitii:al iiiruir* of his nativi; city. Stnilio aw:rilje« 
to him a liintory, and [xtomi of a didactic kind, 
viz. one on aMtronmny and another on ^coffnijihy, 
in which he dpxcrilM'ii the great continenta of tM 
worhl, trcatin)( of each in a iiepnrate work or bookf 
wiiich, aH we learn from other sourcw, bora tk* 
name of the continent of which it nnntttnrf an 
account. What kind of hintory it wu that SUafao 
BlliideK to, ill uncertAin. The so-called Aureliua 
Victor (rf<? Oriff, Genl. Horn. U) ((uotei, it it true, 
the first hook of a hintory of the Manic war br 
Alexander the Kpheiiiiin ; but thi* authority u 
more than donlitful. Some writeni have nuppoeed 
that thin Alexander i» thi- author of the hiitory of 
the RucccHMion of Greek philosopher* {ad riy pi\»- 
ff6<put' 8ia8uxa(), which it to often referred to by 
Dingenen Lnertiui (i. 116', ii. 19, lOti, iii. 4, 5, 
iv. (;•_>, vii. 179, viii. 24, ix. 61); but thii work 
belonged |>rolNil)ly to Alexander Polyhiitor. Ilii 
geographical p(M-m, of which n-veral fraginenta are 
Htiil extant, in frequently referred to by .Stephanui 
]iymntiuR and other*. (Steph. Hyz. *. vr. Aoin/fof, 
TairpoSifrj, Awpot, 'TpKcwol, MfAiro/o, &c.; comp. 
KuRtath. wt Dumi/i. I'rriep. 3BH, 591.) Of hi* 
nstronomicn! pm-m a fragment is still extant, which 
has lK>en erroneously attril>uted by (ialr- {AiUmtl. 
ad I'artlien. p. 49) and Schneider {ad VUrur. ii. 
p. 23, &c.) to Alexander Aetolus. (See Naeke, 
fSc/uidae Critioae, p. 7, &c.) It is highly proljable 
that Cicero {ad Att. ii. 20, 22) is speaking of 
Alexander Lychnus when he says, that Alexander 
is not a good poet, a careless writer, but yet pos- 
sessM's some infonnation, [L. S.] 

ALEXANDi;RLYC0P0LI'TES('AA«'Jai'5pot 
Au»toiroAiTijj), was so called firom Lycnpolis, in 
Egypt, whether as bom there, or because he was 
bishop there, is uncertain. At first a pagan, he 
was next instructed in Manicbeeism by persons 
acquainted with Manes himself. Converted to the 
faith, he wrote a confutation of the heresy ( Trae- 
ialus de Placitis Manichaeorum) in Greek, which 
was first published by Combefis, with a Latin 
version, in the Auctarium Novissimum Bibl. ts. 
Pair. Ps. ii. pag. 3, &c. It is published dso by 
Gollandi, B\hi. I'atr. vol. iv. p. 73. He was bishop 
of Lycopolis, (Phot. Epitome de Munich, ap. 
Muntfaucon. Biil. Coislitu p. 354,) and probably 
immediately preceded Meletius. (Le Quien, Oriens 
Xnun. vol. iL p. 597.) [A. J. C] 

ALEXANDER {^AXi^aySpos), the son of Lvsi- 
MACHus by an Odrysian woman, whom Polvacnus 
(vi. 12) calls Macris. On the murder of his 
brother Agathocles [see p. 65, a] by command of 
his father in b. c. 284, he fled into Asia with the 
widow of his brother, and solicited aid of Seleucus. 
A war ensued in consequence between Seleucus 
and Lysimachus, which terminated in the defeat 
and death of the latter, who was slain in battle in 
B. c. 281, in the plain of Coros in Phrygia. His 
body was conveyed by his son Alexander to the 
Chersonesus, and there buried between Cardia and 
Pactya, where his tomb was remaining in the time 
of Pausanias. (i. 10. § 4, 5 ; Appian, Syr. 64.) 

ALEXANDER I. {•A\4^avSpos), the tenth king 
of j\L\CEDONiA, was the son of Amyntas I. When 
Megabazus sent to Macedonia, about b. c. 507, to 
demand earth and water, as a token of submission 



ALEXANDER. 
to Dariui, Amyntaa wm HiO n%«i^ At • hWM 
quet given to the fenkm tmtfM, ikt laMar d*- 
inandad the pmraee of th* ladka af iIm «o«rt« imI 
AmjmtM, tkroai^ tmt «f Ua gMrta, twUw4 thm 
to attend. Bat when tlM ParwuM pnettiti !• 
offer indignities to then, Alexander 
to retire, under pretence of amjriag 
bcautifaliy, and introduced in their 
Macedonian youths, dreaard in hamU attifv, wk* 
•lew the PeniMMk A* the Pociiaw did Ml i*. 
tarn, MȤAmm MM Bw hw w wkh 
into MafOMlonia { hot Alenader mmtfti tke i 

Kr by giving hi* aister Oy^Mi in nwiriati to tW 
srsian generaL Aoeording ta Joatin, Aieandar 
raeoeedod Ua father in the kingdom aoea after 
thaM avwrta, (Herod, t. 17—21, viiL IMt 
Jnadn, tH. 3—4.) In a c. 492, 
waa obtwed u> submit to the Peniaa | 
donios (Herod, vi. 44) ; and in 
of Greece (a. c 480), Alexander 
Peraian army. He gained the 
donia% and waa aent by hiai to AdMoa after the 
battk af Bahiaii, to propaae pMea to the Alhe- 
niana, wUdi ha attmigiy lacaanMBdai, andar the 
conTietton that it waa imfmOk to aantond with 
the Peruana. He waa aniimirfa b hk ■ia> 
aion ; but though he continoed in tlM Pcnian 
army, he was alwajri tecntljr indined to the ( 
of the Oreeka, and inlinaid than the i ' 
the battle of Platawi af the tntoalien af ] 
to fight on the feUownf day. (nil IM, 140— 
143, ix. 44, 45.) He waa alive in b. c. 463, 
when Cimon recovered Thaao*. (Pint. CVm. 14.) 
He was succeeded Inr Peidiccas II. 

Alexander was the first member of the royal 
family of Mawidonia, who preaented Imaaeif as • 
competitor at the (Mympie gamea, and waa adarit- 
ted to them after proring his Oraek deseenC 
(Herod, r. 22; Justin, vii. 2.) In his reign 
Macedonia received a considerable accession of ter- 
ritory. (Thuc. ii. 99.) 



fan 

the 
efMaiw 




ALEXANDER II, ('AA^foi'Spoi), the six- 
teenth king of Macedonia, the eldest son of 
Amyntas II., succeeded his father in & c. 369, 
and appears to have reigned nearly two years, 
though Diodorus assigns only one to his reign. 
While engaged in Thessaly in a war with Alexan- 
der of Pherae, a usurper rose up in Macedonia of 
the name of Ptolemy Alorites, whom Diodorus, 
apparently without good authority, calls a brother 
of the king. Pelopidas, being called in to mediate 
between them, left Alexander in possession of the 
kingdom, but took with him to Thebes several 
hostages ; among whom, according to some ac- 
counts, was Philip, the youngest brother of Alex- 
ander, afterwards king of Macedonia, and father of 
Alexander the Great. But he had scarcely left 
Macedonia, before Alexander was murdered by 
Ptolemy Alorites, or according to Justin (viL 5), 
through the intrigues of his mother, Eurydicp. 



ALEXANDER. 

Demosthenes (de fals. Leg. p. 402) names ApoUo- 
plianes as one of the murderers. (Diod. xv. (JO, 
61, 67, 71, 77; Plut. Pelop. 26, 27; Athen. xiv. 
p. 629, d. ; Aeschin, defaU. Leg. p. 31, L 33.) 



ALEXANDER. 



119 




ALEXANDER IIL {' kXiiavifm), king of 
Macedonia, sumamed the Great, was born at 
Pella, in the autumn of b. c. 356. He was the 
son of Philip IL and Olympias, and he inherited 
nmch of the natural disposition of both of his pa- 
rents — the cool forethought and prattical wisdom 
of his father, and the ardent enthusiasm and un- 
governable passions of his mother. His mother 
belonged to the royal house of Epeims, and through 
her he traced his descent from the great hero 
Achilles. His early education was committed to 
Leonidiis and Lyshnachus, the former of whom 
was a relation of liis mother's, and the latter an 
Acarnanian. Lconidas early accustomed him to 
endure toil and hardship, but Lysimachus recom- 
mended himself to his royal pupil by obsequious 
flattery. But Alexander was also placed under 
the care of Aristotle, who acquired an intiuente 
over his mind and character, which is manifest to 
the ktest period of his life. Aristotle wrote for 
his use a treatise on the art of government ; and 
the clear and comprehensive views of the political 
relations of nations and of the nature of (,'overimient, 
which Alexander shews in the mid-t ■■• ■" '■'- '-.in- 
quests, may fairly be ascriWd tu tie 

had received in his youth from the . _ iii- 

losophers. It is not impossible too that liis love 
of discovery, which distinguishes him from the 
herd of vulgar conquerors, may also have been im- 
planted in him by the researches of Aristotle. Nor 
was his physical education neglected. He was 
early trained in all uuinly and athletic sports ; in 
horsemanship he excelled all of his age ; and in 
the art of war he had the advantage of hw &ther's 
instruction. 

At the early age of sixteen, Alexander was en- 
trusted with the government of Macedonia by his 
father, while he was obliged to leave his kingdom 
to march against ByzanUum. He first distinguished 
himself, however, at the battle of Chaerwneia 
(b. c. 338), where the victory was mainly owing to 
his impetuosity and courage. 

On the murder of Philip (a c. 336), just after 
he had made arrangements to maa-h into Asia at 
the head of the confederate Ci reeks, Alexander 
ascended the throne of Macedon, and foond him- 
self surrounded by enemies on every side. Attains, 
the uncle of Cleopatra, who had been sent into 
Asia by Parmenjon with a considerable force, as- 
pired to the throne ; the Greeks, roused by De- 
mosthenes, threw off the Macedonian supremacy ; 
and the biirbarians m the north threatened his 
dominions. Nothing but the promptest energy 
could save him ; but in this Alexander was never 
deficient. Attains was seized and put to death. 
His rapid march into tlie south of Greece over- 
awed all opposition ; Thebes, which had been 
most active against him, submitted when he ap- 
peared at its gates ; and the assembled Greeks at 



the Isthmus of Corinth, with the sole exception of 
the Lacedaemonians, elected him to the command 
against Persia, which had previously been bestowed 
upon his father. Being now at liberty to reduce 
the barbarians of the north to obedience, he 
marched (early in b.c. 335) across moant Haemus, 
defeated the Triballi, and adranced as &r as the 
Daimbe, which he crossed, and received embassies 
from the Scythians and other nations. On his 
return, he inarched westward, and subdued the 
Hlyriana and Taulantil, who were obliged to sub- 
mit to tlie Macedonian supremacy. While en- 
gaged in these distant countries, a report of his 
death reached Greece, and the Thebans once more 
took up aims. But a terrible punishment awaited 
them. He advanced into Boeotm by rapid marchea, 
and appeared before the gates of the city almost 
Ijefore the inhabitants had received inl»lligence of 
his approach. The city was taken by assault ; all the 
buildings with the exception of the house of Pin- 
dar, were levelled with the ground ; most of the 
inhabita: ' I t^ rest sold as slaves. 

Athens le, and sent an embasay 

depreuu..,. .... , -at Alexander did not ad* 

vance further ; the pttaishment of Tkebea was a 
sutficient warning t* Greece. 

Alexander now directed all his enaify to prepMV 
for the expeditk>n against Persia. In the spring 
of B. c. 334, he froased over tk* HaUeafool iat* 
Asia with an amy *t •lw«t SMM ma. Of 
these 3<t,UU0 wmb foot and 5000 kmo; and of 
the former only 12,000 were Macedonians. But 
expenance had shewn that this was a force whidi 
no PeniaB kii^ could racist. Dariaa, the rMgniaf 
king of Peaja, had no military skill, and oo«U 
only kopa to iffni Alexaader by aagafing th* 
serTiBeaofaenewtryOrMka,af i^iiMilw obtainod 
UiganpptiMk 

Alexaader't fint aafupHMat with the Persiaaa 
was an tha hanka U the Oiaiucva. whefe they at- 
tempted to prcTOBt hia paiaige otct H. M eauHm, 
a Rhodiaa Oredt, waa in the anar of the Parwua, 
and had recaauModed thaai to withdraw as Alexan- 
der's army advancad, and ky waste the country ; 
but this adrieo vaa not followed, and the Persians 
were debated. Mobummi waa the ablest general 
that Dariua had. and hia death in the foUowing 
year (b. c 333) wfcwd Alexander from a formid- 
able opponent AAar the eaytue of Halicamassna, 
Memnon had collected a powerful fleet, in which 
Alexander was greatly deficient ; he had taken 
many of the islands in the Aegaeau, and threatened 
Macedonia. 

Before marching against Darius, Alexander 
thoagfat it expedient to subdue the chief towns on 
the wcitoiB coast of Asia Minor. The last event 
of importance in the campaign was the capture of 
Halicamasstts, which was not taken till late in the 
autumn, after a vigorous defence by Memnon. 
Alexander marched along the coast of Lycia and 
Pamphylia, and then northward into Phrygia and 
to Gordium, where he cut or untied the celebrated 
Gordian knot, which, it was said, was to be 
loosened only by the conqueror of Asia. 

In B- c. 333, he was joined at Gordium by re- 
inforcements from Macedonia, and commenced his 
second campaign. From Gordium he marched 
through the centre of Asia Minor into Cilicia to 
the city of Tjirsus, where he nearly lost his life by 
a fever, brought on by his great exertions, or 
through throwing himself, when heated, into the 



rjo 



ALRXANDBR. 



cold watom of the f'ydnun. Dariun mrantime had 
coIIccUmI ail iiiiinriiM; anny of .'')0(l,()()0, rir (JOO.OOI) 
iiicii, with 30,000 fircck mcrcciuirioti ; but iimtcad 
of wailiii;{ for Ali-xaiidiT'ii approach in the widi- 
plain of Sochi, when; he had Ut-ii it<itioiicd fur 
Home time, and which wax favuiimhic to hit nain- 
Imth and the evolution of hi* cavalry, he advaooed 
into the narrow plain of Ibrii*, where defeat wai 
almoKt certain. Alexander had paaaed through 
thin plain into Syria liefore Dariu* reached it; but 
n» «oon an he received iiit4-llif{ence of the taort- 
nientH of DariuH, he retraced hi« itrpc, and in the 
Imttle which followed the Pemian army wa« de- 
feated with dreadful »lauKhter. Dariui took to 
tli){lit, as ftoon OK he raw hiit left win); routed, and 
escaped acromi the Kuphniten by the ford of Tliap- 
MiciiH ; but hif) mother, wife, and children fell into 
the hands of Alexander, who treated them with 
the ulinont delicacy and respect. The battle of 
Ihhiih, which woB fought toward* the cIom of b. c. 
3;i;j, decided the fate of the Pemian empire ; but 
Alexander judged it mo«t prudent not to potvue 
Darius, but to »uMue Phoenicia, which waa etpe- 
I'ially fomiidabl(> by its navy, and constantly 
threatened thereby to attack the coaats of Oneee 
and Mace<lonia. Most of the cities of Phoenidft 
submitted as he approached ; Tyre alone refused to 
surrender. This city was not taken till the mid- 
dle of H. ('. .1.T2, after an obstinate defenoe of aeren 
months, and was fearfully punished by the ikngb- 
ter of 8000 Tyrians and the sale of 80,000 into 
slavery. Next followed the siege of Gaza, which 
aijain delayed Alexander two months, and after- 
wards, according to Josephus, he marched to Jeru- 
salem, intending to punish the people for refusing 
to assist him, but he was diverted fn)m his purpose 
by the appearance of the high priest, and pardoned 
the people. This story is not mentioned by Arrian, 
and rests on questionable evidence. 

Alexander next marched into Egypt, which 
gladly submitted to the conqueror, for the Egyp- 
tians had ever hated the Persians, who insulted 
their religion and violated their temples. In the 
iK-ginnini; of the following year (b. c. 331), Alex- 
ander founded at the mouth of the western branch 
of the Nile, the city of Alexandria, which he in- 
tended should form the centre of commerce between 
the eastern and western worlds, and which soon 
more than realized the expectations of its founder. 
He now determined to visit the temple of Jupiter 
Ammon, and after proceeding from Alexandria 
along the coast to Paraetonium, he turned south- 
ward through the desert and thus reached the temple. 
He was saluted by the priests as the son of Ju- 
piter Araraon. 

In the spring of the same year (b. c. 331), 
Alexander set out to meet Darius, who had col- 
lected another army. He marched through Phoe- 
nicia and Syria to the Euphrates, which he crossed at 
the ford of Thapsacus ; from thence he proceeded 
through Mesopotamia, crossed the Tigris, and at 
length met with the immense hosts of Darius, said 
to have amounted to more than a million of men, 
in the plains of Gaugamela. The battle was fought 
in the month of October, b. c. 331, and ended in 
the complete defeat of the Persians, who suifered 
immense slaughter. Alexander pursued the fugi- 
tives to Arbela (Erbil), which place has given its 
name to the battle, and which was distant about 
fifty miles from the spot where it was fought. Da- 
rius, who had left the field of battle early in the 



•oadliato Um 



ALKXANDKR. 

day, fl'-d to Ecbatana (lUaadMi), ia 
Alexander was now the conqueror of Asm; aad 
he bepa to MNRM mU the BOMp tad i»b«<i« r ti 
anAiMttet^ UktimUmtir ' '" 
and eni tea w Iwrfed J— b t fa iM to i 
affections of bis aev Mibjectot l«t Um 
ward signa of nHiiiii loynlty wm» alee Meaai- 
panied by many acta worthy only of la tmatrm 
tyrant; he exercised no cuntftwl orer hk bm- 
sions, md frefoaotly pnt wajr to tlM asat vialHt 
and mgofMMhb «snMMi 

From Arltek, Alexandrer awdMd to Bihykm^ 
Sum, and PenM-[iolis, which all munadanA with* 
out striking a blow, tie is said to have sol in to 
the poloo- of i'enepfilis, and, aecnrdiwg to tatm 
arcounts, in the revelry uf a baaqaat, at tka iaali> 
puian of Thaia, an Atlnnian ( 

At tha bigiBilt ti M. e. 
maitbed froa Patiapalb iato ICadia, whaia Du im 
had eoUeetod a new fiite. On kk ap p w a ch , 
Dnrina fled thioagk Hhayie and the paiaco of the 
Elbon aMaataba, called by the aacfaato the Gw 
ptan Oalaa, iato the Baetriaa piwrhnee Alkar 
•toppiag a ihert thae at Ffhataaa, Akaaaderpar- 
■aed Ufli thnagh the deeertoof FHthKaad had 
nearly reached aha, whea the aaiictaaato kiaa waa 
murdered by Beeeaa, latnB of Bactiia, md Us ae> 
sociates. Alexan4ar oeat Ua body to PenepoUi^ to 
be buried in the toabeef the PeniaaUan Biew 
eaeaped to Baetm, aad aaaaaadtha MeefUaf 
of Perria. Alennder adTaaeed iato Hyrcaaia, oi 
order to gain orer the namaat of the Greeks of 
Darius's army, who wen aasembliid there. After 
some negotiation be a o cceeded ; they were all par- 
doned, ud a great many of them taken into bis 
pay. After speadiag flfteen days at Zadncarta, 
the capital of Partlda, ha ■arched to the frontien 
of Areia, which he eutiaeted to Satibamnea, the 
former satrap of the country, and set oat on his 
march towards Bactria to attack Besooa, bat bad 
not proceeded &r, when he was recalled by the r»- 
Tolt of Sntibonanea. By incredible ezertians be 
returned to Artacoona, the capital of the morince, 
in two days' march : the aitnp took to fligfat, and 
a new governor was appointed. Instead of re- 
suming his march into Bactria, Alexander seeias 
to have thought it more prudent to sabdne the 
south-eastern parts of Areia, and accordingly 
marched into the country of the Drangae and 
Sarangae. 

During the army's stay at Prophthasia, the capi- 
tal of the Drangae, an event occurred, which 
shews the altered character of Alexander, and re- 
presents him in the light of a suspicious oriental 
despot. Philotas, the son of his faithful general, 
Parmenion, and who had been himself a personal 
friend of Alexander, was accused of a plot against 
the king's life. He was accused by Alexander 
before the army, condemned, and put to death. 
Parmenion, who was at the head of an army at 
Ecbatana, was also put to death by command of 
Alexander, who feared lest he should attempt to 
revenge his son. Several other trials for treason 
followed, and many Macedonians were executed. 

Alexander now advanced through the country 
of the Ariaspi to the Arachoti, a people west of 
the Indus, whom he conquered. Their conquest 
and the complete subjugation of Areia occupied 
the winter of this rear. (b. c. 330.) In the be- 
ginning of the following year (b. c. 329), he 
crossed the mountains of the Paropamisus (the 



ALEXANDER. 

Hindoo Coosh), and marched into Bactria against 
Bessus. On the approach of Alexander, Bessus 
fled across the Oxus into Sogdiana. Alexander 
followed him, and transported his army across the 
river on the skins of the tents stuffed with straw. 
Shortly after the passage Bessus was betraj-ed into 
his liands, and, after being cruelly mutilati'd by 
order of Alexander, was put to death. From the 
Oxus Alexander advanced as far as the Jaxartes 
(the Sir), which he crossed, and defeated seTeral 
Scythian tribes north of that river. After 
founding a city Alexandria on the Jaxartea, he 
retraced his steps, recrossed the Oxus, and returned 
to Zariaspa or Bactra, where he spent the winter 
of 329. It was here that Alexander killed his 
friend Cleitus in a drunken reveL [Clkitiis.] 

In the spring of b. c. 328, Alexander again 
crossed the Oxus to complete the subjugatinn of 
Sogdiana, but was not able to effect it in the year, 
and accordingly went into winter quarters at Nau- 
taca, a place in the middle of the province. At the 
beginning of the following year, B. c. 327, he took 
a mountain fortress, in which Oxyartes, a Bactrian 
prince, had deposited his wife and daughters. 
The beauty of Roxana, one of the latter, captivated 
the conqueror, and he accordingly made her his 
■wife. This marriage with one of his eastern sub- 
jects was in accordance with the whole of his 
policy. Having completed the conquest of Sogdi- 
ana, Alexander marched southward into Bactria, 
and made preparations for the invasion of India. 
AV'hile in Bjictria, another conspiracy was discor- 
ered for the murder of the king. The plot waa 
formed by Hermolaus with a number of the royal 
pages, and Callistheues, a pupil of Aristotle, waa 
involved in it. All the conspirators were put to 
death. 

Alexander did not leave Bactria till late in the 
spring of B. c. 327, and crossed the Indus, proba- 
bly near the modem Atlock. He now entered 
the country of the Penjab, or the Five Riven. 
Taxilas, the king of the people immediately eaat 
of the Indus, submitted to him, and thus he met 
with no resistance till he reached the Ilydat>|<e8, 
upon the opposite bank of which Porus, an Indian 
king, was posted with a large army and a consider 
able number of elephants. Alexander nuuiaged to 
cross the river unperceived by the Indian king, 
and then an obstinate battle followed, in which 
Porus was defeated after a gallant resistance, and 
taken prisoner. Alexander restored to him his 
kingdom, and treated him with distinguished 
honour. 

Alexander remained thirty days on the Hydaspea, 
during which time he founded two towns, one on 
each bank of the river: one was called Bucephala, 
in honour of his horse Bucephalus, who died here, 
after carrj'ing him through so many victories ; and 
the other Nicaea, to commemorate his victory. 
From thence he marched to the Acesines (the 
Chiiiab), which he crossed, and subsequentlj' to the 
Ilydraotes (the Ravee), which he also crossed, 
to attack another Porus, who had prepared 
to resist him. But as he approached nearer, 
this Porus tied, and his dominions were given 
to the one whom he had conquered on the 
Hydaspes. The Cathaei, however, who also 
dwelt east of the Hydraotes, offered a vigorous 
resistance, but were defeated. Alexander still 
pressed forward till he reached the Ilyphasis 
(Oarra), which he was preparing to cross, when 



ALEXANDER. 



121 



the Macedonians, worn out by long service, and 
tired of the war, refused to proceed ; and Alexan- 
der, notwithstanding his entreaties and prayers, 
was obliged to lead them back. He returned 
to the Hydaspes, where he had previously given 
orders for the building of a fleet, and then tailed 
down the river with about 8000 men, while t\M» 
remainder marched along the banks in two divi- 
sions. This was late in the autumn of 327. The 
people on each tide of the river submitted with- 
out reiutanoe, except the Malli, in the rmmncaf 
of one of whoM piaeee Alexander waa tmnty 
wounded. At the confluence of the Aceaine* 
and the Indus, Alexander founded a city, and 
left Philip as satrap, with a conaidenble body 
of Greeks. Here he built Kme freah ship*, and 
shortly afterwards MDk abamt a thiid of the 
army, under Cntena, thnm^ tk* eoatry of 
the Anu'hoti and DnagM into CanMiiia. He 
himself continued his voyage down the Indus, 
founded a city at Pattala, the apex of the delta 
of the Indus, and sailed into the Indian ocean. 
He seems to have reached the mouth of the 
Indus about the middle of 326. Neaichua waa 
sent with the fleet to tail along the eoMk to 
the Persian g^ulf [N'karchi's], and Akzaader 
set out from Pattala, about September, to return 
to Persia. In his march through Uedroi>ia, bin 
anny sufiered greatly from want of water and 
provision*, till they anired at Pura, where they 
obtained auppliea. From Pura he adTanoed to 
Carman (Kiiman), the capital of Carmania, when 
he waa joined by Crateiut, with his detadunaat 
of the army, and alao b^ Nearchnt, who had 
aeeonplished the toji^ m mktj. Alexander 
lent the great body ti the vmj, maitn He- 
phaettieo, alo^g ih» Pwiihi nlf. whik he him- 
■eli^ with a ■hH fane. aaudMd to Paiaigadae, 
and from thence te Penepoiia, where Iw ap- 
pointed Peoeeataa, a Macedonian, govemoiv in 
place of the frnier one, a Ptordan, whom he 
pat to death, ht eppwieiing the promoe. 

From PerMpoUa Alexawfar advanced to Saaa, 
which he reached m the it^m^ «t 9U. Hera 
he allowed himaetf and hia treofa aene rest from 
their labours; and fiuthfid to his [dan of forming' 
his European and Asiatie subjects into one people, 
he aiagned to abont ett^ty ot his genezals Asiatie 
wiTea, and gaTe with them rich dowries. He him- 
self took a second wiit, BaMne, the eldest daugh- 
ter of Darius, and tHTTitiTy to seoM aeeoonts, a 
third, Parj-satis, the danghter ef Odna. About 
10,000 Maredonians also followed the example 
of their king and generals, and married Asiatic 
women ; all these received presents from the king. 
Alexander also enrolled large numbers of Asiatics 
among his troops, and taught them the Macedonian 
tactics. He moreover directed his attention to the 
increase of commerce, and for this purpose had the 
Euphrates and Tigris made navigable, by removing 
the artificial obstructions which had been made iu 
the river for the purpose of irrigation. 

The Macedonians, who were discontented with 
several of the new arrangements of the king, and 
especially at his placing the Persians on an equality 
with themselves in many respects, rose in mutiny 
against him, which he quelled with some little 
difficulty, and he afterwards dismissed about 10,000 
Macedonian veterans, who returned to Europe un- 
der the command of Craterus. Towards the close 
of the same year (b. c. 325) he "i-m t,i Fduttaiia, 



122 



ALEXANDER. 



where ho lout hiii fiXftit favourite Hcphiu^ttion ; and 
hJH grii'f for hin limn know no houiuU. From ^x^J^^- 
biiiii h<! iiiiirLlicii to lluliyloti, Huh<luin|( in hii way 
the CoKHiici, u niiiiintnin tribe ; nii<l U-foro he reach- 
ed Ibiliyloii, he wim met hy amlm»iuidoni from 
ahnoHt every [Mirt of th« known worhl, who had 
cume to do lioiiuige to the new con((ueror of Aiia. 

Alexander reached liahylon in the iprinKof&c. 
324, about n year before hin death, notwithstand- 
ing the waniiiiKH of the Chuldcann, who pradietMl 
evil to hiiM if he entered the city at ttiat tUM. H« 
intended to make llabylon the capiud of hia aapin, 
aa the bcHt point of communication U-tween hi* 
eastern and weHtem dominion!. Hi* nchemp* were 
numerouH and ftiu^antic. liiit fintt obji>ct wat the 
conquert of Arabia, which wnj to be followed, it 
waH Naid, by the subjugation of Italy, CarthofTe, 
and the went. Hut hi» views wen; not conhncd 
merely to conciuest. He Kent llemcleide* to build 
a fleet on the Caspian, and to explore that scs, 
which was said to be connected with tlie northern 
ocean. He also intended to imprare the dini 
tion of waters in the Iktbylonun pUn* oi- 
that purpose sailed down the Euphmtet to iu^^^; 
the canal colled Fallacopaa. On hia retoni to 
Itabylon, he found the prepantiona for the Anbian 
expedition nearly complete ; but aimoat immedi- 
ntely afterwards he waa attacked by a fever, pro- 
bably brouftht on by hia raomt czcrtioiw in the 
niiirshy districts around Bebjrlen, and ■H'^ 
vated by the quantity of wine he bad drank 
at a banquet given to his principal officen. He 
died after an illness of eleven days, in the month 
of May or June, B. c. 323. He died at the age of 
thirty-two, after a reign of twelve years and eight 
months. He appointed no one as his successor, 
but just before his death he gave his ring to Per- 
dicais. Roxana was with child at the time of hia 
death, and afterwards bore a son, who is known by 
the name of Alexander Acgus. 

The history of Alexander forms an important 
epoch in the history of mankind. Unlike other 
Asiatic conquerors, his progress was marked by 
something more than devastation and ruin ; at 
every step of his course the Greek language and 
civilization took root and iiourished ; and after his 
death Greek kingdoms were formed in all parts of 
Asia, which continued to exist for centuries. By 
his conquests the knowledge of mankind was in- 
creased ; the sciences of geography, natural history 
and others, received vast additions ; and it was 
through him that a road was opened to India, and 
that Europeans became acquainted with the pro- 
ducts of the remote East 

No contemporary author of the campaigns of 
Alexander survives. Our best account comes from 
Arrian, who lived in the second century of the 
Christian aera, but who drew up his history from 
the accounts of Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, and 
Aristobulus of Cassandria. The historj- of Quintus 
Curtius, Plutarch's life of Alexander, and the 




ALEXANDER. 

tfitmmm ef Jaalia and Diodene g faa l a a, ««• abe 
eompQad ftaoi eariwr wriienk The heat ■<<■»■ 
writan eo the Mib)ect an : 8c Croix, Kmmm 

rriiiqm 4m mtBJmm Hittorimm f A i tmm d r* U G rmm i ; 
Dniyaen, ChKkiekk jtlimamdm dm Uromru ; Wii* 
liiuns, Ai/« i/ AUmmdarf Thirlwall, lliMarf </ 
(irre^se, vola. ri and *ii. 

ALEXANDER IV. ('AA^4«>Vm), kiog oT 
Macbdunu, the son of Alezaiider the Gnat aad 
Hoxaaa.^- ' 'he death of hie 

bthir, b i wledged m the 

partner of i'., ' lapin, and waa 

under the gtiar>: is the rencnt, 

till the death ot v.'l. He wae 

then fur a short \ -'lip 

of Pithon and t ,^ 

quently un' - • ' 

him with \ 
Arrhidacii 
(Diod. XV. 
in .119, t 



Roaa— , dnadin. 
Alenadar into )., 
for a long time. At 
Aeacidea, king of Kf. 
with Poly- 
aader loM 

dice and 1, 

supreme power t'cU into tii' 
(xLx. 11 ; Jn^tin, xiv. .S.) 
year Caaen' 
pat Olymi 
and hia moiner. 
general peace mn . .<-xandpr'* title 

to the ODwn wa- „ ;,>ny of hia par- 

tiaana demanded that he should be immediately 
releaaed from priaon and placed upon the throne. 
Caaaander therefora reaolred to get rid of ae daa- 
gerooa a rifal, and canaed him and hia nether 
Roxana to be murdered secretly in priaon. (■.& 
311. Diod. zix. 51, 52, 61, 105; Justin, xt. 2; 
Pans. ix. 7. $ 2.) 

ALEXANDER ('AAi^ovS^), a MncikLOPO- 
LiTAN. He waa originally a Maeedonian, bat had 
received the franchise and waa settled at Me^do- 
polis abont B. c. 1 90. He pretended to be a de- 
scendant of Alexander the Great, and accofdinghr 
called his two sons Philip and AkzaDder. Hm 
daughter Apama was married to Amynander, 
king of the Athamanians. Her eldest brother, 
Philip, followed her to her court, and being of a 
vain character, he allowed himself to be tempted 
with the prospect of gaining possession of the 
throne of Macedonia. (Liv. xxxr. 47 ; Appian, Sj/r. 
13; comp. Philip, son of Alexander.) [L.S.] 

ALEXANDER ('AA«'|av5poi), brother of MoLa 
On the accession of Antiochns III., afterwarda 
called the Great, in b. c. 224, he entrnat<?d Alex- 
ander with the government of the satrapy of Persia, 
and Molo received Media. Antiochus was then 
only fifteen years of age, and this circumstance, 
together with the fact that Hermeias, a base flat- 
terer and crafty intriguer, whom every one had to 
fear, was all-powerful at his court, induced the two 
brothers to form the plan of causing the upper 
satrapies of the kingdom to revolt. It was the 
secret wish of Hermeias to see the king involved in 
as many difficulties as possible, and it was on hia 



■riviii ii:i irii; 



ALEXANDEIL 

advice that the war against the rebels was entrust- 
ed to men without courage and ability. In B. c. 
220, however, Antiochus himself undertook the 
command. Molo was deserted by his troops, and 
to avoid falling into the hands of the king, put an 
end to his own life. All the leaders of the rebel- 
lion followed his example, and one of thera, who 
escaped to Persia, killed Molo's mother and chil- 
dren, persuaded Alexander to put an end to his 
life, and at last killed himself upon the bodies of 
his friends. (Polyb. v. 40, 41, 43, 54.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER the Monk ('AAefoi'Spo* Mo»«- 
X<{j), perhaps a native of Cyprus. All we know 
of his age is, that he lived before Michael Glycas, 
A. D. 1 120, who quotes him. Two orations by him 
are extiint. 1. A Panegyric on St, Ikiniabas, ap. 
Bollundi Acta Sanctorum, vol. xxi. p. 4'Mi. 2, Con- 
cerning the Invention of the Cross, ap. Gretaer. de 
Cruce Christi, 4to. Ingolst. IGOO. [A. J. C] 

ALEXANDER ("AA^foi'Spoj) of Myndus in 
Caria, a Greek writer on zoology of uncertain date. 
His works, which are now lost, must have been 
considered very valuable by the ancients, since 
they refer to them very frequently. The titles of 
his works are : Kry\t>iv 'laropla, a long fragment 
of which, belonging to the second book, is quoted 
by Athenaeus. (v. p, 22 1, comp. ii. p. 65 ; Aelian, 
Hist. An. iii. 23, iv. 33, v. 27, x. 34.) This work 
is probably the same as that which in other pas- 
sages is simply culled Tlfpl Zwwy, and uf wliich 
Athenaeus (ix. p. 3y2) likewise quotes the second 
book. The work on birds {Utpl nTtiftiy, Plut. 
Mar. 17; Athen. ix. pp. 387, 388, 390, &c.) was 
a separate work, and the second book of it is quot- 
ed by Athenaeus. Diogenes Laertius (L 29) men- 
tions one Alexon of Myndus as the author of a 
work on myths, of which he quotes the ninth book. 
This author being otherwise unknown. Menage 
proposed to read 'AXc^oi'Spot 6 MuvSios instead of 
A^c'^wi'. But everything is uncertain, and the 
conjecture at least is not very probable. (L. S.] 

ALEXANDER NUME'NIUS {'AXilaySpos 
Nou|ur|i/ius, or 6 iioufiriAov, as Suidas calls him), a 
Greek rhetorician, who bved in the reign of Ha- 
drian or that of the Antonines. About his life 
nothing is known. V\'e possess two works which 
are ascribed to him. The one which certainly is 
his work bears the title Xltpl riv t'HJ Auu'oiat kcu 
Afifus ix^t^Toff, I. e. '* De Figuris Sententiiirum 
et Elocutionis." J. Rutiniuims in his work on the 
same subject (p. 195, ed. Ruhnken) expressly states 
that Aquila Romauus, in his treatise " De Figuris 
Sententiarum et Elocutionis," took his materials 
from Alexitnder Numenius' work mentioned above. 
The second work bearing the name of Alexander 
Nuraenius, entitled Tlff>l 'EirtStiKTtKwi', i.e. ^ On 
Show-speeches," is admitted on all hands not to be 
liis work, but of a later grammariiin of the name of 
Alexander ; it is, to speak more correctly, made up 
very clumsily from two distinct ones, one of which 
was written by one Alexander, and the other by 
Menander. (Vales, ad EuseL Hist. Ea-les. p. 28.) 

The first edition of these two works is that of 
Aldus, in his collection of the Rhetores Graeci, 
Venice, 1508, fob, vol. i. p. 574, &c They are 
also contained in Walz's Rhetores Graeci, vol. viii. 
The genuine work of Alexander Numenius has 
also been edited, together with Minucianus and 
Phoeburamon, by L. Nonnann, with a Ljitin trans- 
lation and useful notes, Upsala, 1690, 8vo. (Sec 
Ruhnken, a<i J (/«»^ Rom. p. 139, &c. ; Wester- 



ALEXANDER. 



123 



tnann, Geteh. der Griech. BertdttamkeiL, § 95, ». 1 3, 
§ 104, n. 7.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER, an Athenian painter, one of 
whose productions is extant, painted on a marble 
tablet which bears his name. ( Winckelmann, 
vol. ii. p. 47, T. p. 120, ed. Eiseletn.) There waa 
a son of king Perseus of this name, who waa a 
skilful toreutes. (Plut. AemiL PomL 37.) There 
was also a M. Lollius AleauMlcK, an engraver, 
whose name occurs in an inscription in Doni, p. 
319, No. 14. [C. P. M.] 

ALEXANDER ("AXt'feu^pojX the Paphlago- 
NiAN, a celebrated importoB, who (famriahad about 
the beginning of the Meand eentBT (LnniiB, AUm. 
6), a native of Abonoteichos on tae Eaxincs, and 
the pupil of a friend of Apollonius TjruiaeaB. Hia 
history, which is told by Luciau witk gnat •aSvttl, 
is chietly an accoiiat of the nrioaa eontriTancea by 
which he eatabliabed and muBtaiiMd the credit of 
an oracle. Being, according to Lucian's account, at 
his wit's end for the means of life, with many 
natural adTantagea of naniiar and {MfaoOt ke d»> 
termined on the feUowing iafaatan. Aftar ni^ 
ing the ezpectationa of t£> Paphlagoaiana witb a 
reported visit of the god Aesculapiiia, and giving 
himself out, under Um aanction of an oracle, as a 
descendant of Peneua, he gratified the expectatioa 
which he had hinaelf nia^ by finding a seipoit, 
which he juggled out of an egg« ia the foudatioBa 
of the new temple of rtnarnlaiiiiia A Iwgar tn- 
pent, which he brought with hia firan PeUa, waa 
disguised with a human head, until the dull Piqth* 
kgoniana really believed that a new god Glycoa 
had appeared aaong then, sad gate oncka in tha 
l i k en aaa of a aeipoot Daik and oowded nana, 
juggliag trieka, and tha athar aita af mm vaJgw 
magidana, wera tha cUaf wwi «aad to iafoaa 
on a OBduhma popokee, which Inriaa dateeto 
with aa Mwh aeat •• tmj Bodan aeaptie ia the 
marrela of aaiaial wagntri— . ETVfy ana who 
attempted to ezpoaa tlw iiapaitar, waa Moued of 
being a Chriatiaa m Bpicanaa ; aiid «««a Locka, 
who amused hiiMdf with hia ooatiadictiirT ora- 
cles, hardly eacaped the aflaeta «f hia malignity. 
He had his spiaa at Reata, and boaied himself 
with the ai&ira of the whok world : at the time 
when a peatilenoe waa aging, auuty weie execated 
at his instifttinii, aa the aathon it thia calaaiity. 
He said, that the aaal of Pythagona had mignrted 
into his body, and propheaied that he should lire 
a hundred and fifty years, and then die from the 
fall of a thunderbolt : unfortunately, an ulcer in 
the leg put an end to hia imposture in the seven- 
tieth year of his age, just as he was in the height 
of his glory, and had requested the emperor to 
have a medial struck in honour of himself and the 
new god. The iuduence he attiiined over the 
populace seems incredible ; indeed, the narrative 
of Lucian would appear to be a mere romance, 
were it not confirmed by some medals of Antoninus 
and M. Aurelius. [B. J.] 

ALEXANDER ('AAf{a»^poj) of Paphius, a 
Greek writer on mythology of uncertain dale. 
Eustathius {ad Horn. Od. x. pp. 1658, 1713) refer* 
to him as his authority. [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER ("AAtJoj^poi), sumamed Pklo- 
PLATO.N (nT}AoT\aT«»'), a Greek rhetorician of the 
age of the Antonines, was a son of Alexander of 
Seleucia, in Cilicia, and of Seleucis. (Philostr. 
Vit. Soph. ii. 5. § 1, compared with Epist. Apollon. 
Ti/an. 13, where the fiither of Alexander Pelopla- 



m 



ALEXANDER. 



ton in called Stniton, wliich, however, may be a 
mere Huriiiiinc.) iliii futlicr wax (liHtiii);iiiiilied a* 
a plcudtr ill the cnurti of juntico, by which be ac- 
quired coiiHideruhlir iirofHTty, hut he died lit an age 
when hill win yet wiiiited the care of n father. 
Hill jihice, however, wa» «u|>plied by bin friends 
eii[)etiully by A|xilloniuii of Tyana, who iit taid to 
have been in love with Seleucin on account of her 
cxtniordiiiary beauty, in which «hi! wa« e<iuftlled 
by her son. His education wa» entruiitwl at fimt 
to I'haviirinus, and afterwardn to Pionyniui*. lie 
Hjieiit the property which hii father had left him 
u]M>n pleiwiirei, but, Kiy* I'hilontratui, not con- 
temptible pleasures. When ho had attained the 
age of manhood, the town of Seleuck, tat lonM 
reason now unknown, sent Alexander M ■ iwh am 
dor to the cmiwror Antoninus Pint, who it aud to 
have ridiculed the young man for the extiSTagant 
care he liestowed on his outward appearance. He 
Bp<>nt the greater piirt of his lite away from hi* 
native pliux>, at Antiochia, Iliinie, Tanaa, and tm- 
velle<l through all Kgypt, as far at th« oonntry of 
the TvAcoi. (Kthiopinns.) 1 1 teenu to haT« boon 
during his sUy at Antiochia that he waa appobted 
Greek lecretary to the emperor M. Antoiiiaa% 
who waa carrying on a war in Pannonia, abost 
A. II. 174. On his journey to the e mp e r oc be 
made a short stay at Athens, where he met the 
celebrated rhetorician llermles Atticus. He had 
a rhetorical contest with him in which he not only 
conquered his famous adversary, but gained his 
oHtecin and admiration to such a degree, that 
Herodes honoured liini with a munificent present. 
One Corinthian, however, of the name of Sceptes, 
when asked what he thought of Alexander, ex- 
pressed hia disiippointnicnt by saying that he had 
found " the clay (nijAoi), but not Fkto." This 
saying gave rise to the surname of Peloplaton. 
The pLicc and time of bis death are not known. 
Philostratus gives the various statements which he 
found about these points. Alexander was one of 
the greatest rhetoricians of his age, and he is 
especially praised for the sublimity of his style and 
the boldness of his thoughts ; but he is not known 
to have written anything. An account of his life 
is given by Philostratus ( Vit. Sopk. iL 5), who has 
also preserved several of his sayings, and some of 
the subjects on which he made speeches. (Comp. 
Suidas, s. v. 'AXf^cwSpos Alyouos in fin. ; Eodoc 
p. 52.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER {'AXtiavSpos), son of Pkrskls, 
king of Macedonia, was a child at the conquest of 
his father by the Romans, and after the triumph 
of Aemilius PauUus in B. a 167, was kept in cus- 
tody at Alba, together with his father. He be- 
came skilful in the toreutic art, learned the Latin 
language, and became a public notary. (Liv. xlv. 
4-2 ; Plut. Aem. Paul. 37.) 

ALEXANDER {'AAc'loj'Spoi), tyrant of Phe- 
RAK. The accounts of his usurpation vary some- 
what in minor points ; Diodorus (xv. 61) tells us 
that, on the assassination of Jason, b. c 370, Po- 
lydorus his brother ruled for a year, and was then 
poisoned by Alexander, another brother. Accord- 
ing to Xenophon (Hell. vi. 4. § 34), Polydonis 
was murdered by his brother Polyphron, and Poly- 
phron, in his turn, b. c. 369,* by Alexander — his 
neplieic, according to Plutarch, who relates also that 

* This date is at variance witli Pausanias (vL 
5) ; but, see Wesseling on Diod. (xv. 75.) 



ALKXANDER. 

Alexander worthipprd aa a god tke tfmt «kk 
which he slew his uitcle. (Plut. Fde^ f. '299^Act 
WeHk ad Diod. L e.) AUi— derjinnwd tjn»> 
nicaUy, aad MMidfaw to INe4enM (I «)^ 4MM«M|f 
froB the isciMr nibf«, bat PuljnkiM, al laMi, 



to have aet him the exMBpie. (Xea. L e.) 
The TbeiMliaa aUtea, however, whkh had ae- 
knowledg<ed the authority of Jaaoa the Tagae 
(Xen. J/>'U. vL 1. g 4, S,iic.; I>iod. xr. Mi wen 
not ao wilhiig to aafaaiit to the ommmmi of Ales* 
aadar the tnaat, and ther aaalM tfc«altre (aad 
eepedaUT the old hmiij ef the Aloaadae of U- 
risaa, who had aoaC raaeen to ftar htai) to Aks- 
ander, king of Maeedoa, aea of Anyatoa II. 
The tyrant, with hia rhawfteriilie eMi|T, pi*- 
pared to meet hia eoeaijiB Macedeok, Ml the 
king an t i cip a t ed hia, aad, laaakiaf iariiaa, waa 
admitted iato the city, ehUfad the Theaafiaa Alex- 
ander to flee to Phena, aad kft a fBiriaaa fai La- 
riaaa, aa well aa in Cf«Don, which had alee eaaM 
over to him. (I>iod.xT.6L) B«t the Maeedeoiaa 
haviac ntiied, hia firianda hi Theealr, draadiqf 
the vaafHoee ef AleaMder,icBt fcr aid to Thehea» 
the pdfef of which itala, «f eoaiaa, waa to cheek a 
aei^boar who Bd|M edMrwiae heeaae aefMaid- 



able,aiid P e le yidac wae ae rwrfi w ^ r d cepa tih id to 
iiri%al of the latter at La- 



Ob tlM airi^al i 
rima, whence aoooidinc to Uiodoraa f xv. 67) he 
diaiodoedtha Macadonaa ■Bnaaa, Alexaadaraaa- 
aeatoj' himailf aad eCmlaalaiHiaa ; bataaea 
aftor eeeraed by flight, ahnaad bf the iadigaatba 
which Pelopidaa expiMaed at the talea he heard of 
his cruelty and tyrannical profligacy. (Died, t e. ; 
Plot Pelop. p. 291, d.) TheM evento appear to 
be referable to the eariy part of the year 368. In 
the aommer of that year P e l o pidaa waa agaia acat 
into Theataly, ia coaaafaoea ef fiaah coaMlBiato 
againat Alexander. AeeaaipaoiBd by laaMoiaa, ha 
went merely aa a negotiator, and withoat any mi- 
litary force, and venturing incautiously within the 
power of the tyrant, was seized by him aad 
thrown into prison. (Diod. xt. 71; Plot. /VL p. 
292, d; Polyb. riii. 1.) The Iai««Me of De- 
mosthenes (e. Arittoer. p. 6M) wfll haadly 
support Mitford's infierenoe, that Pelopidaa waa 
taken prisoner in battle. (See .Mitford, 6'r. I/ut. 
ch. 27. sec. 5.) The Thebans sent a large army 
into Thessaly to reacoe Pelopidaa, but they could 
not keep the field againat the soperior cavalry of 
Alexander, who, aided by auxiliaries from Atlxna, 
pursued them with great slaughter; and the de- 
struction of the whole Theban army is said to have 
been averted only by the ability of Epamiaoadaa, 
who was serving in the campaign, but not aa ge- 
neraL 

The next year, 367, waa ngmdized by a lyeci- 
raen of Alexander's treacheroos craelty, in the 
massacre of the citizens of Scotussa (Plut. PeL p. 
293; Diod. xv. 75; Paus. vi 5); and also by an- 
other expedition of the Thebans under EpomiaoD- 
das into Thessaly, to effect the release of Pelopidaa. 
According to Plntarch, the tyrant did not dare to 
offer resistance, and was glad to purchase even a 
thirty days' truce by the delivery of the prisoners. 
(Plut. Pel. pp. 293, 294 ; Diod.'xv. 75.) During 
the next three years Alexander wonld seem to 
have renewed his attempts against the states of 
Thessaly, especially those of Ms^nesia and Phthio- 
tis (Plut. Pel. p. 295, a), for at the end of that 
time, B. c. 364, we find them again applying to 
Thebes for protection against him. The army ap- 



ALEXANDER. 

pointed to march under Pelopidas is said to have 
been dismayed Vjy an eclipse (June 13, 3G4), and 
Pelopidas, leaving it behind, entered Thessaly at 
the head of three Imndred volunteer horsemen and 
some mercenaries. A battle ensued at Cynosce- 
phalae, wherein Pelopidas was himself slain, but 
defeated Alexander (Plut. Pd. pp. 295, 296 ; 
Diod. XV. 80) ; and this victory was closely fol- 
lowed by another of the Thebans under Malcites 
and Diogiton, who obliged Alexander to restore to 
the Thessalians the conquered towns, to confine 
himself to Pherae, and to be a dependent ally of 
Thebes. (Plut. Pd. p. 297, &c.; Diod. it. 80; 
conip. Xen. Hdt.v'u. 5. § 4.) 

The death of Epaminondas in 362, if it fireed 
Athens from fear of Tiiebes, appears at the same 
time to have exposed her to annoyance from Alex- 
ander, wlio, as though he felt that he had no fur- 
ther occasion for keeping up his Athenian alliance, 
made a piratical descent on Tenos and others of 
the Cyclades, plundering them, and making slaves 
of the inhabitants. Peparethus too he besieged, 
and " even landed troops in Attica itself^ and 
seized the port of Panorams, a little eastward of 
Sunium." Leosthenes, the Athenian admiral, de- 
feated him, and relieved Peparethus, but Alexan- 
der delivered his men from blockade in Panormus, 
took several Attic triremes, and plundered the 
Peiraeeus. (Diod. xv. 95; Polj-aen. vi. 2; Demosth. 
e. Po/yd. j>[). 1207, 120U; ir«/jl (rTt<p. rrji rpirip. 
p. 1330 ; Thirl wall, 6V. Hist vol v. p. 209 : but 
for another account of the position of Panormiu, 
see Wess. ad ZHoti. I. c.) 

The murder of Alexander is assigned by Diodo- 
rus to B. c. 367. Plutarch gives a detailed ac- 
count of it, containing a lively picture of a semi- 
barlmrian j)aliice. Guards watched throughout it 
all the night, except at the tyrant's bedchamber, 
which was situated at the top of a ladder, and at 
the door of which a ferocious dog was chained. 
Thebe, the wife and cousin of Alexander, and 
daughter of Jason (Plut. Pel. p. 293, a), concealed 
her three brothers in the house dnr--- • •' ■ -"ly, 
caused the dog to be removed when iJ 

retired to rest, and having covered t: , i.'ie 

ladder with wool, brought up the young men to 
her husband's chamber. Though she had taken 
away Alexander's sword, they feared to set about 
the deed till she threatened to awake him and dis- 
cover all : they then entered and despatched him. 
His body was cast forth into the streets, and 
exposed to every indignity. Of Thebe 's motive 
for the murder diiferent accounts are given. Plu- 
tjirch states it to have been fear of her husband, 
together with hatred of hii cruel and brutal cha- 
racter, and ascribes these feelings princi{>ally to 
the representations of Pelopidas, when she vi- 
sited him in his prison. In Cicero the deed is 
ascribed to jealousy. (Plut. Pel. pp. 293, b, 297, d; 
Diod. xvi. 14; Xen. Ifdl. vi. 4. § 37; Cic. de Of. 
ii. 7. See also Cic. de Jnv. ii. 49, where Alex- 
ander's murder illustrates a knotty point for spe- 
cial pleading ; also Aristot. ap. Cic. de IHv. i. 25 ; 
the dream of Eudemus.) [E. E.] 

ALEXA'NDER PHILALETHES ("AXtfox- 
ipes ♦lA.aAtiOrjj), an ancient Greek physician, who 
is called by Octavius Horatianus (iv. p. 102, d. ed. 
Argent. 1532), Alexander A motor Veri, and who 
is probably the same person who is quoted by 
Caelius Aureli;inus {De Morb. Acut. iu 1, p. 74) 
under the name of Alexander Laodicensis. He 



ALEXANDER. 



125 



lived probably towards the end of the first century 
before Christ, as Strabo speaks of him (xil p. 580) 
as a contemporary ; he was a pupil of Asclepiades 
(Octav, Horat. /. c), succeeded Zeuxis as head of 
a celebrated Herophilean school of medicine, eate- 
blished in Phrj'gia between Laodicea and Carura 
(Strab. /. c), and was tutor to Aristoxenus and 
Demosthenes Philalethes. (Galen. De Differ. Puis. 
iv. 4, 10, vol, viii. pp. 727, 746.) He is ieveral 
timet mentioned by Galen and also by Soranut 
{De Arte Obdetr. c 93, p. 210), and appears to 
have written ■ome medical works, which are no 
longer extant. [W. A. G.] 

ALEXANDER ('AA«{ay8f>oj), was appointed 
{lovemor of Puocis bj Philip III. of Macedonia. 
The Phocian town of Phanoteiu was commaDded 
by Jason, to whom he had entrusted this post In 
concert with him he invited the Aetolians to come 
and take possession of the town, pramising that it 
should be opened and surrendered to them. The 
Aetolians, under the command of Aegetas, accord- 
ingly entered the ton-n at night ; and when their 
best men were «-ithin the walls, they were made 
prisoners by Alexander and his aseociate. This 
happened in B.c. 217. (Polyb. v. 96.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER POLYHISTOR. [Alkxam- 

OKR CURNKLII'8.] 

ALEXANDER {'AXiieaipot), ton of Polys- 
PBRciiuN, the Macedonian. The regent Aati- 
pater, on his death (b. c S20), left the leganey to 
Polysperchoo, to the exclusion and eo n sequ en t dis- 
content of his own son, Casaander. (Diod. xviiL 
48 ; Plut Pkoe. p. 755,f:) The chief men, who had 
been phiced in authority by Antipater in the nr- 
risoned towns of Greeee, were &roaiahle to Ca»- 
saadar« le their patnn'fe nn, and Polyapeithon't 
potkf, liMMimit WW to serane the ■«— tr ee of 
AnttpatK, and reetote danocncy whete it had been 
abolished by the latter. It was then, in the pra- 
secution of this design, that his ton AleTMxinr ww 
sent to Athens, a c. 318, with the alleged object 
of delivering the city fruia Nicaner, wIm by Caa- 
sander's appointment commanded tlie garrison 
placed by Autipater iu Munyehia. (Plut. Pioc. 
755,£,756,e. ; Diod. xviii.6&.) Beibre his arrival, 
Nicanor, beaidea atiengtheaing himself with fresh 
troopa in Mnnyrhia,had also treacheroaaly aeiaed the 
Peiraeeus. To ocenpytheae two poru himself aeon 
appeared to be no kaa the mtentton of Alexander, 
— an intention which he had probaMy formed 
before any communication with Phocion, though 
Diodorus (/. e.) seems to imply the contrary. The 
Athenians, however, looked on Phocion as the au- 
thor of the design, and their suspicions and anger 
being excited by the private conferences of Alex- 
ander with Nicanor, Phocion was accused of trea- 
son, and, fleeing with several of his friends to 
Alexander, was by him despatched to Polysper- 
chon. (Diod. x>iii. 66 ; Plut. Pkoe. 756, f. 757, a.) 
Cassander, arriving at Athens soon after and occu- 
pying the Peiraeeus, was there besieged by Poly- 
sperchon with a large force ; but the supplies of 
the latter being inadequate, he was obliged to with- 
draw a portion of his army, with which he went to 
attempt the reduction of Megalopohs, while Alex- 
ander was left in command of the remainder at 
Athens. (Diod. xviii. 68.) Here he appears to 
have continued without effecting anything, till the 
treaty and capitulation of Athens with Cassander 
(Paus. i. 25 ; Diod. xviii. 74) gave the city to the 
power of the latter. 



12G 



ALEXANDER. 



Wlipn I'olyiiporclion, baffled at Mcgalopolii(D«od, 
xviii. 7'2), withdraw into Muceduiiiii, liii kon M«nu 
to liuvt! been left with an iiniiy in PelopuiineMU, 
where, iiH we read in Diodoruit (xix. .'(.5), the field 
wiiH left o|M-n U) him, and the friundi uf oligarchy 
were Kreittly aliinned by the departure of CuMMader 
into Mucedon un the intelli){ence of the murder of 
ArrhidiieuH and Kurydico by Olympiaa, B. c. 317. 
(I'au8. i. 1 1 ; Diud. xix. 1 1.) During hii abwnce, 
Alexander iiucceedod in brin^in;; over to himself 
M'verul citieH and iniportiint phiceit in the I'elopon- 
iieiiUH (Diod. xix. t)',\) ; but, on CoMKinder'i return 
to the Houth, after cruithing Olympiaa in Macedon, 
he in vain attempted to check him bj hia fortifica- 
tion of the Iitiimui, for Caawnder, PfiMne t* 
Kpidaurus by sea, regained Aisoa and Hamume, 
and aft<;rwardK olito the Meuenuui towns, with the 
exception of Ithomc. (Diod. xix. 54.) 

Ill the next year, 315, Antigonui (whoae am- 
bition and 8uccesite» in the eaiit luul united againit 
)iim CasNander, LysiinochuA, Anaiidcr, and Ptolemy 
Soter), among oUier meaaatM, aent Aristodeams 
into the I>elo|>oniteaaa to finm • laagM of anitj 
with PolyHperc-hon and Alexander; and the fartter 
was perituaded by Arittodemu* to poM over to Asia 
for a personal conference with Antigonus. Finding 
him at Tyre, a treaty wa« made between them, and 
Alexander returned to Greece with a praaent of 
500 talents from Antigonus, and a multitude of 
ni:ii;niticent promises. (Diod. xix. GO, (il.) Yet, 
in the very same year, we tind him renouncing hia 
alliance with Antigonus, and bribed by the title of 
governor of the Peloponnesus to reconcile himself to 
Cassander. (Diod. xix. 64.) 

In the cnsubg year, 314, we read of him at en- 
gaged for Cassander in the siege of Cyllene, which 
however was niised by Aristoderaus and his 
Actolian auxiliiiries. After the return of Aristo- 
denius to Aclolia, the citizens of Dyme, in Achaia, 
having besieged the citadel, which was occupied by 
one of Ca8sauder''8 garrisons, Alexander forced his 
way into the city, and made himself master of it, 
punishing the adverse party with death, imprison- 
ment, or exile. (Diod. xix. 66.) Very soon after 
this he was murdered at Sicyon by Alexion, a 
Sicyonian, leaving the command of his forces to 
one who proved herself fully adequate to the task, 
— his wife Cratesipolis. (b. c. 314, Diod. xix. 
67.) [E. E.] 

ALEXANDER ('AA«|ov5poj), a Rhodian. In 
the war against Cassias be was at the head of the 
popular party, and was raised to the office of pry- 
tanis, B. c. 43. (Appian, de Bell. Civ. iv. 66.) But 
soon after, he and the Rhodian admiral, Mnaseas, 
■were defeated by Cassius in a sea-fight off Cnidus. 
(Appian, de BeU. Civ. iv. 71.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER (ST.), bishop of Rome, a. d. 
109—119. (Euseb. i/w/. £fc/. iv. 4.) There are 
three Epistles falsely ascribed to him by Isidore 
Alercator, as well as a decree, according to Gratian. 
(jNIansi, Concilia, vol. i. pp. 643 — 647.) Heracleon 
is said (in the book I'raectetiinalus, ap. Sirmond. 
Opp. vol. i. p. 470) to have broached his heresy in 
Sicily in the time of St. Alexander, and to have 
been confuted by him. But Heracleon was not, 
perhaps, yet bom. [A. J. C] 

ALEXANDER, who assumed the title of Em- 
peror OF Rome in a. d. 31 1, was, according to some 
accounts, a Phrygian, and according to others a 
Pannonian. He was appointed by Maxentius 
governor of Africa, but discovering that Maxen- 



ALEXANDER. 

tins was plotting against hia lib, he aasaMd Urn 
purple, though bo was of aa adraiMod •«§ and 
a timid natiifa. Mn—tit ■••I aaao treepa 
againat him aadar Batei VtlMiiMi^ wiw put 
down the iaaMiMtiaa vitkoM HMmUj. AJoa- 
ander was taken and atnogkNL (Zoaiwia, iL 12, 
1 4 ; Aur. Vict. d4 Caei. 40, &k. 40.) Then an 
a few Bodala of Alexander, in the one aaaand 
we find the words lur. ALBXAMnsa. P. F. Avtt.) 
the reverse rrpreaenu Victorj, with thia i na r r t f 
tion, Vktuhia Alxxanuki Auu. N., and at 
the bottom, P. K. 




ALEXANDER OF 8ELEUCIA. [Alxx- 

ANDKK PkI.<»I'I.AT«)V.) 

ALEXANDER, I. II., kings of .Sj-ria. [AtBX- 
ANDKR HAi.Ahsnd ZaiiiNA.] 

ALEXANDER, TIBE'Rirs (Titiptoi 'AAif- 
cwipot), was boni at Alexandria, of Jewish parenta. 
His father held the office of Alaljarch in Alexandria, 
and hia meU waa Pfailo, the weU-kaown writer. 
AlezakUr, bMrvver, did not conliMM hi tho inth 
of hia aaetaton, and waa rawaidad far Ua ap ea l a ey 
bjr yarioos pabiie appoiatsBents. In the reign of 
Chiudius he aacceeded Fadios aa procantor of 
Judaea, about a. d. 46, and waa promoted to the 
equestrian order. He waa snbseqoentljr ^ipointad 
by Nero procarator of Egypt ; and by his ordan 
50,000 Jew* wan ihdn on one occaaioB at Alex- 
andria in a toBah m the city. It waa appaiaatly 
during his goremaMnt in Egypt that be ac c en 
panied Corbolo in hia expedition into Afiiaa, 
A. o. 64 ; and he was in thia campaign fprtn aa 
one of the hostages to secure the aairty of Tiridates, 
when the latter riaited the B«Baa ooap. Alex- 
ander was the firat Ihnaa fe w nm r who dedared 
in favour of Vespaaiaa ; and the day on which he 
administered the oath to the legions in the name of 
Vespasian, the Kalends of July, a. d. 69, is re- 
garded as the beginning of that emperor's reign. 
Alexander afterwards accompanied Titus in the war 
against Judaea, and was present at the taking 
of Jerusalem. (Joseph. Ant. Jud. xx. 4. § 2 ; 
BeU. Jud. iL 11. § 6, 15. § 1, 18. § 7, 8, iv. 10. 
§6, vL 4. § 3 ; Tac. Ann. xv. 28, Hist. L II, iL 
74, 79 ; Suet Venp. 6.) 

ALEXANDER TRALLIA'NUSCAA«{a»«pof 
6 'TpaKKiav6%), one of the most eminent of the an- 
cient physicians, was bom at Tralles, a city of 
Lydia, from whence he derives his name. Hia 
date may safely be put in the sixth century after 
Christ, for he mentions Aetius (xiL 8, p. 346), 
who probably did not write till the end of the 
fifth or the beginning of the sixth centmy, and 
he is himself quoted bv Paulus Aegineta (ui. 28, 
78, viL 5, 11, 19, pp.' 447, 495, 650, 660, 687), 
who is supposed to have lived in the seventh ; be- 
sides which, he is mentioned as a contemporary by 
Agathias {Hist. v. p. 149), who set about writing 
his History in the beginning of the reign of Justin 
the younger, about a. d. 565. He had the ad- 
vantage of being brought up under his father, 
Stephanus, who was himself a physician (iv. I, 



ALEXANDER. 

p. 198), and also under another person, whose 
name he does not mention, but to whose son 
Cosmas he dedicates his chief work (xii. i. p. 313), 
■which he wrote out of gratitude at his request 
He was a man of an extensive practice, of a very 
long experience, and of great reputation, not only 
at Rome, but wherever he travelled in Spain, 
Gaul, and Italy (i. 15, pp. 156, 157), whence be 
was called by way of eminence " Alexander the 
Physician." Agathias speaks also with great praise 
of his four brothers, Anthemius, Dioscorus, Metro- 
dorus, andOlympius, who were all eminent in their 
scn^eral professions. Alexander is not a mere com- 
piler, like Aetius, Oribasius, and others, but is an 
author of quite a ditferent stamp, and has more the 
air of an original writer. He wrote his great work 
(as he tells us himself, xiL 1, p. 313) in an extreme 
old age, from the results of his own experience, 
when he could no longer bear the fatigue of prac- 
tice. His style in the main, says Freind, is very 
good, short, clear, and (to use his own term, xii. 1, 
p. 313) consisting of common expressiims ; and 
though (through a mixture of some foreign words 
occasioned perliaps by his travels) not always per- 
fectly elegant, yet verj' expressive and intelligible. 
Fabricius considers Alexander to have belonged to, 
the sect of the Methodici, but in the opinion of 
Freind this is not proved sufficiently by the jmis- 
sages adduced. The weakest and most curious 
part of his practice appears to be his belief in 
channs and amulets, some of which may be quoted 
as specimens. For a quotidian ague, " Gather 
an olive leaf before sun-rise, write on it with com- 
mon ink Ka, pot, a, and hang it round the ueck " 
(xii. 7, p. 339) ; for the gout, " Write on a thin 
plate of gold, during the waning of the moon, fitl, 
hpfv, fidp, <p6p, rtvi, ^S ^'^"i ^^t ^"''t XP^ 7*« r<< 
we, and wear it round the ankles ; pruuouucing al«o 
<af, d^tiip, ^ijav, dp«iJ{, ^"t x*^"" (x>* 1> P> 313), 
or else this verse of Homer (Jl. 0. 95), 

TfTpiJx*' 5' dyopi/l, vwo 5' «irToi'ox*'{'«To yolia^ 
while the moon is in Libra ; but it is much better 
if she should be in Leo." (Ibiil.) In exorcising 
the gout (iliiJ. p. 314) he says, ** I adjure thee by 
the great name *Ia« 2aSa»#," that is, JTliT 

r\')ii2,^> a"*! a little further on, " I adjure thee 

T 

by the holy names *Io«, 'iagouid, 'Aiuvat, *EA«i," 

that is, ^rfri* '•:J^^< niiVn:: m'rp ; from 

T v; T -: T : t : 

which he would appear to have been either a Jew 
or a Christian, and, from his frequently prescribing 
swine's Hesh, it is most probable that he was a 
Christian. His chief work, entitled BiiKia'larpiicd 
AvoKaiSfKO, Libri Duodevim de Re MeJicxt, first 
appeared in an old, biirkirous, and imperfect Latin 
translation, with the title Alejatulri Yatros Prae- 
tica, ^r., Lugd. 1504, 4to., which was several times 
reprinted, and corrected and amended by Albanus 
Torinus, Basil 1533, foL It was first edited in 
Greek by Jac Goupylus, Par. 1548, foL, a beauti- 
ful and scarce edition, containing also Rhazae de 
I'estUentia Lihellus ex Strrorum Lin<pta in Graecaia 
trandatus. It was published in Greek with a new 
Latin transktion by Jo. Guinterus Andemacus, 
Basil. 1556, 8vo., which is a rare and valuable 
edition. Quinter's translation has been several 
times reprinted, and is inserted by H. Stephens in 
his Meditxie Arius Primipes, Paris, 1567, foL ; it 
also forms part of Haller's Collection of Medical 
Writers, Lausano. 1772, 8vo. 2 vols. The other 



ALEXANDER. 



127 



work of Alexander's that is still extant is a short 
treatise, Tltpl 'fl\fiiv6wv, De Lumhricis, which was 
first published in Greek and Latin by Hieron. Mer- 
curialis, Venet 157U, 4to. It is also inserted in his 
work JJe AforOis Puerorum, Fraucof. 1584, 8vo.,and 
in the twelfth volume of the old edition of Fabricius, 
BiUiotheca Grtxeca ; the Latin trauskition alone is 
included in Haller's Collection mentioned above. 
An Arabic translation is mentioned by Dr. Sprenger 
in his dissertation De Origiuihiu Medicuute AruU- 
oae gult Khati/atu, Lugd. Bat. 1840, 8vo. ; and 
also by J. G. Wenrich, De Auctorum Graeeorum 
Venitmilms et QmumaUariis Sjfriacis, Arubiekf 
Armtmaeu, PtrmdrnjuA, Lip*. 1842, Svo. 

Alexn - ' - ' -s also to have written sereral 

other i: ^ which are now lost. He ex- 

presses I 1 uf writing a book ua Fractures, 

and also ou Wounds of the Head. A treatise uu 
Urine written by him is alluded to by Joaimet 
Actuarius {De l/rin. Dijfer. c 2. p. 43), and he 
himself mentions a work of his on Diseaae* of the 

Eves, which was tra" -'"■-' ■■■•■■ *—'•:■• !<■■•■— ■-, 

Wenrich, /.c.) Thi 

risy, which is said t' > 

Arabic, was probably only the kixih Uiuk uf lu« 
great work, which is entirely devoted to the coD- 
sideration of this diswe. A very full account of 
the life and works of Alexander Trallianus was 
published at I»ndon, 1734, Src, by Edward Mil- 
ward, M. D., entitled ^ Trallianus Reviviscens ; or, 
an Account of Alexander Trailian, one of the Greek 
Writers that flourished after Galen : shewing that 
these Authors are &r from deserring the imputa- 
tion ti aera e— pileis," && Two other medical 
woritt wU^ aw aMMliMa attribMed to Akxader 
TralliaBns (m. a Collcctien of Mcdiod and Physi. 
cal Problems, and a treatise on Fevers) are noticed 
under Alkxandkh AruiiouuiiKNtiut. (Freiud's 
HuL qf Pkif$ie^ whose words have been sometimes 
borrowed ; Fafaridna, BihL Grate. toL xiL p. 593, 
sq. ed. vet.; Hallar, JMfcattw JMmmm PntH- 
OH, ton. i.; Sfiaafal, OH. 4t la MU. tea. il ; 
laeiMee, Geadkkkit dar Mtdieim; ClMwlant, U*ad- 
ImA der BiidMtmmU /iir die Aeltert Medicia.) 

[W. A. C] 

ALEXANDER CAAifavCpot), of i i 

in Aetolia, was commander of the . 
B. c. 2 1 8 and 2 1 9. He attadted th. 
army of Philip on Ua retam from '1 
the attempt was unsoeeeasfid, and ma: s 

fell (Polyb. v. 13.) " IL. S.J 

ALEXANDER ZEBINA or ZABINAS 
('AA({<u>Spof ZaSiraf), the son of a merchant 
named Protarchus, was set up by Ptolemy Physcon, 
ki' ■' ■■♦' '-'■•• -t, as a pretender to the crown of the 
( :n of Syria shortly after the death of 

A ^idetes and the return of Demetrius 

Nicaiur fium his captivity among the Parthians. 
(b.c. 128.) Antioch, Apamea, and se%-eral other 
cities, disgusted with the tyranny of Demetrius 
ackjiowledged the authority of Alexander, who 
pretended to have been adopted by Antiochus 
Sidetes ; but he never succeeded in obtaining 
power over the whole of Syria. In the earlier 
part of the year 125 he defeated Demetrius, who 
fled to Tyre and was there killed ; but in the mid- 
dle of the same year Alexandti'- ■ king 
ofEgypt, set up ag-alnst him A: us, a 

son of Demetrius, by whom Lc ; led in 

battle. Alexander fled to Antioch, where he 
attempted to plunder the temple of Jupiter, in order 



128 ALEXIA& 

to pay liiii troop* ; but thn people rate i^ninrt him 
and <lri)V(* liiiii out of the city. Hf mkiii M\ into 
tlif Imiul* of rot)l«TH, who delivered him up to 
AutiociiuH, by whom ho wa<t put to dfath,ii. c. \'2'2. 
ll(! wan weak and etrt;miiiat<', but M)mclime» gene- 
rouH. lliit kunuimu, Zcbin.'L, which mwin* **a 
|)urciiaHcd Hlavo," was applied Ut him an a tcnn of 
ri'iiroach, from a report that he had U-en l>ought 
by I'tok-my an a iilavD. Several of bin coins are 
extant. In the one figured IkIow Jupiu-r it re- 
]ir(Neiited on the revcnte, holding in the right band 
a small ima^'e uf victory. 

(Justin, xxxix. 1, 2 ; Joieph. Anliq. xiii. 9, 10 ; 
Clinton, Fanti, iii. p. 334.) [P. 8. J 




ALEXANDRA. [Cassandra.] 

ALKXANDUIUES ('AXtlavtplSrif) of Delphi, 
n Oreck historian of uncertain date. If we may 
judge from the subjects on which his history is 
quoted as an authority, it would seem that his 
work was a history of l)olphi. (I'lut, Lj/sand. 18 ; 
Schol. wl Eurip. Alcrd. 1, where undoubtedly the 
same person is meant, though the MS. reading is 
Anaxandrides ; Schol. ad Arvstoph. Plui. 926.) 

[L. S.] 

ALEXA'NOR CAAeJcb-wp), a son of Machaon, 
and grandson of Aesculapius, who built to his sir« 
a temple at Titano in the territory of Sicyon. He 
himself too was worshipped there, and sacrifices 
were oiTcred to him after sunset only. (Paus. ii. 
23. §4, 11. §6, &c.) [L.S.] 

ALEXARCHUS {' hXil<xpxos), a Greek his- 
torian, who wrote a work on the history of Italy 
('lTaAi(C(i), of which Plutarch {Parallel. 7) quotes 
the third book. Servius (ad Aen. iii. 334) men- 
tions an opinion of his respecting the origin of the 
names Epeirus and Campania, which unquestion- 
ably belonged to his work on Italy. The writer 
of this name, whom Plutarch mentions in another 
passage (Zte Is. et Os. p. 365), is probably a different 
person. [L. S.] 

ALEXARCHUS ('AXf|opxos). 1. A brother 
of Cassander of Macedonia, who is mentioned as 
the founder of a town called Uranopolis, the site 
of which is unknown. Here he is said to have 
introduced a number of words of his own coinage, 
which, though very expressive, appear to have 
"been regarded as a kind of slang. ( Athen. iiL p. 98.) 

2. A Corinthian, who, while the Lacedaemo- 
nians were fortifying Deceleia in Attica, b. c. 41 3, 
and were sending an expedition to Sicily, was 
entrusted with the command of 600 hoplites, with 
whom he joined the Sicilian expedition. (Thucvd. 
\-ii.l9.) ^ [L.S.J 

ALE'XIAS ('A\6|ias), an ancient Greek physi- 
cian, who was a pupil of Thrasyas of Alantinea, 
and lived probably about the middle of the fourth 
century before Christ Theophrastus mentions 
him as having lived shortly before his time {Hisi, 



ALEXI& 

J'ijnt. i(. 1 '' ^ ''-^ 'Old vpcAkt bif(li1y of )iU aUU- 
lie. and,. IW. A. (J.) 

ALKXi ' I AA«(iiHui*f), th« avrrtrr of 

evil, it a tunan« tfiv«a by tk« (Jnek* to trvenl 
doitict, u — ZfU (Orph. tM Lapid. J'rooem. i.),— 
U) ApoUo, iHw WM wawh ip p»t wttiat lU* ■■■• 
by th« AdMokm, hiamu Im «w t i l iw>i U Imn« 
stopped the phgM wUA nwad at AtkM* b tha 
time of the PeJapBiwiriw war (Pan*. L S. | S, 
viii. 41. 1 5),— ud to HoadM. (LMtanL t. 8.) 

IL.8.) 

ALEXICLES ('AX«|i«Aiff), u AthMika fMW 
ral, who beloiyd Is tlM oligMckMl «r LMadMaw> 
nian party tAtlnni Aftw ikt nn l itl i B of 1 c 
41 1, be and Mranl of Ua Mm4o friMod the tHj 
and went to tbeir friend* at Deeelma. But be waa 
afterwards made prisoDar in Pei ia ea w , and ten- 
tonced to death for hit participation in the guilt of 
Phrj-nichut. (Thucyd. riiL 92 j Lycurg. m Ijnoer. 
p. 164.) (L.8.J 

ALEXICRATESCAX«5ut^Ti,i),» PytlkuanaB 
philokopher who Uved at the time of Plntano, aad 
whote dia^4aa continaad to nbaarra tha ancieM 
diet of tba PythMonaaa, abatahriiig tnm 6A alt» 
getfaar. (Phtt ^ f w. Tiii. p. 728.) Another 
peiMn of thia nama oecnn in Plutarch, I'wrrk. S.) 

(L.8.] 

ALE'XIDA ('A\*lliv), a daughter of Amphi- 
araus, from whom certain divinities called Klaaii 
( 'EKJuTioi, ue.the avettan of apileptk fiu) were 
believed to be daocndad. (Phrt. QmrnL (Jr. 23.) 

(L. 8.] 

ALEXl'NUS ('AA«Prof), a philo«)pher of the 
Dialectic or Megarian Khool and a disciple of Ro- 
bulides [F)t;cLiDKH], from his eristic propensities 
focetiously named 'EAry^vot, who lived abont the 
beginning of the third century before Christ. He 
was a native of Elis, and a contemporary of Zeno. 
From PIlis he went to Olympia, in the vain b<Hie, 
it is said, of foimding a sect which ndgfat be called 
the Oh'mpian ; but his disciple* loon became dia- 
gusted with the unhealthines* of the place and 
their scanty mean* of subsistence, and left him 
with a single attendant None of hi* doctrine* 
hare been preserved to us, but from the brief men- 
tion made of him by Cicero {Acad. 'vi. 24), he 
seems to have dealt in sophistical puzzles, like 
the rest of hi* sect Athenaeus (xv. p. 696, e.) 
mentions a paean which he wrote in honour of 
Craterus, the Macedonian, and which was sang at 
Delphi to the sound of the lyre. Alexinus alao 
wrote against Zeno, whose professed antagonist he 
was, and against Ephorus the historian. Diogenea 
Laertius ha* preserved some lines on his death, 
which was occasioned by his being pierced with 
a reed while swimming in the Alpheos. (Diog. 
Laert. ii. 109, 110.) [B. J,] 

ALE'XION, an ancient physician, who was pro- 
bably Qudging from his name) a native of Greece ; 
he was a friend of Cicero, who praises his medical 
skUl, and deeply laments his sudden death, b. c. 
44. (.4d^«.viL2,xiiL25, XV. I.d2.) [W.A.G.] 

ALEXI'PPUS ('AAt'(nnroj). an ancient Greek 
physician, who is mentioned by Plutarch {AUx. 
c. 4 1 ) as having received a letter &Dm Alexander 
himself, to thank him for having cured Peucestas, 
one of his officers, of an illness, probablr about b, c. 
327. [W. A. G.j 

ALEXIS CAAe|is). 1. A comic poet, bom at 
Thurii, in Magna Graecia (Snidas ». r. 'AA.), but 
admitted subsequently to the privileges of an 



ALEXIS. 
Athenian citizen, and enrolled in the deme Oloi', 
belonging to the tribe Leontis. (Steph. Byz. s. v.) 
He was the uncle and instructor of Menander. 
(Suidas s. «. 'AAe^ir; Proleg. Aristoph. p. xxx.) 
When he was born we are not expressly told, but 
he lived to the age of lOG (Plut. Defect. Orac. 
p. 420, e.), and was living at least as late as 
B. c. 288. Now the town of Thurii was de- 
stroyed by the Lucanians about B. c. 390. It is 
therefore not at all unlikely that the parents of 
Alexis, in order to esaipe from the threatened de- 
struction of their city, removed shortly before with 
their little son to Athens. Perliaps therefore we 
m:iy assign about B, c. 394 as the date of the 
birth of Alexis. He had a son Stephanus, who 
also wrote comedies. (Suidas /. e.) He appears 
to have lx;en rather addicted to the pleasures of 
the table. (Athen. viii. p. 344.) According to 
Plutarch {De Senis AdminUt. ReipttU. p, 785, b.), 
he expired upon the stage while being crowned as 
\ictor. By the old grammarians he is commonly 
called a writer of the middle comedy, and frag- 
ments and the titles of many of his plays confirm 
tliis statement. Still, for more than 30 years he 
was contemporarj' with Philippides, Philemon, Me- 
nander, and Diphilus, and several fragments shew 
that he also wrote pieces which would be classed 
with those of the new comedy. He was a »• 
niarkably prolific writer. Suidas says he wrote 
245 plays, and the titles of 113 have come down 
to us. The M*poir/y, 'AyKvXiwv, 'OAu/xvuidMpot, 
and riapdaiTos, in which he ridiculed Pluto, were 
probably exhibited as early as the 104th Oljon- 
piad. The 'Aywyis., in which he ridiculed Mi»- 
gulas, was uo doubt written while he was alire, 
and Aeschines (c. Timareh. pp. C —8) in B. c. 345, 
speaks of him as then living. The 'Klt\<poi and 
SrooTtwrrjj, in which he satirized Defliosthenes, 
were acted shortly after a c. 343. The 'Iwioi, 
in which he alluded to the decree of Sophocles 
ag-ainst the philosophers, in b. c. 316. The 
Uvpawos in B. c. 312. The ♦op/iOitowwXtj and 
'To^oAijUojos in B. c. 30t). As might have been 
expected in a person who wrote so much, the same 
passage frequently occurred in several plays ; nor 
did he scruple sometimes to borrow from other 
poets, as, for example, from Eubulus. (Athen. i. 
p. 25, f.) CarAstius of Pergamus {ap. At/ten. vi. 
p. 235, e.) says he was the first who invented the 
part of the parasite. This is not quite correct, as 
it had been introduced before him by Epicharmus ; 
but he appears to have been the first who gave it 
the form in which it afterwards appeared upon the 
stage, and to have been very happy in his exhibi- 
tion of it. His wit and elegance are praised by 
Athenaeus (ii. p. 59, f.), whose testimony is con- 
firmed by the extant fragmenU. A considerable 
list of peculiar words and forms used by him is 
given by Meineke. His plays were frequently 
translated by the Roman comic writers. (Gell. ii. 
23.) The fragments we possess of his plays have 
been preserved chiefly by Athenaeus and Stobaeus. 
(Meineke, Frat/m. Com. vol. i. pp. 374—403; 
Clinton, Fasti Hellenici, under the years above 
given ; Fabricius, Bill. Gr. vol. ii. p. 40(), &c.) 

2. A writer mentioned by Athenaeus (x. p.418) 
as the author of a treatise irtpl AwropKeiai. 

3. A Samian, the author of an historical work 
called SctMioj'^npoj or '^npot So^uitocoi {Samkm An- 
nals), which Athenaeus quotes, (xiii. p. 572, f., 
xii. p. 540, d.) [C. P. M.] 



ALEXIS. 



129 



ALEXIS ^AA*J<j), a sculptor and statuary, 
mentioned by Pliny (xxxiv. 8. s. 19) as one of 
the pupils of Polycletus. Pausanias (vi. 3. § 3) 
mentions an artist of the same name, a native of 
Sicyon, and father of the sculptor Cantharus. It 
cannot be satisfactorily settled whether these are 
the same, or different jiersons. Pliny's account 
implies that he had the elder Polycletus in view, 
in which case Alexis could not have flourished 
later than OL 95 (b. c 400), whereas Eutychides, 
under whom Cantharus studied, flourished about 
01. 120, B. c. 300. (Pliny, H. A', xsxiv. 8. s. 
19.) If the two were identical, as Thiersch 
{^Epochen der lild. Kunnl. p. 276) think^ we must 
suppose either that Plinj made a mistake, and that 
Alexis studied under the younger Polycletus, or 
else that the Eutychides, whose date is given by 
Pliny, was not the artist under whom Cantharus 
studied. [C. P. M.] 

ALEXIS or ALE'XIUS I. COMNE'.NUS 
CAAtJij , or 'AXt'Jwi Kofurtiyit), emperor of Con- 
stantinople, was most probably boni in a. d. 1048. 
He was the ton of J«hn Comnenus, and the 
nephew of the emperor Isaac Comn<*>'i-^ •"■l ^^ 
ceived a careful education from his : i. 

He accompanied the emperor Uouur ^ 

in the war against Alp-Arslan, sultan ut iii< 
Seljuks, aad was present at the battle of > 
keid, where this emperor was made a pris >: 
the niltan. After the deposition of Komai> 

genes in 1071, Alexis Comnenus and bis : 

brother Isaac joined the party of the new emperor, 
Michael VII. Ducas, who employed Al.xis against 
the rebels who had produced k- ''*-'^ ^ 

Asia Minor. In this war Alex i- d himr 

self as a sueoeMfiil general, and sneweu luai extnir 
ordinary ahrewdneM which aftervudi beeuM th* 
principal feature of his character. He defended 
Alichael VII. against the rebel Nicephorus 15uui- 
niates, but the cause of Michael having become liupe- 
I«M, hs rakdily joined the victorious rebel, who be- 
came Mnperor under the title of Nicephoius III. in 
1077. The authority of Nieei^Munu II L was disobey- 
ed by several rebela, among whom Nieephonu 
Bryenuius in Epeirus was the moat dangeroos ; but 
Alexis defeated them one after the other, and the 
grateful emperor conferred upon him the title of 
*' Sebastos." Alexis was then considered as the first 
general of the Byzantine empire, but his military re- 
nown made him suspected in the eyes of the emperor, 
who kept him at Constantinople and tried to ad 
rid of him by base intrigues. But Alexis opposed in- 
trigues to intrigues, and as he was not only the most 
gallant, but also the most artful among his shrewd 
countrymen, he outdid the emperor, who at last 
gave orders, that his eyes should be put out. 
Alexis now fled to the army on the Danube, and 
was proclaimed emperor by the troops. Assisted 
by his brother Isaac, who acted with great gene- 
rosity, Alexis marched to Constantinople, obtained 
possession of the city by a stratagem, deposed the 
emperor, and ascended the throne in 1081. 

The Byzantine empire was then at the point of 
ruin. While Alexis carried on the war ag:iinst 
the rebel Nicephorus Bryennius, and afterwards 
during his forced sojourn at Constantinople, and 
the time of his differences with Nicephorus III., 
Melek-Shah, the son of Alp-Arslan, and the 
greatest prince of the Seljuks, had conquered the 
Byzantine part of Asia Minor, which he ceded to 
his cousin Soliman. The Bulgarians threatened ta 



180 



ALEXIS. 



invmlft Thmcp, nnd Holjcrt Gnitcard, dukf of 
A|>iili!L, with II iiii){lity hoxt of Norniiiii kiii){htH, hiul 
croHscd th(! Adriatic and laid iiicK« to I)iini/./.o, the 
niicifiit Dyrnichiiim. In this critical |>o»ition 
Alexin cviiicfd extraordinary activity. He con- 
cluded p<'ace with the K<-ljukt, cedinjf A»ia to 
them ; he made an alliance with Venice and Henry 
IV., emperor of (Jcjrmany ; and he »old the locred 
vcH»»>l» of the churche* to pay hi» troojm. Hi* 
Btnij()<!e witli the- Nonnnns wan long and bloody, 
litit famine, dim'atici, civil troulilen, and a powerful 
diverKion of Henry IV., compelled the Nomiaiii to 
leave Epeirus in 1084. Durinjf thi« time the Sel- 
jukii had recommenced hontiliticit, and threatened 
to lilock up CouHtantinoplc with u fl(H>t conitnicted 
by (ircek captivcB. In thi« extremity Alexia 
imjilored the ansiHtance of the European prince*. 

'I'iie conqueitt of JeniKilem by the Seljukt, the 
interru])tion of the piouo pilgrinin|{e« to the holy 
grave, and the vexations which the Chrintiant in 
the luiHt lind to endure from the infidel*, had pro- 
duc(!d an extraordinary excitement among the 
nation* in Euroj>e. The idea of rescuing the town 
of uur Saviour becamo popular ; the pope and the 
prince* ghewed thenueirei fiirounble to such an 
exjiedition, and they resolved upon it after the 
nnilmssador* of Alexii had related to them at 
Pinccnza in 1095 the hopeless state of the Chris- 
tians in Asia. The first Cniiadert appeared in 
('onHtantinoplc in 109G. They were commanded 
by Peter the Hermit and Walter the Pennyless, 
nnd were rather a Kind of vagabonds than an 
army. Alexis hastened to send them over to 
Asia, where they were massacred by the Turks. 
Soon after them came a powerful army, command- 
ed by Godfrey of Bouillon, and their continued 
stay in the neighbourhood of Constantinople gave 
occasion to serious differences Ixjtween the Latins 
nnd the Greeks. However Alexis, by the alternate 
use of threats and persuasions, not only succeeded 
in getting rid of the dangerous foreigners by carry- 
ing them over to Asia, but also managed the pride 
of Godfrey of Bouillon and his turbulent barons 
with 80 much dexterity, that they consented to 
take the oath of vassalage for those provinces 
which they might conquer in Asia, and promised 
to restore to the emperor the Bysuintine territories, 
which had been taken by the Seljuks. In his 
turn he promised to assist them in their enterprise 
with a strong anny, but the dangerous state of the 
empire prevented him from keeping his word. 
However, in proportion as the Crusaders, in 1097, 
advanced into Asia, Alexis followed them with a 
chosen body, and thus gradually reunited ■with his 
empire Nicaea, Chios, Rhodes, Smyrna, Ephesus, 
Sardes, and finally all Asia Minor. The descend- 
ants of Bohemond, prince of Antioch, did homage 
to Alexis, to whom they restored Tarsus and 
Malmistra. During the latter years of his reign, 
Alexis was occupied with consolidating the do- 
mestic peace of his empire, which was then often 
disturbed by religious troubles. He died in 1118, 
at the age of seventy, and his successor was his 
son John, generally called Calo-Joannes. 

Alexis was the author of a work entitled 
XoyapiKTi, which was published in the 4th volume 
of the Analecta Graeca, Par. 1688, and also from 
a later manuscript by Gronovius at the end of his 
work De Sesteriiis, Lugd. Bat 1691. Respecting 
the ecclesiastical edicts of Alexius, several of which 
are extant, see Fabric. Bibl. Graec, vii. p. 729. 



ALEXI& 

The lifn of Alexis has been earvAiny, tlio«g1l 
very iiartiidly, dcM.rilj«d by hi* daugliter, Ann* 
Coninena, in her J t m ma i, wkitk ia tiia jMMcipftt 
source concemtnf thia — p a wr. (Caapi (Aymti,m. 
4; Alliertu*AqaeBaia,ii.9-19;WyiMlmaT]rfMMla, 
ii. A, -23 ; comp. 8. F. Wilkrri, ** Renm ab Alalia 
I., Joanne, Muiuele et Alexio II. Comnetiis (jaate 
rum lilwi quatuor," Hridrllierg, l«) 1.) ( W. P.J 

ALKil.S or ALK'XIU.S IL COMNK'NUS 
(*AA«{it or 'AKi(,ios KonyT)i>6t), emperor of Con- 
stantinople, the son of the em|ieror Mauu<-I (.'oiu- 
ncnu*, was bom in lltij, according to Nicetasw 
In 1 179, he married Agne* or Aniut, the dauKhter 
of king I»uis VII. of France, and succeeded bia 
father in 1180, under the t(uardiaii*hip of his too- 
thcr Maria, the daughter of iCayniond, prince of 
Antioch. Tkav botli bacMM victims vt Urn aaibi- 
tion «f Andnmiew CownawHi, wka im caa^wlU 
the joang em pe ro r to aign tha daath at Ma aothaiv 
and then put Alexis to death in 1 183 ; whetcopoa 
he succeeded him on the throne. (Nicetaa, Almk 
Manuel. Cumn.fiL; comp. Ducange, FamiHan By- 
xaHtimie,p. 18«.) rW. P.] 

ALEXIS or ALE'XIUS IIL A^NOELUS 
CAA#5if or 'AXiltot 'Ay>«Ao»), the brother of the 
emperor Isaac II. Angvlus, whom he deposed and 
blinded in 1 195. Being a descendant of Alexis I. 
Comnenus by Theodora, the youngest daughter of 
the latter, he aa a aa wd the fiuBily-Baae at his 
great aiMeator, and ia thavafim eoaaoBlr adU 
I Alexis AngelnvCornnema. In 1197 and 11 N^ ka 
carried on war with Peraa and the Saljaka af 
Koniah, bat his anniea were defaUed. Baaag 
base, rapacious, and cruel, he incurred the hatred 
and contempt of his subjects, and prepared hia 
ruin. He lost the crown through his nephew, 
Alexis, the son of Iiaac II. Angelua, who, having 
escaped from Constantinople, succeeded in per- 
suading the Cnuaden Bsswnbled in Veaiea to 
make an expedition against tha n a i u p cr. AaaoonU 
ing to 20,000 men, and c omtn a n d ed hj Dmdala^ 
doge of Venice, they attacked Conrtantinapla ia 
the month of July, 1203; but before thejr had 
taken this city, Alexis III. abandoned his pahre 
and fled to Italy, carrying with him lO/WO ponndi 
of gold. After his flight, Conatanrinaple was oe- 
cupied by the Cnuaders, who rwwg n i s ed as em- 
perors the blinded Isaac and his son Alexis. 
[Alexis IV.] He afterwards returned to Greece, 
and treacherously blinded the emperor Alexis 
V. MurzuphluB, who after his deposition in 
1204, had fled to Alexis III., whose daughter 
he had married. Meanwhile, Theodore Lascans 
succeeded in making himself independent at Nicaea, 
but was involved in a war with Ghayath-ed-din, 
sultan of Koniah. In 1210, Alexis III. fled to 
this sultan, and persuaded him to support his 
claims to the throne of Byzantium, and to declare 
war against Theodore Lascaris. The war proved 
&tal for the sultan, who was killed in the battle of 
Antioch, and Alexis III. was made prisoner. 
Theodore Lascaris had married Anna Angela-Com- 
nena, the second daughter of Alexis III., but this 
circumstance did not prevent him from confining 
his father-in-law to a monastery at Nicaea. (1210.) 
There Alexis III. died some years after at an 
advanced age ; the exact year of his birth is 
not known. (Nicetas, Alexis Angdtis, Isaaciu* 
Angelus, iiL 8, &c.; Isaaeius el Alex. fil. c. 1; 
Villehardouin, De la ConquesU de Constantinoble, 
Paris, 1838, c. 51, 56, &c.) [W. P.] 



ALEXIUS. 

ALEXIS or ALE'XIUS IV, A'NGELUS 
(""AXf^is or 'A\i%ios 'AyytXas), waa the son of the 
emperor Isaac II. Angelas. It is mentioned under 
Alexjs III. that, after the deposition of this em- 
peror, he and his father were placed on the throne 
by the Crusaders. Alexis IV. was crowned toge- 
ther with Isaac II. on the 29th of July, 1'203, 
and, to secure himself on the throne, engaged the 
Crusaders to continue at Constantinople. He had 
promised them to put an end to the schism of the 
Greek Church, but did not do anything for that 
purpose, nor did he fulfil his other engagements 
towards the Crusaders. At the same time, he did 
not understand how to maintain his dignity among 
the turbulent and haughty barons of Italy, France, 
and Flanders, who were assembled in his capital. 
Serious differences consequently arose between him 
and Ills deliverers. Alexis Ducas, sumamed Mur- 
zuphlus, an ambitious and enterprising man, took 
advantage of these troubles, and suddenly seized 
the crown. By his order Alexis IV. was put to 
death on the 28th of January, 1204; Isaac II. 
died of grief. (Nicetas, Isaaciui Angelus, iii. c. 8, 
&c.; Isaacius et Alea:is fil. ; Villehardouin, IImI. c 
51, .'JG, GO, &c., 102—107.) [W. P.] 

ALEXIS or ALE'XIUS V. DUCAS ('AAtSu 
or 'AAfjioy Aou/ca), sumamed "Murzuphli's," on 
account of the close junction of his shaggy eye- 
brows, was crowned emperor of Constantinople on 
the 8th of Februiuy, 1204, after having been pre- 
sent at the murder of Alexis IV„ who was put to 
death by his order. His earlier life is almost un- 
known. Nicetas, however, states, that ho had 
always been rapacious and voluptuous ; on the 
other hand, he was a man of great courage and 
energy. Immediately after he had usurped the 
throne, the Crusaders, who were still assembled 
under the walls of Constantinople, laid siege to this 
city. Alexis V. disdained to conclude peace with 
them on dishonourable conditions, and prepared 
for resistance, in which he was vigorously assisted 
by Theodore Lascaris. However, courage suddenly 
abandoned him, and he fled to the deposed em- 
peror Alexis III., whose daughter Eudoxia Angela- 
Comnena he had just married. Constantinople 
was taken by storm by the Crusaders (12th of 
April, 1204), who, after having committed those 
horrors, of which Nicetas, an eye-witness, gives 
such an emphutical description, cho«e Baldwin, 
count of Flanders, emperor of Constantinople, but 
leaving him only the fourth part of the empire. 
After being deprived of sight by his fethei>in-law, 
Alexis V. fled to the Morea, but was arrested and 
carried to Constantinople, where the Crusaders put 
him to death by casting him from the top of the 
Theodosiiin column. (1204.) ( Nicetas, il/wnu/j/i/u*; 
Jauacius Angel us et Alfj: fil. c. 4, 5 ; Cksia Fran- 
corum, c. 94 ; Villehardouin, Ibid. c. 51, 56, 60, 
&c. 98, 106, 113—115, 127, &c.) [\V. P.] 

ALE'XIUS ARISTE'NUS ("AAtJioj 'Apttmt- 
v6s), Oeconomus of the Great Church at Constan- 
tinople, flourished a. d. 1166, in which year he 
■was present at the Council of Constantinople. He 
edited a St/nopsis Canonum with scholia, which is 
given by Bishop Beveridge in his Pandeciae Cano- 
num, Oxon. 1672, fol. vol. ii. post pag. 188, and 
vol. i. p. 1, &c. Other works bv him are quoted. 
See Fabric. BM. Gr. vol. xi. p. 280, [A. J. C] 

ALE'XIUS ('AAf'liOj), Patriarch of Coxsta.n- 
TINOPLE, a member of the monastery of Studius 
(founded a. d. 460), succeeded Eustathius as Pa- 



ALIMENTUS. 



131 



triarch a. d. 1025. In a. d. 1034 he crowned 
Michael IV, the favourite of Zoe, who, to make 
way for him, procured the death of her husband, 
the Emperor Romanus, He thwarted the attempts 
of John (the emperor's brother) to gain the patri- 
archal see (a, d. 1036), and died a, d. 1043. IM- 
crees of his are extant, ap. Jus Gr. Rom. voL i. 
lib. iv. p. 250, Leunclav. Francot 1596. See 
Fabric. BiU. Gr. vol. xi. p, 558, [A. J. C] 

ALE'XIUS(*AA*'5uij), Metropolitan of Nicaka, 
composed a Canon or Ifymn on St. Demetriu$ tMe 
Martyr. It is uncertain when he lived. The 
canon is in manuscript. See Lambeeius, Biblioth. 
Vindobon. vol. v. p. 599, ed. Kolkr. [A. J. C] 

ALEXON (*AA^J»i/), an Achaean who lenred in 
the Carthaginian garrison at Lilybaeum while it 
was besieged by the Romans in B. c. 250. Daring 
this siege some of the Gallic mercenaries engaged 
in the service of the Carthaginians formed the pUn 
of betraying the fortress into the hand* of the Ro- 
mans. But Alexon, who had on a formor oceaaion 
savod Uie town of Agrigeutom from a similar 
attempt of treacherous mercenaries, now acted in 
the same faithful spirit, and gave information of the 
plot to the Carthaginian commander Himilco. He 
also assisted him in inducing the mercenaries to 
remain faithful and resist the temptations offered by 
their comrades. (Polyb. L 43, ii. 7.) [L. S.] 

ALEXON MYNDIUS. [Ai,«XANOBa Mvn- 

OIUS.] 

ALFE'NUS VARUS. [Varus.] 
A'LFIUS FLAVUS. [Flavus.] 
ALGOS {"AXyos), is used by Hesiod (Tkeop. 
227) in the plural, as the personification of ■onrowi 
and griefii, which are there repreMnted as the 
daughters of Eris. [L. S.j 

ALIACMON. [PALAin-iNoa.] 
L. ALIE'NUS, plebeian aodile a c. 4A4, ae- 
cused Veturius, the ooniol of the fimMr y«ar« w 
account of selling the bootj which had beea gahed 
in war, and pbcing the amount in the auariam. 
(Liv. in. 31.) 
ALIE'NUS CAECI'NA. [Cabcina.] 
ALIMENTUS, L. CI'NCIUS, a celebrated 
Roman annalist, antiquary, and jurist, who waa 
praetor in Sicily, b. c. 209, with the command 
of two legions. He wrote an account c^ his im- 
prisonment in the second Punic war, and a history 
of Gorgias Leontinus ; but these works probably 
formed part of his Aumilti. (Liv. xxi. 38.) He is 
frequently cited by Festus, and the fragments which 
have been thus preserved were collected by Wasae, 
and may be found appended to Curte's Sallust. 

Niebuhr (i. p. 272) praises Alimentus aa a 
really critical investigator of antiquity, who threw 
light on the history of his country by researchea 
among its ancient monuments. That he possessed 
eminent personal qualities, such as strike a great 
man, is clear, inasmuch as Hannibal, who used to 
treat his Roman prisoners very roughly, made a 
distinction in his behalf^ and gave him an account 
of his passage through Gaul and over the Alps, 
which Alimentus afterwards incorporated in his 
history. It is only in his fragments that we find 
a distinct statement of the earUer relation between 
Rome and Latium, which in all the annals has 
been misrepresented by national pride. The point, 
however, upwn which Niebuhr lays most stress, is 
the remarkable difference l>etween Alimentus and 
all other chronologers in dating the building of the 
city about the fourth year of the 1 2th OljTnoiad. 

K 2 



182 



A. ALLIKNUS. 



This (liffcrencfi is tlic more important In an histo- 
rical vifiw, from Alimciitim hiiviiiK written on tli<? 
old Ilonmn caluiuinr and having carefully i-x- 
aniinvd tliu nioKt ancient Ktniscan and Ilonmn 
chronology. It ii ingcniouiily accounted for by 
Niehuhr, by BU|)|)o»ing our author to have r«v 
duccd thn ancient cyclical yean, consutittg of 
ten inonthn, to an equivalent numbtr of COaUBon 
yearH of twelve months. Now, til* pontiiTi 
reckoned 132 cyclical years Ijcfore the reign of 
Tarquinius Priscus, from which time, according to 
Juliuit (iracchanuR, the us4! of the old calendar waa 
discontinued. The reduction make* a differeMe 

of 22 years, for 132- li!r-l£=22, and 22 jean, 

added to the era of Polybiua and Nepoa, tiz. 01. 
7. 2, bring lu to the verr date of Aluncntua, 01. 
12.4. 

Alinicntus composed a treatise De Officio Jurit- 
consu/ti, containing at least two books ; one book 
l>e VerUs pritcii, one De Coiutdmm PoUitttMU, one 
De Comiiiu, one D» Ftutit^ two, at leaat, Mj/ttafiCh 
ffictm, and several De Re MUiiari. In the latter 
work he handles the subjects of military levies, of 
the ceremonies of dechiring war, and generally of 
the Ju* J-'rcutle. (Oell, xvi. 4 ; Voss. Ilitt. Gr. iv. 
\'A, fin., Ilitt. lAit. i. 4; F. Lochniann, fU Fimtib. 
Ilislur. Til. Livii Com.x. 17, 4 to. 1822; Zimmem, 
Horn. Iiechh;)fsch. L § 73.) [J. T. Ci.] 

ALIMKNTUS, M. CI'NCIUS, tribune of the 

Elebs a c. 204, proposed in his tribuneship the law 
nown by the name of Cineia Lejc de iMmit et 
Muneribits, or Muneralia Ltx. (Liv. xxxiv. 4 ; 
Cic. Cato, 4, de Oral. ii. 71, adAtt I 20; Festus, 
M. V. MunercUis.) This law was confirmed in the 
time of Augustus. {Diet, of Ant. >. v. Cineia Lex.) 

ALIPHE'RUSorIIALIPHE'IlUSCAAf(^poj), 
one of the sons of Lycaon, killed by Zeus with a 
flash of lightning for their insolence. (Apollod. iiL 
8. § 1.) The town of Aliphera or Alipheira in 
Arcadia was believed to have been founded by 
him, and to have derived its name from him. 
(Paus. viii. 3. § 1, 26. § 4 ; Steph. Byz. s. v. 'A\l- 
^'/«) [L. S.] 

ALITTA or ALILATCAAitto or'AKiXdr), the 
name by which, according to Herodotus (i. 131, iii. 
8), the Arabs called Aphrodite Urania. [L. S.] 

ALLECTUS, was raised to the highest digni- 
ties in Britain during the dominion of Carausius ; 
but the crimes which he committed, and the fear 
of punishment on account of them, led him in a. d. 
293 to murder Carausius and assume the impe- 
rial title in Britain for himself. He enjoyed his 
honours for three years, at the end of which Con- 
stantius sent Asclepiodotus with an army and fleet 
against him. Allectus was defeated in a. d. 296, 
and Britain was thus cleared of usurpers. (Aurel. 
Vict, de Caes. 39; Eutrop. ix. 14.) On the an- 
nexed coin the inscription is Imp. C. Allectus. 
P. F. Aug. [L. S.] 




A. ALLIE'NUS. 1. A friend of Cicero's, who 
is spoken of by him in high terms. He was the 
legate of Q. Cicero in Asia, b. c. GO (Cic. ad Qu. 



ALOEIDAF. 

Fr. i. I. I 3), an d praetor in a. r. 49. (AJ AU. x. 
I').) In the following year, lie bad tJxc proriaea 
of Sicily, and sent U> Ca«Mr, who waa tiMB fai 
Africa, a hirge iMtdy of troopa. He fWitilMM^ kl 
.Sicily till u. i'. 47, and rrccivrd the title of h»> 
consuL Two of ('iccro's Irttrrs are add r eu s ad ta 
him. (Ilirt. lieU. Afr. 2, S4 ; Cic. «< Fam. ziiL 
78, 79.) Hi* name occnn oo • coin, wUck kaa 
on one side C. CAsa. \ur. Co*. iTBlt^ and oa ika 
other A. Allibnvm Paucoa. 

2. Waa sent by Dolabella, lu a 43, to Mag to 
hia tba legiona which ««• hi ^Qrpk On his r»- 
tan from Egypt with ftor bgiMM, b« waa sur- 
priaed bj Cmmm fa FdMtioa, who waa at iha 
fiead of a^ht bgiaM A* hit fsnaa wm aa iafe. 
nor, AlIi«iM joinad CbMiwi (Appiaa. B. C. UL 
78, iv. .S» ; Cic. I'hU. xi 12, 1 3 ; CaMio^ ap. Cic 
ud Ftim. xii. 1 1, 12.) This Allieniu may pertia|)a 
be the same \v -. " <. 1. 

ALLU'CIl ftheCelu'beri,battothad 

to a moat beau:..... ...»«..., who w 

by Sdpio in Spain, b. c 209. Sdpie 
gave her to Allucius, and icfoaed tba , 
parent* offisred him. The story i* beaotifUly told 
in Livy (xxvL 50), and i* alao related by athar 
writers (Polyb, x. 19 ; VaL Max. iv. 3. | 1; 80. 
ItaL XV. 268, die) 

ALMO, the god of a river in the neigfaboarhood 
of Rome, who, like Tiberino* aad nthfn, ««n 
prayed to by the angura. In the water of Abw 
the atatoe of the mother of the god* used to be 
washed. (Cic. de Sat. Denr. iiL 20; comp. Varro, 
de Ling. Lot. v. 71, ed. MUller.) [L, 8.] 

ALMOPS CAA/M>\^), a giant, the son of Poseidoa 
and Ilelle, from whom the district of Almopia and 
its inhabitants, the Almopes in Maeedonia, wetv 
believed to have derived their name. (Steph. Byx. 
». r. ^KXtiuvla.) [L 8.] 

ALOEIDAE, ALOI'ADAE, or AU/ADAE 
('AAtMiSou, hKuiiiiai or 'AAmoScu), are patronymic 
forms from Aloeus but are used to designate the 
two sons of his wife Iphimedcia by Poaeidon : rix. 
Otus and Ephialte*. The Aloeidae are renowned 
in the earliest stories of Greece for their extraor- 
dinary strength and daring spirit. When they 
were nine years old, each of their bodies measured 
nine cubits in breadth and twenty-seven in height. 
At this early age, they threatened the OlympiaB 
gods with war, and attempted to pile mount 0**a 
upon Ol3rmpu8, and Pelion upon Ossa. They 
would have accomplished their object, says Homer, 
had they been allowed to grow up to the age of 
manhood ; but Apollo destroyed them before their 
beards began to appear. {Od. xL 305, &c.) In 
the Iliad (v. 385, &c.; comp. Philostr. de Vit. Soph. 
ii. 1. § 1) the poet relates another feat of their 
early age. They put the god Ares in chains, and 
kept him imprisoned for thirteen months ; so that 
he would have perished, had not Hermes been in- 
formed of it by Eriboea, and secretly liberated the 
prisoner. The same stories are related by Apollo- 
dorus (i. 7. § 4), who however does not make them 
perish in the attempt upon Olympus. According 
to him, they actually piled the mountains upon 
one another, and threatened to change land into 
sea and sea into land. They are further said to 
have grown every year one cnbit in breadth and 
three in height As another proof of their daring, 
it is related, that Ephialtes sued for the hand of 
Hera, and Otus for that of Artemis. But this led 
to their destruction in the island of Nazo*. (Compu 



ALOPE- 

Pind. Pyth. iv. 156, &c.) Here Artemis appeared 
to them in the form of a stag, and ran between 
the two brothers, who, both aiming at the animal 
at the same time, shot each other dead. Hyginus 
{^Fab. 28) relates their death in a similar manner, 
but makes Apollo »^nd the fatal stag. (Comp. 
Callim. Hymn, in Dian. 264 ; Apollon. Rhod. i. 
484, with the Schol,) As a punishment for their 
presumption, they were, in Hades, tied to a pillar 
with serpents, with their faces turned away from 
each other, and were perpetually tormented by 
the shrieks of an owl. (iilunck, ad J/i/i/in. I.e. ; 
Virg. Aen. vi. 582.) Diodorus (v. 50, Ax.), who 
does not mention the Homeric stories, contrives to 
give to his account an appearance of history. Ac- 
cording to him, the Aloeidae are Thessalian heroes 
who were sent out by their father Aloeus to fetch 
batk their mother Iphimedeia and her daughter 
Pancratis, who had been carried off by Thracians. 
After having overtaken and defeated the Thracians 
in the island of Strongyle (Naxos), they settled 
there as rulers over the Thracians. But soon after, 
they killed each other in a dispute which had 
arisen between them, and the N'axians worshipped 
them as heroes. The foundation of the town of 
Aloium in Thessaly was ascribed to them. (Steph. 
Byz. s. V.) In all these traditions the Aloeidae are 
represented as only remarkable for their gigantic 
pliysical strength ; but there is another story which 
pliices them in a different light. Pausanias (iz. 
29. § 1) relates, that they were believed to have 
been the first of all men who worshipped the 
Muses on mount Helicon, and to have consecrated 
this mountain to them ; but they worshipped only 
three Muses — Melete, Mneme, and Aoide, and 
founded the town of Ascra in BoeotL-u Sepulchral 
monuments of the Aloeidae were seen in the time 
of Pausanias (ix. 22. § 5) near the Boeotian town 
of Anthedon. Liiter times fabled of their bones 
being seen in Thessaly. (Philostr. i. 3.) The in- 
tcrpretiition of these traditions by etymologies from 
udfiti and dAoxi, which has been attempted by 
modern scholai-s, is little satisfactory. [L. S.] 

ALO'EUS {'AKwfvs). 1. A son of Poseidon 
and Canace. He married Iphimedeia, the daugh- 
ter of Triops, who was in love with Poseidon, and 
used to walk by the sea-side, take her hands full 
of its water, and sprinkle her bosom with it. The 
two sons whom she had by Poseidon were called 
Aloeidae. (Hom. //. y. 385, Od. xL 303 ; Apollod. 
i. 7. § 4.) [Alokiuak.] 

2. A son of Helios by Circe or Antiope, who 
received from his father the sovereignty over the 
district of Asopia. (Pans, il 1. § 6, 3. § 8.) [L.S.] 

A'LOPE ('AAdinj), a daughter of Cercyon, 
who was beloved by Poseidon on account of her 
great beauty, and became by him the mother of 
a son, whom she exposed innnediately after his 
birth. But a mare came and suckled the child 
until it was found by shepherds, who fell into a 
dispute as to who was to have the beautiful kingly 
attire of the boy. The case was brought before 
Cercyon, who, on recognising by the dres6 whose 
child the boy was, ordered Alope to be imprisoned 
in order to be put to death, and her child to be ex- 
posed agjiin. The latter was fed and found in the 
same manner as before, and the shepherds called 
him Hippothous. f Hippothous.] The body of 
Alope was changed by Poseidon into a well, which 
bore the same name. (Hygin. Fab. 187 ; Paus. i. 
6. § 2 ; Aristoph. Av. 533.) The town of Alope, 



ALPHEIUS. 



133 



in Thessaly, was believed to have derived its name 
from her. (Pherecyd. ap. Sleph. Byz. t. r. 'AXohtj, 
where, however, Philonides speaks of an Alope as 
a daughter of Actor.) There was a monument of 
Alope on the road from Eleusis to Megara, on the 
spot where she was believed to have been killed 
by her father. (Paus. L 39. § 3.) [L. S.] 

ALf/PECUS. [AsTRABACUs.] 

ALORCUS, a Spaniard in Hannibal's anny, 
who was a friend and hospes of the Saguntiues, 
went into Saguutum, when the city was reduced 
to the last extremity, to endeavour to persuade the 
inhabitants to accept Hannibal's terms. (lAr. xxi. 
12, &c.) 

ALPHAEA, ALPHEAEA, or ALPHEIU'SA 
('AA(^>aia, 'kX<p*aia, or ' K\<p*ioi<ra), a surname of 
Artemis, which she derived from the river god 
Alpheius, who loved her, and under which nhe 
was worshipped at Letrini in Elis (Paus. vi. 22. $ 
5 ; Strab. viii. p. 343), and in Ortygia. (Schol. 
ad Find. Fytk. ii. 12, Sem. L 3.) [L. S.] 

ALPHEIAS, a name by which Ovid {Met. v. 
487) designates the nymph of the Sicilian well 
Arethusa, because it was believed to have a sub- 
terraneous commimiciitioQ with the river Alpheius, 
in Peloponnesus. [L. S.J 

ALPHEIUS or A'LPHEUS {'hX<t>ti6t or 
'AA^>«ot), the god of the rirer Alpheius in Pelo- 
ponnesus, a son of Oceanus and Tbetys. (Piud. 
Netm. L 1; Hes. Theog. 338.) According to 
Pausanias (v. 7. § 2) Alpheius was a passionate 
hunter and fell in love with the nymph Arethusa, 
bat she fled from him to th« isknd of Ortygia 
near Syracuse, and metamoipbMed herself into a 
well, whereupon Alpheiaa *««*«™« a river, which 
flowing from PelopoBneeus under the sea to Or- 
tygia, there united its waters with those of the 
weU Arethusa. (Coaip. SchoL md Pimd. Nem. L 
3.) This story is rafa^ Mowwhat diflbnatly by 
Ovid. (AM. r. 572, Ac.) Arethusa, afiurnjmph, 
once while bathing in the river Alpheius in Arca- 
dia, was surprised and pursued by the god; but 
Artemis took pity upon her and changed her into 
a well, which flowed under the earth to the island 
of Ortvgia. (Comp. Serr. ad Ki>y. iiV. x. 4 ; 
Vii^. Aen. iiL 6»4 ; Stat Siiv. I 2, 203 ; T/ui. 
i. 271, iv. 239 ; Lucian, Dial. Marin. 3.) Artemis, 
who is here only mentioned incidentally, was, ac- 
cording to other traditions, the object of the love of 
Alpheius. Onee, it is said, when pursued by him 
she fled to Letrini in Elis, and here she covered 
her face and those of her companions (nymphs) with 
mud, so that Alpheius could not discover or 
distingtiish her, and was obliged to return. (Paus. 
vL 22. § 5.) This occasioned the building of a 
temple of Artemis Alphaea at LetrinL According 
to another version, the goddess fled to Ortygia, 
where she had likewise a temple under the name 
of Alphaea. (SchoL ad Find. Fyth. ii. 12.) An 
allusion to Alpheius' love of Artemis is also con- 
tained in the fact, that at Olympia the two divini- 
ties had one altar in common. (Paus. v. 14. § 5 ; 
Schol. <id Find. 01. V. 10.) In these accounts 
two or more distinct stories seem to be mixed up 
together, but they probably originated in the 
popular belief, that there was a natural subterra- 
neous communication between the river Alpheius 
and the well Arethusa. For, among several other 
things it was believed, that a cup thrown into the 
Alpheius would make its reappearance in the well 
Arethusa in Ortygia. (Strab. vL p. 270, viii, pu 



IS4 



ALTIIAKA. 



.SJ3; SciK-c. Qu(wtl. Nat. iii. '-'«; Fulgent. Afyth. 
iii. \'l.) I'lutnrch (ilr Fluv. If)) j^ivi-n iin accnuiit 
which Ih altogether iiiiconncctcJ with thow; nicn- 
tiuiK^d al)<)vc-. According to him, AI|>hi-iiiii won a 
Hon of llelioR, and killed hiit brother Cercnphu* in 
a c<inteiit. lliiuntcd by despair and the Krinnyet 
he leapt into the river NyctiniuB which henco re- 
ceived the nanio AlpheiuH. [L. S.] 
AI,l'llK'NOIl. [NioHB.] 
ALIMIK'NUS VARUS. [Varus.] 
AF.I'IIKHIHOKA {' KK<p*aitoia.). 1. Th* mo- 
ther of Adonis. [AlJONIH.] 

2. A daughter of Phegeus, who married Ale- 
mucon. [Ai.cMAEoN.] 

3. According to 'I'hcocritu* (iii. 45) a daughter 
of IJia«, and the wife of Pelin». The latter, how- 
ever, i« UHunlly called Anaxihia. 

4. An Indian nymph, who waa {MMloMtdy 
loved by Dionynii, but cnuld not be indoMd to 
yield to Imn wishrs, until the god changed himielf 
into a tiger, and thus compelled her by iiear to 
allow him to carry her acroM the river SoQax, 
which from thii circuniRtanee reoeiTed the name of 
Tigrin. (IMut. rfr/'Vur. 24.) [1*8.] 

ALIMIK'IJS MYTILKNAEU8rAAf«(of Mu- 
Ti\r\vato%), the author of alxiut twelre epigrami 
in the (Jrcek Anthology, (ome of which leeni to 
{K)iiit out the time when he wrote. In the MTenth 
epigram (Jacobs) ho refers to the state of the Ro- 
man empire, as embracing almost all the known 
world ; in the ninth he upcaks of the restored and 
flourishing city of Troy ; and in the tenth he al- 
ludes to an epignmi by Anti]>ater Sidonius. Now 
Antipater lived under Augustus, and Troy had re- 
ceived great favours from Julius Caesar and Au- 
giistus. (Strab. xiii. p. 889.) Hence it is not 
improbable that Alpheus wrote under Augustus. 
It is true that in the fourth epigram he addresses 
a certain Miicnnus, but there is no reason to sup- 
pose that this was the emperor Macrinus. Ano- 
ther difficulty has been started, on the ground that 
the eleventh epigram was inscribed, as we learn 
from Pausanias (viii. 52. § 3), on the statue of 
Philopocmcn in Tegca, and that it is very impro- 
bable that such a statue should have stood without 
an inscription till the time of Alpheus. But the 
simple fact is, that no reason can be discovered for 
attributing this epigram to Alpheus. (Jacobs, An- 
thol. Graec. xiii. p. 839.) [P. S.] 

ALPHIUS AVl'TUS. [Avitos.] 

ALPI'NUS, a name which Horace (Sat. L 10. 
36) gives in ridicule to a bombastic poet. He pro- 
bably means M. Furius Bibaculus. [Bibaculus.] 

ALPI'NUS MONTA'NUS, one of the Treviri, 
the most powerful of the Belgic people, and the 
commander of a cohort in the army of Vitellius, 
was sent into Germany after the battle of Cremona, 
A. D. 70. Together with his brother, D. Alpinus, 
he joined Civilis in the next year. (Tac. Hist. iii. 
35, iv. 31, V. 59.) [Civilis.] 

ALTHAEA {'AKdala), a daughter of the Aeto- 
lian king Thestius and Eurj-themis, and sister of 
Leda, Hypermnestra, Iphiclus, Euippus, &c. She 
was married to Oeneus, king of Calydon, by whom 
she became the mother of Troxeus, Thyreus, Cly- 
menus, and Meleager, and of two daughters, Gorge 
and Deianeira. (Apollod. i. 7. § 10, 8. § 1.) 
ApoUodorus states, that according to some, Mele- 
ager was regarded as the fruit of her intercourse 
with Ares, and that she was mother of Dei- 
aneira by Dionysus. (Comp. Hygin. Fab. 129, 



ALYATTES. 

171, 174.) AlthaM U cmcially ed^mrtad in 
ancient story on aocoont of tke tngic ill* of bcr 
■on Mcteagcr, who alao beoHM the cnao of hor 
dastlk Boao mj thai iIm imng humMt odMM 
that she killed hm^f with a dainor. (Apellad. i. 
«. 8 3 ; (iv. Af,t. viii. 44% inc.) [ L. K.) 

AI/rilK'MK.NKS or AI/UIAK'.M KN Ks ('AA- 
9rinitn)s or 'AXOaifiiyyit), u. im »( ' if of 

Crete. In conw-tjurnce of an or,i reus 

wonid loao bia IiIIb bj ooo of bia coimrvn, Aitb^ 
■MDoa q«H««l Oato %»mllkm wUk hit liriWJUf 
BKMrno, in order to avoid booamiac tbo iMitMMat 



noejme, 

of hi* father's death. He kiided in Kbodca at a 
place which he called Cretenia, and in reincaibtBaea 
of the god of his own native island, be elected oa 
mount Atabynu an altar to Zciu Atabrrioik Hia 
nalar waa ■eduead in Rluidoa by «■*■■> bnl 
AlthMMDO^ dtaboUariflff bar aaeonat, kiBad her 
by Idddng b«r with Ua CMC WbanCatmahnd 
become advaneed in years, ho had an intriacibla 
deaire to leo his only son ooeo more, and to piaea 
his crown in his hands. Ho aeMrdinfhr sailod to 
Rhodes. On his bwding thaw, ho ud hia oon>> 

them far phtefc pAg tfc> sn snlna tHwuft, 
Altbeaonea came to tba p w» tti an of Ua mAf Sm , 
and shot his own fc^ar dead. When ho baanna 
aware of what ha Imd dona, bo pnyod to tho fsd^ 
and was swallowed ap by tho cnith. This is the 
aocoont of ApoUodoms (iiL 2. | 1, &c.), with 
which Diodons (v. 69) agrrca in tba main points, 
except that ho repraaenta Ahhemonea aa wander- 
ing about after the mnider, and at but dying with 
grief. He adds, that the Rhodiana inbaeqnentJy 
worshipped him as a berow [L. &.] 

ALTHE'PUS CAKOriwoi), a son of Poseidon 
and LeiR, a daughter of Orus king of Troeaen. 
The territory of 'i'roezen was called after him 
Althepia. In his reign Pallas and Poseidon dis- 
puted the possession of the country with each 
other. (Pans. ii. 30. § ti.) [L. S.] 

ALYATTES {'AXvirms), king of Lydia, soe- 
cceded his fether Sadyattes, B. & 618. Uadyattea 
during the last six years of his reign had been en- 
gaged in a war with Miletus, which was continued 
by his son five years longer. In the lost of tbeae 
years Alyattes burnt a temple of Athena, and fall- 
ing sick shortly afterwards, he sent to Delphi for 
advice ; but the oracle refused to give him an an- 
swer till he had rebuilt the temple. This he did, 
and recovered in consequence, and made peace 
with Miletus. He subsequently carried on war with 
Cyaxares, king of Media, drove the Cimmerians 
out of Asia, took Smyrna, and attacked Clazomenae. 
The war with Cyaxares, which lasted for five years, 
from B. c. 590 to 585, arose in consequence of 
Alyattes receiving under his protection some Scy- 
thians who had fled to him after injuring Cyaxares. 
An eclipse of the sun, which happened while the 
armies of the two kings were lighting, led to a 
peace between them, and this was cemented by 
the marriage of Ast j'ages, the son of Cyaxares, with 
Aryenis, the daughter of Alyattes. Alyattes died 
B. c. 561 or 560, after a reign of fifty-seven years, 
and was succeeded by his son Croesus, who appears 
to have been previously associated with his father in 
the government. (Herod. L 16-22, 25, 73, 74.) 

The tomb ((njfia) of Alyattes is mentioned by 
Herodotus (L 93) as one of the wonders of Lydia. 
It was north of Sardis, near the lake Gygaea, and 
consisted of a large mound of earth, raised upon a 



ALYPIUS. 

foundation of great stones. It was erected by the 
tradespeople, mechanics, and courtezans, and on 
the top of it there were five pillars, which Hero- 
dotus saw, and on which were mentioned the dif- 
ferent portions raised by each ; from this it ap- 
peared that the courtezans did the greater part. 
It measured six plethra and two stadia in circum- 
ference, and thirteen plethra in breadth. Accord- 
ing to some writers, it was called the " tomb of the 
courtezan," and was erected by a mistress of Gyges. 
(Clearch. ap. Allien, xiii. p. 573, a.) This mound 
still exists. Mr. Hamilton says {Hesearclieg in Asia 
Atinor, vol. i. p. 145), that it took him about ten 
minutes to ride round its base, which would give 
it a circumference of nearly a mile ; and he also 
states, that towards the north it consists of the na- 
tural rock— a white, horizontally ttratitied earthy 
limestone, cut away so as to appear part of the 
structure. The upper portion, be adds, is sand 
and gravel, apparently brought from the bed of the 
Hermus. He found on the top the remains of a 
foundation nearly eighteen feet square, on the 
north of which was a huge circukr stone ten feet 
in diameter, with a flat bottom and a raised edge 
or lip, evidently placed there aa au ornament on 
the apex of the tumulus. 

ALY'PIUS ('AXuirtoj), the author of a Greek 
musical treatise entitled tlaaywyrj lioiHTiic/i. There 
arc no tolerably sure grounds for identifying him 
witli any one of the various persons who bore the 
name in the times of the later emperors, and of 
whose history anything is known. According to 
the most plausible conjecture, he was that Alypius 
whom KutiapiuB, in his Life of lamblichua, cele- 
brates for his acute intellect (d SiaAcmiccrraTOT 
'AXiirtos) and diminutive stiiture, and who, being 
a friend of liimblichus, probably flourished under 
Julian and his immediiite successors. This Aly- 
pius was a native of Alexandria, and died theiv at 
an advanced age, and therefore can hardly have 
been the person called by Ammianus Marcellinus 
Alypius Antiocheusis, who was first prefect of Bri- 
Uiin, and aftt>rwards employed by Julian in his 
attempt to rebuild the Jewish temple. Julian 
addresses two epistles ("29 and 30) to Alypius 
(^]ovKuw6s 'AKxnri(f> aStK(p^ Kai(Ta^>lou), in one of 
which he thanks him for a geographical treatise or 
chart i it would seem more likely that thi* was the 
Antiochian than that he was the Alexandrian 
Alypius as Meursius supposes, if indeed he was 
either one or the other. lamblichus wrote a life, 
not now extant, of the Alexandrian. 

(Meursius, AW. ad Alyp. p. 186, &c c. ; Ju- 
lian, Epist. xxix. XXX. and not. p. 297, ed. Heyler ; 
Kunapius, Vit. famblich. and not. vol. ii. p. 63, ed. 
Wyttenbach ; Amm. Marcell. xsiii. 1, § 2; De 
la Borde, £ssai sur la Musujue, vol. iii. p. 133.) 

The work of Alypius consists wholly, with the 
exception of a short introduction, of lists of the 
symbols used (both for voice and instrument) to 
denote all the sounds in the forty-five scales pro- 
duced by t<iking each of the fifteen modes in the 
three genera. (Diatonic, Chromatic, Enharmonic) 
It treats, therefore, in fact, of only one (the fifth, 
namely) of the seven braaiches into which the sub- 
ject is, as usual, divided in the introduction ; and 
may possibly be merely a fragment of a larger 
work. It would have been most valuable if any 
considerable number of examples had been left us 
of the actual use of the system of notation de- 
scribed in it ; unfortunately very fev/ remain (see 



AMAESIA. 



135 



Bumey, Hisl. of Music, voL L p. 83), and they seem 
to belong to an earlier stage of the science. How- 
ever, the work serves to throw some light on the 
obscure history of the modes. (See Bikkh, de 
Metr. Piud. c. 8. p. 235. c 9. 12.) The text, 
which seemed hopelessly corrupt to Meursius, its 
first editor, was restored, apparently with suc- 
cess, by the labours of the learned and indefatiga- 
ble Meibomius. (Antiquae Musicae Auctores 
Septem, ed. Marc. Meibomius, Amstel. 1 652 ; 
Aristoxenus, Nicomachus, Alypius, ed. Joh. Meur- 
sius, Lugd. Bat. 1616.) [W. F. D.] 

ALY'PIUS ('AXiwrwi), priest of the gicat 
church at Constantinople, flourished a. d. 430. 
There is extant an epistle from him to St. Cyril 
(in Greek), exhorting him to a vigorous resistance 
against the heresy of Nestorius. (See CtmcUinrum 
Nova CUUctio, a Maiui, v.)L v. p. 1463.) [A.J.C.J 

ALYPUS fAAinroj), a statuary, a native of 
Sicyoo. He studied under Naucydes, the Argive. 
His ago may be fixed from his having executed 
bronze statues of some Lacedaemonians who shared 
in the victory of Lysander at AegospotamL (b c. 
405.) Pausanias also mentions some statues of 
Olympic victors made by him. (vi. 1. § 2, x. 9. § 4, 
vi. 1. § 2, 8. § 3.) [C. P. M.] 

ALYZEUS ('AAi/^ctSs), a son of Icariu* and 
brother of Penelope and Leucadius. After hit 
father's death, he reigned in conjunction with hia 
brother over Acamania, and is said to have founded 
the town of Alyxeia there. (Strab. x. p. 452; 
Steph. Bvz. ». r. "'AAiJf«ia.) [ L. S.] 

AMA'DOCL'S ('A^wfoi) or ME'DOCUS 
(MifSoKot), a common name among the Tiuactana. 
It was alio, atxording to Ptolemy, the name of a 
people and nfountaiiu in Thrace. Paiuaiuaa (L 4. 
I 4) nealu «f m Amadocua who came fipom the 
HyperboreaiM. 

1. King of the Odrysae in Thrace, was a friend 
of Alcibiades, and is mentioned at the time of the 
battle of Aegospotami, B. c. 405. (Diod. xiil 105.) 
He and Seuthe* were the most powerfiil princes in 
Thrace when Xenophon visited '^ - v in b. c. 
400. They woe, however, fr. iriance, 
but were reconciled to one anu'. , _ . .uybulus, 
the Athenian commander, in b. c. 3i>0, and induced 
by him to become the allies of Athens. (Xen. 
Anak viL 2. § 3-2, 3. § 16, 7. § 3, &c., HeU. iv. 
8. § 26; Diod. xiv. »4.) This Amadocus may 
perhaps be the uime aa the one mentioned by Aris- 
totle, who, be aaya, was attacked by his general 
Seuthea, a Thracian. (Pul. v. 8, p. 1 82, ed. Gottling.) 

2. A Ruler in Thrace, who inherited in con- 
junction with Berisades and Cersobleptes the do- 
minions of Cotys, on the death of the latter in 
B. c. 358. Amadocus was probably a son of 
Cotys and a brother of the other two princes, 
though this is not stated by Demosthenes. (Deni. 
iuAriitvcr. p. 623, &c.) [Ckrsoblkptbs.] Ama- 
docus seems to have had a son of the same name. 
(Isocr. Philiftp. p. 83, d. compared with Harpo- 
crat. s. V. 'A/iaSoKOf.) 

3. One of the princes of Thrace, who was de- 
feated and taken prisoner by Philip, king of 
Macedonia, b- c. 184. (Liv. xxxix. 35.) 

AMAE'SIA SE'NTIA is mentioned by Vale- 
rius Maximus (viii. 3. § 1) as an instance of a 
female who pleaded her own cause before the prae- 
tor. (About B. c. 77.) She was called Andro- 
gyne, from having a man*s spirit with a female 
form. Compare Afhania and Hoktensia. 



186 



AMALTHEIA. 



C.AMAFA'NIlISor AMAKl'MUS wan one 
of tlie carlifHt Hoiiiun writiTh in fiivour of thn Kpicii- 
rciiii |iliili)h(>|iliy. lie wrote M-vcnil workii, wliich 
are wimurfd hy Cicero an di-ficiniit in arniiiKcnicnt 
and Htyiu. lie in mentioned \>y no other writ<T 
but ('icero. (Aiad. i. '^, 7'ugc. iv. 3.) 

AMAI/niKlA {'Afiii\e*ia). I, The nur»c of 
the infant Zeiii* after hin birth in Crete, The «n- 
cirntH thenmrlvcH appear to liave been ni uncertain 
u))out the etymolo^ry of the name as about the 
real nature of Anmltheia. lleitychiuii derived it 
from the verb d,fj.a\0*iitti', to nouri»h or to enrich ; 
otherti from Afid^OaKTos, i. e. finn or hard ; and 
othcTH agjiin from o/iaA^ and 6ila, according to 
which it would oiffnify the divine goat, or the 
tender goddesH. The common derivation is from 
dfiiKynv, to milk or snck. According to some 
tniditionA Amaltheia is the goat who suckled the 
infant Jove (llygin. J'oef. Aitr. ii. 13; Arat. 
J'hiieii. 1()3; Callim. Hymn, in Jiw. 4J)), and who 
was afterwards rewarded for this service by being 
placed among the stars. (Conip. Apollod. i. 1. § 
(J.) I Akoa.] According to another set of tra- 
ditions Amaltheia was a nymph, and daughter of 
Oceainis, Helios, llaemonius, or of the Cretan 
king Melisseus (Schol. ad Horn, IL xzi. 194; 
Kratostk Catast. 13; Apollod. ii. 7. §5; Im- 
Unt. InntU. i. 22; Hygin. /. c, and Fub. 139, 
where he calls the nymph Adamanteia),and is said 
to have fed Zeus with the milk of agoat. When this 
goat once broke off one of her horns, the nymph 
Amaltheia tilled it with fresh herbs and fruit and 
gjkvc it to Zeus, who tmnsplaced it together with 
the goat among the stars. (Orid, Fail. r. 115, 
&c.) According to other accounts Zeui himself 
broke off one of the horns of the goat Amaltheia, 
gave it to the daughters of Melisseus, and en- 
dowed it with such powers that whenever the po»- 
si'ssor wished, it would instantaneously become filled 
with whatever might be desired. (Apollod. /. c; 
Schol. ad Callim. I. c.) This is the story about 
the ongin of the celebrated horn of Amaltheia, 
commonly called the horn of plenty or cornucopia, 
which plays such a prominent part in the stones 
of Greece, and which was used in later times as 
the symbol of plenty in general. (Strab. x. p. 458, 
iii. p. 151 ; Diod. iv. 35.) [Achklous.] Dio- 
dorus (iii. G8) gives an account of Amaltheia, 
which differs from all the other traditions. Ac- 
cording to him the Libyan king Anunon married 
Amaltheia, a maiden of extraordinary beauty, and 
gave her a very fertile tract of land which had the 
form of a bull's horn, and received from its queen 
the name of the horn of Amaltheia. This account, 
however, is only one of the many specimens of a 
rationalistic interpretation of the ancient mythus. 
The horn appears to be one of the most ancient 
and simplest vessels for drinking, and thus we find 
the story of Amaltheia giving Zeus to drink from 
a horn represented in an ancient work of art still 
extant. (Galeria Giustiniani, ii. p. 61.) The 
horn of plenty was frequently given as an attribute 
to the representations of Tyche or Fortuna. (Paus. 
iv. 30. § 4, vii. 26. § 3 ; comp. Biittiger, Amal- 
theia, oder der Cretensische Zeus als Saugling; 
Welcker, Z7e6er eine Cretische Colonic in TAeben, 
p. 6.) 

2. One of the Sibyls (Tibull, ii. 5. 67), whom 
Lactantius (i. 6) identifies with the Cmnaean 
Sibyl, who is said to have sold to king Tarqiiinius 
the celebrated Sibylline books. The same is stated 



AMASIS. 

by Servius {'ui Am. vi. 72) tind by Lulus (</« 
Mem. iv. 34); comp. Klaux-n, Aenrat und dm 

I'ev,,' \c. |L. .S.J 

A f Aki IAM», p. 28, a.] 

A V . i S ('AfUlfiorTo*), of Almtiiilriii, 

wrote ii toiiiiiM-ntary njKin one of 'I'lieucriliui' 
IdyU {KfynuJ. M. p. 273. 40, e<l. SvlU), and • 
work entitled ir*p\ aKi\yH%. liespectuig his time, 
we only know that lie lived sulm-(|uently to Jut«, 
king of Mauretauia. (Alheit. TiiL p. ^3, e., z. 
p. 414, f.) 

AM A R Y NCEUS {'A^La^K•it), a diief of th* 
Eleans, and son of Onesiniachus or of A<«tor. 
(Hygin. Fab. 97 ; KusUith. ad Hom. p. 303.) Ac- 
cording to Ilyginus, Amarynct-us himself joined tha 
expedition against Troy with nineteen ship*. Homer, 
on the other hand, only mentions his son Diom 

iAraarynceides) as fiartaking in the Trojan war. 
//. it. 622. iv. 517.) When Amarynceiu died, 
his sons eekbnrtcd fnncnd oubm in his honour, in 
which Neator, m he UaMalf nhiM (//. xxiii. 629, 
&C.), took pMt AoHdiMf to Pmhhhm (t. L | 
8) AmanniMubadbMaoifNBtMrriMteAiiffMi 
asainst Memdaa, in ratam m wUck Aageaa tMnd 
his throne with him. [L. K.] 

AMAKYNTHUS ('ktfi^t&eot), a hunter of 
A rtemis, from whom the town of Amanmthiu in 
Kuboea (Steph. Bye says Enbocft itaelf) wm bo- 
lievcd to have derived ita nuM. (Strnb. z. p. 
448.) From this hero, or nther fttioi tb* town af 
Amarynthus, Artemis deriTed tha mnMaa AiB»> 
rynthia or Amarysia, under which she waa wor- 
shipped there and also in Attica. (Paus. i. 81. § 
3, comp. Diet, rf Ant. «. r. ' ktMfritSia.) [L. S.] 

AMA'SIS CA^m). 1. King of Egypt in 
early times, according to Diodorus (L 60), in 
whose reign Egypt was conquered by Actisanet, 
king of Ethiopia. [Af-TISANKH.] 

2. King of Egypt, aucceeded Apriet, the last 
king of the Kne of Paammetichus, in B. c 569. 
He was of comparatively low origin (Herodotus, 
ii. 172, calls him Stj^tji), and waa bom at 
Siuph, a town in the Saitic nome. When the 
(Egyptians revolted against Apries, Amasis waa 
sent to quell the insurrection, but went over 
to the side of the rebels, and was proclaimed 
king by them. He defeated Apries in a battle 
near Momemphis, and took him prisoner. He 
seemed disposed to treat his captive with great 
mildness, but was induced to deliver him up into 
the hands of the Egyptians, who put him to death. 
It was probably to strengthen himself against a 
powerful party formed against him amongst the 
warrior-caste, that he cultivated the friendjihip of 
the Greeks. He not only gave up to them the city 
of Naucratis, which had hitherto been* their only 
mart, but opened all the mouths of the Nile to 
them, and allowed them to build temples to their 
own deities. He contracted an alliance with the 
Greeks of Cyrene, and himself married Ladice, a 
Cyrenaic lady. (HerodL iL 181.) He removed the 
lonians and Carians, who were settled on the 
Pelusiac mouth of the Nile, to ilemphis, and 
formed them into a body-guard for himself. 
(iL 154.) He also entered into alliance with 
Croesus (L 77) and \^•ith Polycrates, the tyrant 
of Samoa (iii. 39, 40), who is said to have in- 
troduced Pythagoras to him by letter. (Diog. 
Laert. viii. 3.) Amasis also sent presents to 
several of the Greek cities. (HenxL iL 182.) 
Solon in the course of his trarels visited him. 



AMASTRIS. 

(i. 30; Plut. Solon, 26; Plat. Timaeus, p. 21.) 
It would appear from Xenophon {Cyr(jp. viii. 6. 
§ 20) that, after the overthrow of Croesus by 
Cyrus, Amasis was compelled to jmy tribute. 
He strove to win the favour of the priest-caste by 
building them temples. During the reign of 
Amasis agriculture, commerce, and the arts 
flourished greatly. The extension of Egyptian 
commerce was much favoured by the conquest of 
Cyprus, which he made tributary. His reign was 
one of almost uninterrupted peace and prosperity, 
wliich gave him leisure for adorning Egypt with 
several magnificent buildings and works of art. (ii. 
175, 17(>.) The plans of conquest which Cyrus 
had been unable to carry into effect, were followed 
out by Cambyses, who in B. c, 525 led an army 
against Egj'pt. According to the story told by 
Herodotus (iii. 1), Cambyses had been incensed 
by a deception practised upon him by Amasis, 
who, pretending to comply with a demand of the 
Perbian king, that he should send hira his daughter 
to .adorn his harem, substituted the daughter of 
Apries for his own. Amasis however did not 
live to see the fall of his country. He died be- 
fore Cambyses reached the borders, after a reign of 
44 years, and was buried at Sais in the tomb 
which he had constructed in the temple of Athena, 
(iii. 10, ii. 1')!).) His corpse was afterwards taken 
out of the tomb and shamefully insulted by the 
order of Cambyses. (iii. 16.) As a governor he 
exhibited great abilities, and was the author of 
several useful regulations (ii. 177), but he appears 
to have indulged in more familiarity towards those 
about him than was altogether consistent with hiB 
kingly dignity. (Herod, ii. 161 — 182, ilL 1 — 16 ; 
Diod. i. 68, 95.) 

3. A Persian of the tribe of the Maraphii, 
who was sent by Aryandes, the goremor of 
Egypt under Cambyses, at the head of an army, 
to assist Pheretuue, the mother of Arcesilaus 
III., king of Cyrene. He took Uarua by strata- 
gem and treachery, and made an unsuccessful 
attempt ujton Cyrene. He was then recalled by 
Aryandes. On its march back the Persian army 
sutiered severely from the Libyans. (Herod, iv. 
167, 201, 203.) ' [C. P. M.] 

AMASTKIS or AMESTRIS ("A/uwrrp^ or 
"A/titjdTfiiy). 1. The wife of Xerxes, and mother 
of Artuxerxes I. According to Herodotus, she 
was the daughter of Otiines, according to Ctesias, 
who calls her Amistris, of Ouuphas. She was 
cruel and vindictive. On one occasion she sacri- 
ficed fourteen youths of the noblest Persian families 
to the god said to dwell beneath the earth. The 
tale of her horrible mutilation of the wife of Ma- 
sistes, recoriled by Henxlotus, gives us a lively 
picture of the intrigues and cruelties of a Persian 
harem. She survived Xerxes. (Herod, vii. 61, 
114, ix. 108—113; Ctesias, /»«•««;. c. 20. 30. ed. 
Lion ; Plut. Aleib. p. 123, c.) 

2. A daughter of Artaxerxes II., whom her fa- 
ther promised in marriage to Teribazus. Instead 
of fultilhng his promise, he married her himaeltl 
(Plut. Arkuc. c. 27.) 

3. Also called Amastrine ('A^offrptMf), the 
daughter of Oxyartes, the brother of Darius, was 
given by Alexander in marriage to Craterus, 
(Arrian. Anab. vii. 4.) Craterus having fallen in 
love with Phila, the daughter of Antipater, Amas- 
tris married Dionysius, tyrant of Heracleui, in Bi- 
thynia, ii. c. 322. After the death of Dionysius, 



AMAZONES. 



137 



in B. c. 306, who left her guardian of their chil- 
dren, Clearchus, Oxyathres, and Amastris, she 
married Lysimachus, b. c. 302. Lysimachiis, 
however, abandoned her shortly afterwards, and 
married Arsinoe, the daughter of Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus ; whereupon Amastris retired to Heracleia, 
wliich she governed in her own right She also 
founded a city, called after her own name, on the 
sea-coast of Paphlagonia. She was drowned by 
her two sons about b. c. 288. (Memnon, c. 4, 5 ; 
Diod. XX. 109.) The head figured below probably 
represents Amastris: the woman on the reverse 
holds a small figure of nctory in her hand. (Eck- 
hel, ii. p. 421.) 




AMA'TA, the vrife of king Latinus and mother 
of Lavinia, who, when Aeneaa sued for the hand 
of the latter, opposed him, became she had already 
promised Lavinia to Tumua. At the same time 
she was instigated by Ale«to, who acted according 
to the request of Juno, to stir up the war with 
Tunius. This story fills the greater part of the 
seventh book of Virgil's Aeneid. When Amata 
was Luformed that Tumus had faUen in battle, she 
hung hertelfl (Virg. Aem, xiL 600 ; Dionys. L 
64.) [L. S.] 

A'MATHES CAW#ir), a son of Heracles, from 
whom the town of Amathiu in Cyprus waa be- 
liered to hare doiTed itt duw. Aeeocdinc to 
some traditioM^ iMwevw, ha name wm danred 
from AmathoM, tiie mother of Cinyna. (Steph. 
Bvz. ». f. 'Kfia^ous.) [L. S.] 

'AMATHU'SIA or AMATHU'NTIA ('Amo- 
Ooixrfa or 'ApA0ovrr(a), a inmaiiw of Aphrodite, 
which is derived from the town of Amathua in 
(' of the most ancient seats of her wor- 

Inmit. iii. 62 ; Or. Amor. iiL 15. 15 ; 
\ ... . _ 1-2 I CatuU. IxTiiL 51.) [L. S.] 

AMA ilUS, sumamed P$etidomarius, a per- 
son of low origin, who pretended to be either the 
son or grandson of the great Marius. On the 
death of Julius Caesar & c. 44, he came forward 
as a popular leader, and erected an altar to Caesar 
on the ^t where his body had been burnt. He 
was, however, shortly afterwards seized by the 
consul Antony and put to death without a triaL 
This illegal act was approved of by the senate in 
consequence of the advantages they derived from 
it, Valerius Maximus (ix. 15. § 2) says that his 
name was Herophilus. (Appian, B. C. iiL 2, 3 ; 
Liv. EpU. 116; Cic. ad Att. xiL 49, xiv. 6—8, 
J'hilipp. i. 2; Nicolaus Damascenus, Vit. Aty. 
c 14. p. 258, ed. Coraes.) 

AMA'ZONES ('A/«ifoi'«i), a warlike race of 
females, who act a prominent part in several of the 
adventures of Greek mythology. All accounts of 
them agree in the statement, that they came from 
the country about the Caucasus, and that their 
principal seats were on the river Thermodon, in 
the neighbourhood of the modem Trebizond. From 
thence they are said to have at different times in- 
vaded Thrace, Asia Minor, the islands of the Ae- 



138 



AMAZONES. 



genn, fin-ccc, Syria, Arabia. Kffypt, and lAhyti. 
The country about the Thrnnodun with its capital 
Th«niiiH.-yni wait inhabited only by the Antuont, 
who were f^ovcnied by u quet-n. The QMTgUttUU, 
n nict! of men, wrn; »e|)aniti-d from them bj • 
inounUiin, but nnco every year the AmuHNU met 
the (iargarcanii in tlie mountjiinii for the parpoM of 
propagating their nice, and then retumeid to their 
own country. Their children, when of the female 
Hex, were brought up by the Amazon mothen, nd 
trained in their cuHtoniary purnuit* of war, Mimgt 
Ininting, and cultivating the land; bnt mA gm 
had her right breast cut off : their male children, 
on the other hand, were tent to the Garguvant, or 
put to death. (Strab. xi. p. />0.'{, Sec; Diod. il 45, 
^c, iii. .52, kc.; JuHtin, ii. 4.) The principal goda 
they wornhippcd wore Ares and Aitemia Tauro- 
))<)](>8. The foundation of eerenl towM in Alia 
Minor and in the ixlands of the Aegean ia aacribcd 
to them, e. g. of Kphciui, Smyrna, Cyme, Myrina, 
and PaphoH. Strabo doubt* the eziatenoe of tuch 
a race of female*, while Diodonu attempta to give 
an account of them, which aanunea all tne appear- 
ance of hiHtory. That the Amazon* wen regarded 
as a real historical race down to a lata pariod, ia 
evident from the tradition, that, when Alexander 
the Great approached the country of the Amazon*, 
their queen Thule8tri« haatcned to him, in order to 
become mother by the conqueror of A*ia. (Plut. 

Rut we confine onnelve* here to noticing some 
of the mythical adventures with which the Ama- 
zons arc connected. They arc said to have in- 
vaded Lycia in the reign of lobates, but were de- 
stroyed by IJellerophontes, who happened to be 
staying at the king's court. (Hom. //. vi, 186, Ac.; 
HchaX. ad Lycoph. \1 .) [Ukllkrophontbs, Lao- 
MKDON.] At the time when Priam was yet a 
young man, they invaded Phrygia, and fought 
with the Phrj-gians and Trojans. (Hom. 11. iii. 
189, &c.) The ninth among the labours imposed 
upon Heracles by Eurystheus, waa to take from 
liippolyte, the queen of the Amazons, her girdle, 
the ensign of her kingly power, which she had re- 
ceived as a present fixjm Ares. (ApoUod. IL 5. § 9; 
Diod. iv. IG ; Hygin. Fab, 30 ; Quint. Smym. xi. 
244.) [Heracles.] In the reign of Theseus they 
invaded Attica. (Paus. i. 2 ; Plut. TIim. 31, 33.) 
[Theseus.] Towards the end of the Trojan war, 
the Amazons, under their queen Penthesileia, 
came to the assistance of Priam ; but the queen 
was killed bv Achilles. (Quint. Smym. i. 669 ; 
Paus. V. 11. §2 ; Philostr. Her. xix. 19.) [Pk.n- 
thesileia.] 

The question as to what the Amazons really 
were, or rather, what gave rise to the belief that 
there was such a race of women, has been much 
discussed by ancient as well as modem writers. 
Herodotus (iv. 110) says, that in the Scj-thian 
language their name was Oiorpata, which he trans- 
lates by ow^poKTovoi, The Greek name Amazones 
is usually derived from fux^os, the breast, and is sup- 
posed to mean "breastless," or "not brought up by 
the breast," "beings with strong breasts," or "with 
one breast." (Philostr. ?.c.; Eustath. od //ow. p. 
402.) Others derive it from the Circassian word 
maza, said to signify the moon, or from Emmdch, 
which, according to a Caucasian tradition, is said 
to have been their original name. (Sprengel, Apo- 
logie des Hippocrates, ii. p. 597; Klaproth, Reise 
nach dem Caucasus, i. p. 655.) Among the various 



AIIBIOHIX. 

way* in whieh it haa bata aUaaftad la tetmmt 
{y>r the origin at tha itorjr abosi tha Aaaaaaa, twa 
dcMnra ta be mentioned. Oaa apiaiaa ki that tba 
paeaUar war in which tha woatB af ataM ti tha 
Caoeaaiaa dktneU Itrad, ami pirihmid tha datiaa 
which in othar aaaatriaa davana «mi aaa, tap»> 
ther with tha many hmaarim af faaaU h— airy 
and courage which aia Botiead aa i 



br modem tnveUan, war* ao w ta y ad la tha hih^ 
bitaota afwaalam Alia aad tha Chtaaha ia aipm aad 
abaom iapeffla,aMl thaa ga«« liaa la Iha halaf hi 



tha azfataaaa af iwh a wuliha oma af I 
that thaaa ivmaari and rapoita waia aahiaqaatly 
worited aot and oaballiahad bj ptpolar tadUm 
and poetry. Othan thfaik tlmt tha AmaaHM 
were originalljr piiailaiMa of Artaaaia (tha maaa), 
wboea wanhip waa widalj apcaad b Aaia, aad 
whidi thaj an aU la haa* latabMihid bt T a ri wM 
parta. It k tethar hrfinai, ftan tha aaaM Aaa»> 
xonea, that thaaa ariialiiMW watflalid thair bodiea by 
cuttiM eg their bw M t i fai a wmmm ri ni l a i to timt 
in whiA the OaM and other pciaHa ■atihud thaif 
bodiea, and that thaa tha .^ mmwi iifrMmiHd tha 
Bwla ideal n tha fMMda tax, Joat m the OalU iaaa»> 
anted the fmala ideal k tha mala eaz. BaftitwaaU 
be dlOadt, ki the tot pkea, III paora the edateaaa 
of Muh prkataieea, and in tlie eaeaad, ta ihav haw 
they eoald hare imaaiomd tha belief ia a vhek 
female ran of thk kind. Neither tha paetkal Mr 
historical twditinm abeat tha 



anything to render thk opbiea vmj alaMftk i 
and, in tha idiaeaaa of aD padtita aviMaai^ tha 
first opinioa haa math man to neasMMad it. 
(Comp. Miilkr, Orakai. p. SM, Ac.) 

The r ep r ete ntati on of than warlike woaien oo> 
cupied the Oreek artiata very nUsmfdj, and we 
*tiil poeeei * a large •eriae of the meet beaotifal 
work* of art, such aa painting* on vaaes and wall% 
bronzes, relief*, and gems, in which the Amaaona 
and their battles with men are represented. The 
most celebrated works of thi* kind in antiquity 
were the battle of the Amazons with the Athenians 
in the Poecile at Athena, by Nicoo (Pans. L 15. 
9 2), on the shield of Athena, and on the foot- 
stool of the Olympian Zena, by Phidiaa. (i. 17. ^ 2.) 
Amazons were also represented by Alcamenes in 
the pediment of the temfJe of 2^as at Olympia. 
(t. 10. 4 2.) Respecting the extant representations 
of Amazons and their costumes, see Miiller, Handb, 
d. A rchdol. ^ .365, 417. [ L. S. J 

AM.^ZO'NIUS ('Pitia^6vu>s), a surname of 
Apollo, under which he was worshipped, and had 
a temple at Pyrrhichos in Laconia. The name 
was derived either from the belief that the Ama* 
zons had penetrated into Peloponnesus as £u as 
Pyrrhichus, or that thev had founded the temple 
there. (Paus. iii. 25. §"2.) [L. S.] 

AMBIGA'TUS, king of the Celts in Gaul in 
the reign of Tarquinius Prisons. He belonged to 
the Bituriges, the most powerfiil of the Celtic peo- 
ple. When Ambigatus was advanced in years, he 
sent out Bellovesus and Sigovesus, the sons of his 
sister, with large swarms of his people to seek new 
settlements, in consequence of the great number of 
the population. Bellovesus and Sigovesus drew 
lots as to the course they should take ; the latter 
in consequence went to the Hercynian forest and 
the former into Italv. (Liv. v. 34.) 

AMBI'ORIX, a" chief of the Eburones. a Gallic 
people between the Meuse and the Rhine, who 
were formerly tributary to the Aduatici, but were 



AMBROSIUS. 

deliyered by Caesar from the payment of this tri- 
bute. In B. c, 54, Caesar placed a legion and five 
cohorts, under the command of Q. Titurius Sabinus 
and L. Aurunculeius Cotta, in the territories of 
the Eburones for the purpose of passing the winter 
there. But fifteen days after they had been sta- 
tioned in their territories, the Eburones revolted at 
the instigation of Arabiorix and Cativolcus, another 
chief, besieged the Roman camp, and destroyed 
almost all the Roman troops, after they had been 
induced by Ambiorix to leave their camp under 
promise of a safe-conduct. After their destruction 
Ambiorix hastened to the Aduatici and Nervii, 
and induced them, in conjunction with the Ebu- 
rones, to attack the camp of Q. Cicero, who was 
stationed for the winter among the NerviL The 
firmness of Cicero, and the defeat of the Gauls on 
the arrival of Caesar, compelled Ambiorix to raise 
the siege. In the following years Ambiorix con- 
tinued to prosecute the war against Caesar, but 
though all his plans were thwarted, and the dif- 
ferent troops he raised were defeated by Caesar, he 
always escaped falling into the hands of the con- 
queror. (Caes. D. G. v. 24, 26—51, vi. 5, 29— 
43, viii. 24, &c.; Dion Cass. xl. 5—10, 31, &c. ; 
Liv. Epit, lOG.) According to Flonis (iii. 10. 
§ U) he escaped the vengeance of the Romani by 
fleeing beyond the Rhine. 

L. AMBI'VIUS TU'RPIO, [Turpio.] 

AMBOLOGE'RA {'KitgoKoyftita), from iya- 
€d\KcD and "^rjpai " delaying old age," as a »ar- 
nanic of Aphrodite, who had a statue at Sparta 
under this name. (Pans. uL 18. | 1 ; PluL 
Sympos, iii. G.) [L. S.] 

AMBRA'CIA {'AnepoKia), a daughter of Au- 
geas, from whom the town of Ambracia derived it» 
name. (Steph. Byi. 5. v.; Eustath. ad Diomy*. iV 
rie(j. 492.) Other traditions represent her aa a 
grand-daughter of .\pollo, and a daughter of Mel»- 
neus, king of the Dryopes. (Anton. Lib. 4.) A 
third account derived the name of the town from 
Anibrax, a son of Thesprotus and grandson of 
Lycaon. (Steph. Byi. I.e.) [L. S.] 

AMBRU'SIUS ('AM«po<rioO ALEXANDRI'- 
NUS, a nobleman and courtier (S. Epiph. uiv. 
Ilaer. 64. [44] § 3) flourished a. d. 230. At fint 
a Valentinian (Euseb. H. E. viL 18) and Marcioniat, 
he was won to the faith by Urigen, whose con- 
stant fellow-student he be^me (Origen, Ep. ad 
A/rictm. vol. L p. 29), and was ordained deacon. 
(S. Hier. Vir.Illustr. 56.) He plied Origen with 
questions, and urged him to write his Com- 
mentaries ( ^p7o5i«u(cT'ijy ), supplying him with 
transcribers in abundance. He shone as a Con- 
fessor during the persecution of Julius Maximinus 
(Euseb. vi. 18) \. d. 236, and died between a. d. 
247 and 253. His letters to Origen (praised by 
St. Jerome) are lost ; part of one exists ap. Origen, 
LU>. de Orat. c. 5. p. 208, a. b. (See Routh's 
Jielitfuiae Sacr. ii. p. 367.) Origen dedicated to 
him his Exhoriation to Martyrdom ; BooLi against 
C'cl»us ; Commentary am St. John's Gospel; and On 
I'rai/er. [A. J. C] 

A.MBRO'SIUS, ST., bishop of Milan, was 
born probably at Augusta Trevirorum {Treves), 
which was the seat of government for the province 
of Gaul, of which his father was prefect. His 
biographers ditFer as to whether the date of his 
birth was 333 or 340 a. d., but the latter is pro- 
bably the true date. Circumstances occurred in 
his infancy which were understood to portend his 



AMBROSIUS. 



139 



fiiture greatness. His father having died, Am- 
brose, then a boy, accompanied his mother to 
Rome, where he received the education of an advo- 
cate under Anicius Probus and Sjinmachus. He 
began pleading causes at Milan, then the imperial 
residence, and soon gained a high reputation for 
forensic eloquence. This success, together with 
the influence of his famil}', led to his appointment 
(about 370 a. d., or a little later) as consular pre* 
feet of the prorincea of Liguria and Aemilia, wboM 
seat of government was Milan. 

The struggle between the Catholics and Ariana 
was now at its height in the Western Churcli, 
and upon the death of Auxentius, bishop of Milan, 
in 374, the question of the appointment of his 
successor led to an open conflict between the two 
parties. Ambroae exerted his infliiftniie to restore 
peace, and addr— ad the people m m eonciliatory 
speech, at the condnmo of which a child in the 
further part of the crowd cried out '*Awtintim$ 
episcoput.'" The words were reoeired as an onde 
from heaven, and Ambrose was elected bishop by 
the acclamation of the whole multitude, the bishops 
of both parties uniting in his eleetioii. It was in 
vain that he adopted the ■*— «y* defieea to alter 
the determination of the peode; nothing codd 
make them change their mind (Paulin. Vit. AiiUtfiH, 
pp. 2, 3) : in rain did he flee from Milan in the 
night ; he mistook his way, and found himself the 
next morning before the gate of the city. At 
length he yidded to the aipieai ewwiend of the 
eaapenr (ValcBtiniui I.), aid wm eooaecated «■ 
the eightli day after his baptism, fiir at the time af 
his election he was only a catechumen. 

Immediatdy after his election he gave all his 
property to the ehorch and the poor, and adopted 
an aaoetie mode of life, while the poblie adnunis- 
tiatioB ef hti eAee was moel fins aiMi akilfuL He 
was a mat jpalna «f aaaMlkMBi : about two 
years after hie eoaaeentieii he wrote his three 
books " De Virginibus,** and dedicated them to his 
sister Marcellina. In the Ariaa controTersy he 
eapooaDd the otthodox ade at his very entnnee on 
hk bishopric by liwaanrling that his liaptism should 
be pofermed by aB etthedex bishop. Ue q>pliBd 
koMalf meet diligeBtly to the atady ol thedogy 
mider Simplidan, a pnsbyter of Rome, who after- 
wards became his soooeesor in the bishopric. His 
influence soon became reiy great, both with the 
people and with the emperor Valentinian and his 
BOD Oiatian, fsr whose instruction he composed his 
treatises " De Fide," and ** De Spiritu Saneto.** 
In the year 377, in consequence of an invaaioii of 
Italy by the nonhem barbarians, Ambroae fled to 
lUyricum, and afterwards (in Cave's opinion) visited 
Rome. After his return to Milan, he was employed 
by the court on important political afiairsi When 
Maximus, after the death of Gratian (383), threat- 
ened Italy, Justina, the mother of the young em- 
peror VsJentinian II., sent Ambrose on an em- 
bassy to the usurper, whose advance the bishop 
succeeded in delaying. At a later period (387), 
Ambrose went again to Treves on a like mission ; 
but his conduct on this occasion gave such offence 
to Maximus that he was compelled to return to 
Italy in haste. 

While rendering these political aerriees to Jna- 
tina and Valentinian, Ambroae was at open ra- 
riance with them on the great religious question of 
the age. Justina was herself an ^\rian, and had 
brought up the young emperor in the same tenets. 



I 10 AMimosius. 

llcr contcHt with Arnl)ro(w» ]H•^r•^n in the year 300, 
when Hhc nppoiiitcd iiii Arian hi>ili(i|) to th<^ vacniit 
m-c (if Siriniuin ; upon which Ainhr«iie went to 
Kinniiini, aiui, a ininiciiloiiit jud^ent on an Ariiin 
who inHiiltcd him having Htruck terror into hin op- 
ponent*, ho con»<!cratud Ani-mmiuii, who wu of 
the ortliodox party, iw hinhop of Simiium, ai»d 
then returned to Mihm, where JtiKtinA iet on foot 
M'veral intrigue* agiiinHt him, hut without efftet. 
In the year 'Mi2, I'alliidiuH and Sccundianut, two 
Arian hixhopH, petitioned (jr.itian for a general 
comicil to decide the Arian controver»y ; but, 
through the influence of Ambrose, in«t<iFul of a 
genenil council, a vynod of Italian, Illyriiin and 
(iailic hiHhopn was aaiembled at Aquiieia, over 
which Amhrosc preiided, and by which PolUdiu* 
und Secundianui were dnpoMd. 

At length, in the yearn 3JI5 and 386, Ambroie 
and JuHtina caiAe to open conflict. Juttina, in the 
name of the emperor, demanded of Ambroae the 
iiM! of at least one of the churches in Milan, for 
the {H-rformance of divine worship by Arian eode- 
siaHticR. Ambrose refused, and the people roM up 
to tJike hiH part. At Easter ^385) an attempt wm 
made by Justina to take forcible possession of the 
baitilica, but the show of resistance was so grot, 
that the attempt was abandoned, and the court 
was even obliged to apply to Ambrose to quell the 
tumult. He answered, that he had not stirred 
up the p<>ople, and that God alone could still them. 
The people now kept guard altout the bishop's re- 
Ridence and the basilica, which the imperial forces 
hesitJited to attack. In fact, the people were al- 
most wholly on the side of Ambrose, the Arian 
party consisting of few beyond the court and the 
Gothic troops. Auxentius, an Arian bishop, who 
was Ju8tina''8 chief adviser in these proceedings, 
now challenged Ambrose to a public disputation in 
the emperor's palace ; but Ambrose refused, saying 
that a council of the church was the only proper 
place for such a discussion. He was next com- 
manded to leave the city, which he at once refused 
to do, and in this refusal the people still supported 
him. In order to keep up the spirits of the peo- 
ple, he introduced into the church where they kept 
watch the regular performance of antiphonal hymns, 
which had been long practised in the Eastern 
Church, but not hitherto introduced into the West 
At length, the contest was decided about a year 
after its commencement by the miracles which are 
reported to have attended the discovery of the 
reliques of two hitherto unknown martyrs, Gerva- 
sius and Protasius. A blind man was said to 
have been restored to sight, and several demoniacs 
dispossessed. These events are recorded by Am- 
brose himself, by his secretary Paulinus, and by 
his disciple Augustine, who was in Milan at the 
time ; but a particular discussion of the truth of 
these miracles would be out of place here. They 
were denied by the Arians and discredited by the 
court, but the impression made by them upon the 
people in general was such, that Justina thought it 
prudent to desist from her attempt. {Amhros. Epist. 
xii. XX. xxi. xxii. § "2, Iiii. liv.; Paulin. Vit.Avibros. 
§ 14-17, p. 4, Ben.; Augustin. Con/iss. Lx. 7. § 14- 
16, De Civ. Dei, xxii. 8. § 2, Serm. 318, 286.) 

An imperial rescript was however issued in the 
same year for the toleration of all sects of Chris- 
tians, any offence against which was made high 
treason (Cod. Theodos. IV. De Fide Catkolica) ; 
-but we have no evidence that its execution was 



AMUR YON. 

attempti'd ; aii'l thi- ktnt<f of the parties was quit* 
altiTrd by iIm- iliaili <it Jnntiria in the nrit ymr 
(31(7), wh«-n V.iliiitihi 111 l«-raine a Catholic, and 
ktill more foin|i!<t" Iv l.y tin- victory of 'iheodutins 
ovrr Maximun (.'iliU^. J hia event put the wbuU 
power of the enpini into the Imum* of • priMo 
who was ■ ftna Cot hoi if, and oror vkoa Aahnoo 
■peedily Mm^iod wmk iaimmmt tkot, oAor tW 
ot TkoMdoain Ib SM^ Im nAHod Tko^ 
late «ho chudi of MikM fcr • 
pofiod of oightBMDtha, ud onlyiwloied Ua oAor 
no hod ponrnMod o twimf bobomO) osd hod < 
fessed that ho had leornt tho di~ 
an emperor ond o priest. 

Ambrose wu on octivo opponni Ml o^jr of tho 
Arians, bat also of tho Mooodoaioaoi/ 
and Noratians, and of Joviaka. It ' 
about the ytor 884 that ho ■BccoMhllyridotiii 
the petition of Sjnmachns aad the hoothoo w— 
tors of Room im the restonuion of tho altar of 
Victory. He was the principal inatraetor of Aa- 
gustino ia tho Chrietiaa faith. [AcoooriNOiL] 

Tho farttoryoanolUsHi^ whh tho osooptka 
of a ahert abtaaoo turn Mikn dnriaf tho asipa 
tion of BafMdao (I82X were devoted to tho can 
of hio bioboatk. Ho died ob tho 4th of April, 
A.D. 897. 

As a writer, Aadwoao onaoC bo raakod high, 
notwithstanding hia gmt o loq Bo aeo . Hi* theo- 
logical knowlo^ Moroely oztMidod boyoad a fair 
acquaintance with the wofka of tho Orodt fuher% 
from whom he borrowed much. His works boar 
also the nuvks of haste. He was rather a man 
of action than of letters 

His works are Tery BBaoroaa, though several of 
them have been lost. They eoaoist of Letten, 
Sermons, and OratioBa, CotUBOBtariee oa Scrip- 
ture, Treatises in coauBoadatioB of celibocy aad 
monasticism, and other treatisea, of which the moot 
important are : ** Hezacmeron,*' aa account of tho 
creation ; ** De Officiis Ministrorom," which is ge- 
nerally considered his best work ; **De Mysteriis;" 
"De Sacramentis ;" "De Poenitentia ;" and tho 
aboTe-mentioned worlts, ** De Fide," and ** De Spi- 
ritu Sancto," which are both upon the Trinity. 
The well-known hymn, "Te Deum laudamna,*' haa 
been ascribed to him, but its date is at least a ceit- 
turj' later. There are other hymns ascribed to 
him, but upon doubtful authority. He is believed 
to have settled the order of public worship in the 
churches of Milan in the form which it had till the 
eighth century under the names of " Oflicium Am- 
brosianum" and "Missa Ambrosiana." 

The best edition of his works is that of the 
Benedictines, 2 vols. foL, Paris, 1686 and 1690, 
with an Appendix containing a life of Ambrose by 
his secretary Paulinus, another in Greek, which is 
anonymous, and is chiefly copied imxa Theodoret's 
Ecclesiastical History, and a third by the Benedic- 
tine editors. Two works of Ambrose, Ejcpianatio 
Spnboli ad initiandos, and Epistola de Fide, hare 
been discovered by Angelo ^laii, and are published 
by him in the seventh volume of his SL-riptoruin 
Vtterum Nova CoUectio. [P. S.] 

AMBRO'SIUS, a hearer of Didymus, at Alex- 
andria, lived A. D. 392, and was the author of 
Commentaries on Job, and a book in verse again&t 
Apollinaris of Laodicea. Neither is extant. (S. 
Hieron. de Vir. lUmt. § 126.) [A. J. C] 

A'MBRYON ('A/tSpuajj') wrote a work on 
Theocritus the Chian, from which Diogenes Laer- 



AMBUSTUS. 

tius (v. 11) quotes an epigram of TheocritiiB against 
Aristotle. 

AMBRYSSUS ("Afieputrffos), the mythical 
founder of the town of Anibryssus or Amphryssus 
in Phocis. (Paus. x. 3(). § 2.) [L. S.] 

AMBU'LIA, AMBU'LII, and AMBU'LIUS 
(jAfj.6ov\ia, 'A/x€ouAjo(, and 'Afi.€ov\ioi), gumauies 
under which the Spartans worshipped Athena, the 
Dioscuri, and Zeus. (Paus. iii. 13. § 4.) The 
meaning of the name is uncertain, but it has been 
Kuppobed to be derived from dvaSaKku, and to de- 
signate those divinities as the delayers of death. 

[L.S,] 

AMBUSTUS, the name of a family of the 
patrician Fabia Gkns. The first member of the 
Fabia gens, who acquired this cognomen, was Q. 
Fabius Vibulanus, consul in b. c. 412, who appears 
to have been a son of N. Fabius Vibulanus, consul 
in B. c. 421. From this time the name Vibulanus 
was dropt, and that of Ambustus took its place. 
The hitter was in its turn supplanted by that of 
Maximus, which was first acquired by Q. Fabius, 
son of No. 7 [see belowj, and was handed down 
by him to his descendants. 

1. Q. Fabius M. f. Q. n. Vibulanus Ambus- 
tus, consul in B. c. 412. (Liv. iv. 52.) 

2. M. Fabius Ambustus, Poutifex Maximus 
in the year that Rome was taken by the (Jaula. 
B. c. 390. His three sons [see Nos. 3, 4, and 
5] were sent as ambassadors to the (iauls, when 
the latter were besieging Clusium, and took part 
in a sally of the besieged against the Gauls. The 
Uauls demanded that the Fabii should be sur- 
rendered to them for violating the law of nations ; 
and upon the senate refusing to give up the guilty 
parties, they marched against Rome. The three 
sons were in the same year elected consular tri- 
bunes. (Liv. v. 35, 36, 41 ; Plut. Cam. 17.) 

3. K. Fabius M. v. Q. n. Ambustus, son of 
No. 2 iuid brother to Nos. 4 and 5, was quaestor 
in B. c. 409, with three plebeians as his colleaguet, 
which was the first time that quaestors were 
chosen from the plebs. (Liv. iv. 54.) He was 
consular tribune for the first time in 404 (iv. 61), 
again in 401 (v. 10), a third time in 395 (v. 24), 
and a fourth time in 390. [See No. 2.) 

4. N. Fabius M. f. Q. n. Ambustus, son of 
No. 2 and brother to Nos. 3 and 5, consular tri- 
bune in B. c. 406 (Liv. iv. 58), and again in 390. 
[See No. 2.] 

5. Q. Fabius M. f. Q. n. Ambustus, son of 
No. 2 and brother to Nos. 3 and 4, consular tri- 
bune in B. c. 390. [See No. 2.J 

6. M. Fabius K. f. M. n. Ambustus, son, as 
U appears, of No. 3, was consular tribune in B. a 
381. (Liv. vi. 22.) He had two daughters, of 
whom the elder was married to Ser. Sulpicius, and 
the younger to C. Licinius Stolo, the author of the 
Licinian Rogations. According to the story re- 
corded by Livy, the younger Fabia induced her 
father to assist her husband in obtaining the con- 
sulship for the plebeian order, into which she had 
married, (vi. 34.) Ambustus was consular tribune 
a second time in 369, and took an active part in 
support of the Licinian Rogations. (vL 36.) He 
was censor in 363. {Fust. Cupitul.) 

7. M. Fabius N. f. M. n. Ambustus, son, as 
it appears, of No. 4, was consul in B. c. 360, and 
Ciirried on the war against the HemicL, whom he 
conquered, and obtained an ovation in consequence. 
(Liv. vii. 11 ; Fast. Triumph.) He was consul a 



AMEIPSIAS. 



141 



second time in 356, and carried on the war against 
the Falisci and Tarquinienses, whom he also con- 
quered. As he was absent from Rome when the 
time came for holding the comitia, the senate, which 
did not like to entrust them to his colleague, 
who had appointed a plebeian dictator, and still 
less to the dictator himself, nominated interreges 
for the purpose. The object of the patricians was 
to secure both places in the consulship for their 
own order again, which was etfected by Ambustus, 
who seems to have returned to Rome meantime. 
He was appointed the eleventh interrex, and de- 
clared two patricians consuls iu viohttion of the 
Licinian law. (Liv. viL 17.) He was consul a 
third time in 354, when he oonqnered the Tiburtes 
and obtained a triumph in conngnaaee. (rii. 18, 
19; Fast. 'JViumpk.) In 351 be was appointed 
dictator merely to frustrate the Licinian law again 
at the comitia, but did not succeed iu his object. 
(Liv. vii. 22.) He was alive iu 325, when his 
son, Q. Fabius ^laximus Rullianus, was master of 
the horse to Papirius, and tied to Rome to implore 
protection from the vengeance of the dictator. He 
interceded on his sou's behalf both with the senate 
and the people, (viii. 33.) 

tt. C. Fabius (C. p. M. n.) Ambustus, consul 
in b. c. 358, in which year a dictator was ap- 
pointed through fear of the Uauls. (Liv. vii. 12.) 

9. M. Fabius M. f. N. n. Ambustus, son ap- 
parently of No. 7, and brother to the great Q. 
Fabius Maximus Rulliaims, was master of thie 
honie in a c 322. (Liv. viiL 38.) 

10. Q. Fabius (Q. p. (^ s.) Ambustus, dic- 
tator in & C 321, but immediately resigned 
through some fiuilt in the election. (Lir. ix. 7.) 

1 1. C. Fabius M. r. N. n. AMBurrus, sou ap- 
parently of No. 7, and brotlier to No. 9, was 
appointed master of the hone in B. c. 315 iu place 
of Q. Aulius, who fell iu battle. (Lir. ix. 23.) 

AM El MAS. [Nakcissus.] 

AMEFNIAS ('Am«u^), a younger brother of 
Aeschylus, of the Attic demos of Pallene aecord- 
ing to Herodotus (viii. 84, 93), or of that of 
Deoelea according to Plutarch ( Them. \ 4), distin- 
guished himself at the battle of Salamis (b. c. 480) 
by making the first attack upon the Persian ships, 
and also by his pursuit of Artemisia. He and 
Eumenes were judged to have been the bravest on 
this occasion among all the Athenians. (Herod. 
Plut. U. ec. ; Diod. xL 27.) Aelian mentions 
(K. H. v. 19), that Ameinias prevented the con- 
demnation of his brother Aeschylus by the Areio- 
pagus. [Akschvlus, p. 41, a.] 

AMEINOCLES ('A/i«u«/cAi7i), a Corinthian 
shipbuilder, who visited Samos about b. c 704, 
and built four ships for the Samians. (Thuc. L 13.) 
Pliny (//. A'. viL 56) says, that Thucydides men- 
tioned Ameinocles as the inventor of the trireme ; 
but this is a mistake, for Thucydides merely states 
that triremes were first built at Corinth in Greece, 
without ascribing their invention to Ameinocles 
According to Syncellus (p. 212, c), triremes were 
first built at Athens by Ameinocles. 

AMEI'PSIAS ('A/u«ii//ia»), a comic poet of 
Athens, contemporary with Aristophanes, whom he 
twice conquered in the dramatic contests, gaining 
the second prize with his Kovvoi when Aristo- 
phanes was third with the ^ Clouds" (423 b. c), 
and the first with his Kvyuurrai, when Aristo- 
phanes gained the second with the " Birds." (414 
B. c. ; Argum. in Aristoph. Nub. et Av.) The 



142 



AMKIUAS. 



K6vi'ot appcani to have ha<l the Kaiun > 
iiini u the ^ CliunU." It ik ut li-imt < 
S<K-rat«* appearifd in the play, and that i 
coniiiiited uf ^povriaral. ( Uio^. liOert. li. M ; 
Athon. V. p. '21H.) ArtHtopliniieK alludes to 
AinmpHiiut in the " FroK»" (v. 12 — 14), iind wc 
nru tuld in tho anonymous life of Aristophanes, 
that when Ariittoiiliiines first exhibited his plays, 
in the nnnioH of other poctH, Anieipsias applied to 
him the i)roverli rtrptiSi ytyovwt, which means 
" a ])crHon who Inhours for others," in allusion to 
Ileruclcs, who was boro on the fourth of the 
month. 

Amcipiias wrote many comedies, oot of which 
there remain only a few fraffmcnts of the follow- 
inff : — 'AiroKorTaSi^ovrtf, Kar»aOiuy (doubtful), 
K6vvos, Moixot, Sairi^, iifiti'S6irif, and of some 
the names of which are unknown. Iklost of his 
plays were of the old comedy, but some, in all 
probability, were of the middle. (Mcineke, l-VoKf. 
Com. i. p. 19!), ii. p. 701.) [P.S.) 

AMKLKSA'(iOKAS {'AmXriiTtpy6fat) or ME- 
LKSA'(i(JKAS(M(\T;(ra7<j^f), at he i> called bjr 
others, of Chalccdon, one of the early Oreek hieto- 
rinns, from whom (Jorf^ias and Eudemus of Nazos 
borrowed. (Clem. Alex. Strum, ri. p. C29, a ; 
Schol. wl Kurip. Alcesl. 2; A(K)llod. iii. 10. § 3, 
where licync has substituted MtKricrayopat for 
Mmfffayipas.) Maximus Tyrius (Serm. 38. § 3) 
speaks of a Melesogoras, a native of Kleusis, and 
Antigonus of Carystus {Ilitt. Mirab. c. 12) of an 
Amelcsagoras of Athens, the latter of whom wrote 
an account of Attica ; these persons arc probably 
the same, and perhaps also the same as Ameiesa- 
goras of Chalccdon. (Vouiiu, <U Hist, Graec p. 
22, ed. Westermann.) 

AME'LIUS ('AfiiKiot), a native of Apamea 
according to Suidas {>. v. 'AfxtKios), but a Tuscan 
according to Porphyry {vit. I'lotin.), belonged to 
the new Phitonic school, and was the pupil of 
Plotinus and moster of PorphjTy. He quoted the 
opinion of St. John about the Aiyot without men- 
tioning the name of the Apostle : this extract has 
been preserved by Euscbius. (Praep. Ki-ang. xi. 
1 9.) See Suid. Porphyr. //. cc. ; Syrian, xiu 
Metaphns. p. 47, a. 61, b. 69, a. 88, a.; Bentley, 
Jiemarks on Free-Thinking, p. 182, &c., Lond. 
1743 ; Fabric. BiU. Graec. iii. p. 160. 

AMENTES ('A^TJiTTjj), an ancient Greek rar- 
geon, mentioned by Galen as the inventor of some 
ingenious bandages. {De Fasciis, c. 58, 61, 89, 
voL xii. pp. 486, 487, 493, ed. Chart.) Some 
fragments of the works of a surgeon named 
Amt/nias (of which name Amenies is very possibly 
a corruption) still exist in the manuscript Collec- 
tion of Surgical Writers by Nicetas (Fabricius, 
BM. Gr. vol. xii. p. 778, ed. vet.), and one ex- 
tract is preserved by Oribasius {Coll. Medic, xlviii. 
30) in the fourth volume of Cardinal Mai's Collec- 
tion of Classici Andores e Vaticanis Codicibus, p. 
99, Rom. 1831, 8vo. His date is unknown, ex- 
cept that he must have lived in or before the second 
century after Christ. He may perhaps be the same 
person who is said by the Scholiast on Theocritus 
{Idyll, xvii. 128) to have been put to death by 
Ptolemy Philadelphus, about a c. 264, for plotting 
against his life. [W. A. G.] 

AME'RIAS ('Aftept'as), of Macedonia, a gram- 
marian, who wTote a work entitled TKwaaai, 
which gave an account of the meaning of words, 
and another called 'PifoTo/ni/cds. (Atheii. iv. p. 



AMMIANU8. 

ui Uimek. $. V. 'Aiti^i*-.) 
, . «p«rrM), tlM bmW of the 
poet bt««ichorua, m meiitiiied by PikIm (md 
Kiu-lid. iL p. 19) aa one of tke «wlv Otwk fa»> 
meters. He Lved in the kttor nti m tlM Mvmtli 
century B. c. 

AM1-:8TUIH. [AMAnran.] 

AMI A'N US, whom Ckon mdUmm fai a bMw 
to Atticus (vL 1. K 13), anittcB B.C. 50, wtm fn-' 
bably a debtor of Atticus in (lilicia. 

AMISO'l)AUUS('AMMT»a<i^s),akiii(orLycia, 
who was said to liave broadit up tbo ■ooelof Cll^ 
maora. (Horn. Jl. xrl KM) Bttlh. ad Ham. pt. 
1062 ; ApoUod. iL 3. | 1; AeUan, H. A. is. 33.) 
His sons Atymnius and Maris were sUin at Troy 
by the sons of Nestor. (//. xvi. 317, tu.) [L. 8. J 

A'MITON {'Aftirmp), of KlovtlMno ta CnU, 
is said to have been the fint ponon whe ■«(•(( to 
the Irre amatory poem. Hie detw -re 

cMti AmitamC A^ftt). (Atbon. >.) 

ThoM HonM MMO escnptioB is thts u^. ^. ^.Uf 
mama, am tho tm wmam Am Mo u aad A mH ona do 
not oomfpood. laaloMl at tho fonaor wo oag^t 
perhaps to read Amator. (Cotnp, Etym. M. p. 8S. 
15, ed. SylboTf.; Hoeycb. «. v. AfinrofUau.) 

AMMIA'NUS f'A/i^Moi^f), a OiMk efigmm- 
matiet, but probably • Romaa by birth. Tla 
Greek Anthwigy oootauu 27 epignuno by Ua 
(Jacobs, iiL ppw9S— M), to which mnet be added 
another contaiood in the Vatican MS. f Jaeobi, 
ziiL p. 693), and aaothor, which ia piaeod tamaam 
the anonymous ipigraii, bat which aeao HBo. 
assign to Ammianiu. (Jacoba, ir. p. 127, No. xUL) 
They are all of a ficetioas character. In the 
Planndean MS. he is called Abbianus, which 
Wemsdorf suppoaee to be a Greek form of Arianua 
or Avieniu. (FoeL Lot, Mm. ▼. p. ii. p. 675.) 

The time at which be lired may bo gathered, 
with toleoblo certainty, flrom hit epigmu. That 
he waa a contemporary of the iipigiiiii— tiet Lodl- 
lius, who lived under Nan^ hat boat iaiantA bam 
the circumstance that both attack aa orator naoMd 
FlaccTU. (Ammian. ^. 2; Lucil. Kp. 86, ap. 
Jacobs.) One of his epigrams (13) is identical 
with the last two lines of one of Martial's (ix. 30), 
who is supposed by some to hare translated these 
lines from Ammianiis, and therefore to have lived 
after him. But the ikct is equally well explained 
on the supposition that the poets were contempo- 
rary. From two other epigrams of Ammianiu 
(Jacobs, vol ir. p. 127, No. 42, and toL xiiL 
p. 125), we find that he was contemporary with 
the sophist Antonius Polemo, who flourished under 
Trajan and Hadrian. (Jacobs, Anthol. Graec. zL 
pp. 312,313, xiii. p. 840.) [P. S.] 

AMMIA'NUS MARCELLI'NUS, "the last 
subject of Rome who composed a profane history 
in the Latin language," was by birth a Greek, as 
he himself frequently declares (xxxi. sub tin., 
xxii. 8. § 33, xxiii. 6. § 20, &c.), and a native of 
Syrian Antioch, as we infer from a letter addressed 
to him by Libanius. (See Vales, praef. in Ammian. 
MarceUin.) At an early age he embraced the pro- 
fession of arms, and was admitted among the 
protectores domestici, which proves that he belonged 
to a distingmshed family, since none were enrolled 
in that corps except young men of noble blood, or 
officers whose valour and fidelity had been proved 
in long service. Of his subsequent promotion no- 
thing is known. He was attached to the staff of 



AMMIANUS. 

Ursicinus, one of the most able among the generals 
of Constantius, and accompanied him to the East 
in 350. He returned with his commander to Italy 
four years afterwards, from thence passed over into 
Gaul, and assisted in the enterprise against Sylva- 
iiiis, again followed Ursicinus when despatched for 
a second time to the Elast, and appears to have 
never quitted him until the period of his final dis- 
gnu-e in 360. Ammianus subsequently attended 
the emperor Julian in his campaign against the 
Persians, was present at Antioch in 37 1 , when the 
plot of Theodorus was detected in the reign of 
Valens, and witnessed the tortures inflicted upon 
the conspirators, (xxix. i. § 21.) Eventually 
Le established himself at Rome, where he com- 
posed his history, and during the progress of the 
task read several portions publicly, which were 
received with grwit applause. (Liban. EpUt. 
nwcci-xxxiii. p. UO, ed. Wolf.) The precise date 
of Ills death is not recorded, but it must have hap- 
pened later than 390, since a reference occurs to 
tlie consulship of Neoterius, which belongs to that 
year. 

The work of Ammianus extended from the ac- 
cession of Nerva, a. d. 96, the point at which the 
histories of Tacitus and the biographies of Sueto- 
nius terminated, to the death of Valens, A. D. 378, 
comprising a period of '282 years. It was divided 
into thirty-one books, of whicli the first thirteen 
are lost. The remaining eighteen embrace the acts 
of Constantius from a. d. 353, the seventeenth year 
of his reign, together with the whole career of 
Gallus, Julianus, Jovianus, Valeutiniaims, and 
Valens. The portion preserved includes the trans- 
actions of twenty-five years only, which proves 
that the earlier books must have presented a very 
condensed abridgment of the events contained in 
the long sjwce over which they stretched ; and 
hence we may feel satistied, that what has been 
saved is much more valuiible than what has pe- 
rished. 

Gibbon (cap. xxvi.) pays a well-deserved tri- 
bute to the accuracy, fidelity, and impartiality of 
Ammianus. We are indebted to him for a know- 
ledge of many important facts not elsewhere re- 
corded, and for much valuable insight into the 
modes of thought and the general tone of public 
feeling prevalent in his day. His history must not, 
however, be regarded as a complete chronicle of that 
em ; those proceedings only are brought forward 
prominently in which he himself was engaged, and 
nearly all the statements admitted appear to be 
founded upon his own observations, or upon the in- 
formation derived from trustworthy eye-witnesses, 
A considerable number of dissertations and digres- 
sions are introduced, many of them highly interest- 
ing and valuable. Such are his notices of the 
institutions and manners of the Saracens (xiv. 4), 
of the Scythians and Sarmatians (xviL 12), of the 
Huns and Alani (xxxi. 2), of the Egyptians and 
their country (xxii. 6, 14 — 16), and his geogra- 
phical discussions upon Gaul (xv. 9), the Pontus 
(xxii. 8), and Thrace (xxvii. 4), although the 
accuracy of many of his details has been called in 
question by D'Anville. Less legitimate and less 
judicious are his geological speculations upon earth- 
quakes (xviL 7), his astronomical inquiries into 
eclipses (xx. 3), comets (xxv. 10), and the regu- 
lation of the calendar (xxvi. 1), his medical re- 
searches into the origin of epidemics (xix. 4), his 
zoological theory on the destruction of lions by 



AMMIANUS. 



143 



mosquitoes (xviiL 7), and his hortictdtural essay 
on the impregnation of palms (xxiv. 3). But in 
addition to industry in research and honesty of 
purpose, he was gifted with a large measure of 
strong conmion sense which enabled him in many 
points to rise superior to the prejudice of his day, 
and with a clear-sighted independence of spirit 
which prevented him from being dazzled or over- 
awed by the brilliancy and the terrors which en- 
veloped the imperial throne. The wretched 
vanity, weakness, and debauchery of Constantius, 
rendering him an easy prey to the designs of the 
profligate minions by whom he was surrouuded« 
the female intrigues which ruled the court of 
Gallus, and the conflicting elements of vice and 
virtue which were so strongly combined in the char 
racter of Valentinian, are all sketched with bold- 
ness, vigour, and truth. Bot although sufficiently 
acute in detecting and exposing the follies of others, 
and especially in ridiculing the absurdities of po- 
pular superstition, Ammianus did not entirely 
escape the contagion. The geneml and deep- 
seated belief in magic spells, nmat, prodigies, and 
omcles, which appears to have gainsd additional 
strength ujion the first introduction of Christianity, 
evidently exercised no small influence over his 
mind. The old legends and doctrines of the Pagan 
creed and the subtle mysticism which philosophera 
pretended to discover lurking below, when mixed 
up with the pure and simple bat staitling tenets af 
the new &ith, Hocmed a coofiiMd wmm which few 
intaOeetm owpt thoaa of the fvrj kigheot daM, 
co«U ndaeo to ordw and hanaeny. 

A keen controrersj haa been Maintained with 
regard to the religious creed of onr author. (See 
Bayle.) There is nothinf is his vriti^ which 
can entitle us todacido tho qBiotiwi WMitmlj. In 
several passages he speaks with BMned re sp ect of 
Christianity and iu professors (xxi. sub fin., xxii. 
11, xxvii. 3 ; compare xxiL 12, xxr. 4); but even 
his strangest exprnsainns, which are all attiihated 
by Gibbon ** to the Jnce mprnh le pliancr of a 
polytheist,** afford no oaadnaivo endeaeo that he 
was himself a disciple af th* cnan On the other 
hand he does not sempfe to stigmatiae with the 
utntost severity the sange fury of the cootending 
sects (xxiL 5), nor fiul to reprobate the bloody rio- 
lenoe of Damasos and Ursinus in the contest fer 
the see <^ Rome (xxviL 3): the absence of all 
censure on the apostacy of Julian, and the terms 
which he employs with regard to Nemesis fxiv. 
11, xxiL 3), the Genius (xxi. 14), Mercurius(xvu 
5, xxv. 4), and other deities, are by many con- 
sidered as decisive proofs that he was a pagan. 
Indeed, as Heyne justly remarks, many of the 
writers of this epoch seem purposely to avoid 
committing themselves. Being probably devoid of 
strong religious principles, they felt unwilling to 
hazard any declaration which might one day ex- 
pose them to persecution and prevent them from 
adopting the various forms which the faith of the 
court might from time to time assume. 

Little can be said in praise of the style of Am- 
mianus. The melodious flow and simple dignity 
of the purer models of composition had long 
ceased to be relished, and we too often detect the 
harsh diction and involved periods of an imperfectly 
educated foreign soldier, relieved occasionally by the 
pompous inflation and flashy glitter of the rhetori- 
cal schools. His phraseology as it regards the sig- 
nification, grammatical intiexions, and syntactical 



144 



AMMON. 



coiiil)ination<i of words, probably rfpr<>»ent« the cnr- 
rcriit l:iii)^iiiig(; of tlic age, liut niust U; |>r()iioiiii«'C!<l 
full of barbariHriiH and itolcciHniN whoii judged oc- 
curdiiig to the Htjindard of Cicrro and Livy. 

The iCditio I'riiiccpH of Amniianut Miircellinu*, 
edited by Aiigehm Sabinus wa» printed at Ilonitr, 
in folio, by (ieorf^c Sochtel and Jiarth. (Jolith in 
the year 1474. It i» very incorrect, and containii 
13 l)ook» only, from the 14lh to the 'JOth, Imlh 
incluHive., 'J'hc remaining five were fir»t publikhed 
by A('cor§i, who, in hi« edition printed in folio at 
AuKHburg in 153'J, botuta that he had comct«d 
live thouHond error*. 

'I'hc niOHt useful modem editions are thoae of 
OronoviuH, 4to., Lugd. Hat. 1C93; of KniMti, 8to. 
liipH., 1773; but above all, that which wa» com- 
mented by Wagner, completed after hi* death by 
Krfurdt, and publiahod at Lciptic, in 3 voU. 8vo. 
J 808. [W. R,] 

AMMON CAiifiuy), originallr m Aetbiopian 
or Libyan divinity, wIiom worship subtequently 
spread all over Kgypt, a part of the northern coaat 
of Africa, and many parts of Oreecc. The real 
Kgyptian name was Amun or Amnmn (Herod, ii. 
4-2; Pint, de h. el 0$. 9) ; the (ireeks called hira 
Zcu* Amnion, the Romans Jupiter Ammon, and 
the Hebrews Anion. (Jereni. xlvi. 'J5.) That in the 
countries wliore his worship was first established 
he was revered in certain respects as the supreme 
divinity, is clear from the fact, that the Greeks 
recoj^nisod in hira their own Zeus, although the 
identity of the two gods in later times rests upon 
philosophical sjicculations, made at a period when 
the original character of Ammon was almost lost 
sight of, and a more spiritual view of him substi- 
tuted in its place. 

The most ancient scat of his worship appears to 
have been Meroe, where he had a much revered 
oracle (Herod, ii. 29); thence it was introduced 
into P'gypt, where the worship took the firmest 
root at Thebes in Upper Egypt, which was there- 
fore frequently called by the Greeks Diospolis, or 
the city of Zeus. (Herod, ii. 42 ; Diod. i. 15.) 
Another famous seat of the god, with a celebrated 
onicle, was in the oasis of Ammonium (Siwah) in 
the Libyan desert ; the worship was also established 
in Cyrenaica. (Pans. x. 13. § 3.) The god was 
represented either in the form of a ram, or as a 
hmnan being with the head of a ram (Herod. /. c; 
Stnib. xvii. p. 812) ; but there are some represen- 
tations in which he appears altogether as a human 
being with only the horns of a ram. Tertullian 
{dc Pall. 3) calls him dives ovium. If we take all 
these circumstances into consideration, it seems 
clear that the original idea of Ammon was that of 
a protector and leader of the flocks. The Aethio- 
pians were a nomadic people, flocks of sheep con- 
stituted their principal wealth, and it is perfectly 
in accordance with the notions of the Aethiopians 
as well as Egyptians to worship the animal which 
is the leader and protector of the flock. This view 
is supported by various stories about Ammon. 
Hj'ginus {Poet. Astr. i. 20) whose account is only 
a rationalistic interpretation of the origin of the 
god's worship, relates that some African of the 
name of Ammon brought to Liber, who was then 
in possession of Egv'pt, a large quantity of cattle 
In return for this, Liber gave him a piece of land 
near Thebes, and in commemoration of the benefits 
Le had conferred upon the god, he was represented as 
a human being with horns. What Pausanias(iv.23. 



AMMOK. 

I 5) and EaaUtklM (md JJmmgt. Pmriijf. 213) » 

mork, as wdl M ««• « dM aaqr •IpMliigiM of tk« 
name of AaaoQ bom tka Egyptiaa wovd AmitmL, 
which signifiM • ihtph«rf« M* t« fmA^ lik«wis« 
accord with the 0|^ion that Aohmb «m or^fiuaJI/ 
the leader and protactor of floduk Hondotas re- 
lates a Btorjr to account for tko raai's head (u. 42); 
Heraclea wanted to im Zona, b«t tiw kttcr viahod 
to avoid tha intorriev ; whaa, ho«*w, UatKlaa 
ut htst had reooorw to mtnatiM^ Zcm cootrivod 
the following expedient: bo oU off the head of • 
nun, and holding this befon Ua own hwd, aiid 
having covered the remaining part of Ua body 
with the skin of the ran, he appaand bafim Het»> 
cles. Hence, HirnHlotus adds, the Thebaaa Deror 
sacrifice nims except onee a year, and on thia one 
occasion they kill and flaj a ram, and with ita akin 
they dress the statue of Zens (Ammon) ; bjr the 
side of this statue they then place that ol Heracles 
A similar account mentioned by Serrina {ad Atm. 
i v. 1 96 ) may serve as a commentary upon Ilerodotaik 
When liaccbas, or according to otners, Hencica, 
went to India and led his army throucfa the desert* 
of Libya, be waa at hut quite exhausted with 
thirst, and invoked his fiuher, Jupiter. Hereuixm 
a ram appeared, which led Heracles to a piaca 
where it opened a spring in the land by scrapii^ 
with its foot. For tUs naaoo, Mya Scrms 
Jupiter Ammon, whose name ia derived from 
ififtat (sand), is rrprenented with the honis of a 
ram. (Comp. Hygin. Fal. IS.'J, Poel. AUr. L 20; 
Lucan, Pkar$al. ix. 511.) There are several other 
traditions, with various modifications arising from 
the time and place of their origin ; but all agree in 
representing the ram as the guide and deliverer of 
the wandering herds or herdsmen in the deserts^ 
either in a direct way, or by giving oracles. Am- 
mon, therefore, who is identical with the nun, ia 
the guide and protector of man and of all bis pos- 
sessions; he stands in the same rehtion to man- 
kind as the common ram to his flock. 

The introduction of the worship of AnuBOD fram 
Aethiopia into Egypt was symbolically reptcaented 
in a ceremony which was performed at Thebea 
once in every year. On a certain day, the image 
of the god was carried acrosa the river Nile into 
Libya, and after some days it was brought back, as 
if the god had arrived from Aethiopia. (Diod. i. 97.) 
The same account is given by Eustathius (a/i Horn, 
II. V. p. 128), though in a somewhat diflerent form; 
for he relates, that according to some, the Aethio- 
pians used to fetch the images of 2^us and other 
gods from the great temple of Zeus at Thebes. 
^Vith these images they went about, at a certain 
period, in Libya, celebrated a splendid festival for 
twelve days — for this, he adds, is the number of 
the gods they worship. This number twelve con- 
tains an allusion to the number of signs in the 
zodiac, of which the ram {caper) is one. Thus we 
arrive at the second phasis in the character of 
Ammon, who is here conceived as the sun in the 
sign of Caper. (Zeus disguised in the skin of a ram. 
See Hygin. Fuh. 133, Poet. Astr. i. 20 ; Macrob. 
Sat. i. 21. 18 ; Aelian, V. H. x. 18.) This astro- 
nomical character of Ammon is of later origin, and 
perhaps not older than the sixth century before 
Christ The speculating Greeks of still later times 
assigned to Ammon a more spiritual nature. Thus 
Diodorus, though in a passage (iii. 68, &c.) he 
makes Ammon a king of Libya, describes him (L 
11, &c.) as the spirit pervading the universe, and 



AMM0NA3. 

as the author of all life in nature. (Comp. Plut. de 
Is. et On. 9, 21.) The new Platonists perceived 
in Amnion tlieir deraiurgos, that is, the creator and 
preserver of the world. As this subject belongs 
more especially to the mythologj' of Egypt, we 
cannot here enter into a detailed discussion about 
the nature and character which the later Greeks 
assigned to him, or his connexion with Dionysus 
and Heracles. Respecting these points and the 
various opinions of modern critics, as well as the 
different representations of Ammon still extant, 
the reader may consult Jablonsky, Pantheon Aegypt.; 
Bohlen, Das alle Indien, mil besonderer Hucksicht 
auf Eyypten, ii. c. 2. § 9 ; J. C. Prichard, E(/i/jjtiau 
Mytholoyy; J. F. ChampoUion, Pantheon Egypticn, 
ou Collection des Personayes de rancietine Eyypte, <^"c., 
Paris, 1823. 

The worship of Ammon was introduced into 
Greece at an early period, probably through the 
medium of the Greek colony in Cyrene, which 
must have formed a connexion with the great ora- 
cle of Ammon in the Oasis soon after its establish- 
ment, Ammon had a temple and a statue, the 
gift of Pindar, at Thebes ( Pans. ix. 1 6. § 1 ), and 
another at Sparta, the inhabitants of which, as 
Pausanias (iii. 18. § 2) sjiys, consulted the oracle 
of Amnion in Libya from early times more than 
the other Greeks. At Aphytis, Ammon was wor- 
shipped, from the time of Lysander, as eealously as 
in Ammonium. Pindar the poet honoured the god 
with a hymn. At Megalopolis the god was repre- 
sented witii the head of a ram (Paus, viii. 32. § 1), 
and the Greeks of Cyrenaica dedicated at Delphi a 
chariot with a statue of Amnion, (x. 13. § 3.) The 
homage which Alexander paid to the god in the 
Oasis is well known. [L. S.] 

AMMON (^h^l^ml'), a geometrician, who made 
8 measurement of the walls of Rome, about the 
time of the first invasion of the Guths, and found 
them to be 21 miles in circuit. (Olympiodorus, 
ap. Phot. ad. 80, p. (>3, ed. IJekker.) [P. S.] 

AMMON ("A/i^utf*'). 1. Bishop of Hadrianople, 
A. D. 400, wrote (in Greek) On the Remrrectiom 
against Origenism (not extant). A fragment of 
Ammon, from this work possibly, may be found ap. 
S. Cyril. Alex. Lib. de Jiecta I'ide. (Vol. v. pt. 2, ad 
fin. p. 50, ed. Paris. 16'3U.) He was present at 
the Council of Constantinople a. d. 394, held on 
occasion of the dedicittion of Rutinus's church, 
near Chalcedon. (Sos. Hist. Ecd. viii, 8. 3 ; Mansi, 
Concilia, vol. iii. p. 851.) 

2. Bishop of Elearchia, in the ThebaVde, in 
the 4 th and 5th centuries. To him is addressed 
the Canonical Epistle of Theophilus of Alexandria, 
ap. SymhlicoH Beveregii, vol. i, pt. 1, p. 170. Pape- 
brochius has published in a Latin version his 
Epistle to Theophilus, De Vita et Concersatitme 
SS. Puchomii et Tlteodori (ap. Bolland. Ada Hxue- 
iorum, vol, xiv. p. 347, &c.). It contains an 
Epistle of St. Antonv. [A. J. C] 

AMMO'NASCAM/«Ji'oj)or AMOUN ('A/ioOi'), 
founder of one of the most celebrated monastic 
communities in Egypt. Obliged by his relations 
to marry, he persuaded his bride to perpetual con- 
tinence (Sozom. Hist. Eccl. i. 14) by the authority 
of St. Paul's Epistle to the Corinthians. (Socr. 
Hist. Ecd. iv. 23.) They lived together thus for 
1 8 years, when at her wish, for greater perfection, 
they parted, and he retired to Scetis and Mt. 
Nitria, to the south of Lake Mareotis, where he 
lived 22 years, visiting his sister- wife twice in the 



AMMONIUS. 



145 



year. (Ibid, and Pallad. Hist. Laus. c. 7 ; Ruffin. 
Vit.Patr. c. 29.) He died before St. Antony (from 
whom there is an epistle to him, S. Athan. 0pp. vol. 
i. pt. 2, p. 959, ed. Bened.), i. e. before a. n. 3'i5, 
for the latter asserted that he beheld the soul of 
Amoun borne by angels to heaven ( Vit. S. Antonii it 
S. Athanas. § (iO), and as St Athanasius's history 
of St. Antony preserves the order of time, he died 
perhaps about a. d. 320. There are seventeen or 
nineteen Rule$ of Ateetidtm (tcc^xiAcua) ascribed to 
him ; the Greek original exists in MS. (Lambecius, 
BiUioth. Vindol. lib. it. cod. 156, No. eJ) ; they are 
published in the Latin version of Gerhard \'ob«.ius 
in the liiUiotk. PP. Atcetiea, toL ii. p. 484, Paris. 
KiO'l. Tututy-Uro Ateeiie Inatitutioiu of the same 
Amoun, or one bearing the same name, exist also 
in MS. (Lambec. I.e. Cod. 155, No, 2.) [.\.J.C.] 

AMMO'NIA ('A/i^iwWa), a surname of Hera, 
under which she was worshipped in Elis. The 
inhabitanu of Elis had from the enriiest times 
been in the habit of consulting the oracle of Zeus 
Ammon in Libya. (Paus. v. 15. § 7.) [L. S.] 

AMMONIA'NUS ('A^i^ttM-ioxdi), a Greek 
grammarian, who lived in the fifth century after 
Christ. He was a relation and a friend of the phi- 
losopher Syrianus, and devoted his attentiou to 
the study of the Greek poets. It is neorded of 
him that he had an ass, which became so fond of 
poetry from listening to its master, that it neglect- 
ed its food. ( Damascius, a/t. Pkut. p. 339, a., ed. 
Bekker ; Suid. «. r, ' httftmnnvis and 'Ofoi Kvfias.) 

AMMO'NIUS, a iitToarite of Alkxanukr 
Balas, king of Syria, to wkoa Alattodw eutnuA- 
ed the entire managMMMit ti pahlk aftk^ Aa> 
monius was aTaridoM aad craal ( Iw pat to daatk 
numerous friends of tiM king, the queen [jMxlice, 
and Antigonus, the sen ef Demetrius. Being de- 
tected in plotting against the life of Ptolemy Phi- 
lometor, about h. c. 147, the latter required 
Alexander to tuneader Amaoniua to him; but 
though Alexander itfaaad to d* Ihk, Ammonius 
was put to desth by the inhaMtowta of Autiocb, 
whom Ptolemj had induced to espouse his cause. 
(Liv. ^piL 50 ; Joeeph. AmL xiil 4. $ 5 ; Diod. 
£«-. 29, PL 628, ed. Wess.) 

AMMO'NIUS ('A/i^viet) of Albxandria, 
the son of Ammonius, was a pupil of Alexander, 
and one of the chief teachers in the grammatiial 
school founded by Aristarchus. (Suid. t. r. 'A/i- 
luirtos.) He wrote commentaries upon Homer, 
Pindar, and Aristophanes, none of which are ex- 
tant. (Fabric BiU. Gtqm. t. p. 712; Matter, 
Estait U$toriqme$ tur fieoie d'Alejniudre, L pp. 
179,233.) 

AMMO'NIUS ('A/^noj), of Alkxandria, 
Presbyter and Oeconomus of the Church in tliat 
city, and an Egjptian by birth, a. d. 458. He 
subscribed the Epistle sent by the clergy of Egypt 
to the emperor Leo, in behalf of the Council of 
Chalcedon. (Concilia, ed. Labbel, vol. iv. p. 897, 
b.) He wrote (in Greek) On the Dijftreuce 
between Nature and Person, against the Mono- 
physite heresy of Eutyches and Dioscorus (not 
extant) ; an Ejrposition of the Book of Acts (up. 
Catena Oraec. Pair, in Act. SS. Apostolorum, 8vo., 
Oxon. 1838, ed. Cramer) ; a Commentary on 
the Psalms (used by Nicetas in his Catena ; see 
Cod. 189, Biblioth. Coislin., ed. Montiauc. p. 
244) ; On the Hejrai'ineron (no remains) ; On St. 
John'^s ilospel, which exists in the Catena Grae- 
coruin Patruia is S. Joan, ed, Corderii, foL, 

L 



MO 



AMMONIUS. 



Aiitw. 1G30, He ii quoted in the Catenae on the 
Jlulitry of Suiaiiiiiih luul on Ita/iicl, (A'(y«a (ol- 
lect, .Strip/. I'd. ab Aiigclo Maio, p. ICG, Ac. vol. i. 
A. n. IHJf).) [A, J. ('.] 

AMMONIUS (■AMM«»'»o»)fiHAMMATI<MTS, 
proffiiwir of j{niniinur iit Alfxiindrio, with Ilclla<liiiii, 
nt the cloho of thi; 4th century. He win uUo j)ric»t 
of the Kgyptiun A])e. On the vi^orout ovurtlirow of 
idoliitry in Kgypt hy the binhop Theophilu* A. D. 
^iXU-.'il)!, AinuioiiiuH and Ilelludiut ned to CoD- 
Btiintinoplc nnd there roHumed their proliMiion. 
(SotT. J list. Kal. V. Ul.) Aninioniun wroU, in 
(ireeit, On Ik- IHjI'i-nmfs •/ \Vi>rd» of like Signifiea- 
tiun (ir«pl ifxoluv Kal huup6p<iiv Xi^*uv), which ia 
appended to many lexicon*, e. //. to that of Scapula. 
It WHS edited by Valckiieaer, 4to., I.ugd. liat. 1739, 
nnd with further iioU-ii by Chr. P'rid. Ainmon, 
Jlvo., Krlang. 17M7. Tliere in another work by 
this AnnnoniuH, ir«pl AitvpoKoylat, which hiu not 
yet l)cen printed. (Fabric. Itihl. iiraec. rol. y. 
p. 715.) The hiitorinn Socratei wo* a pupil of 
Animnniu*. (//«/. Kcd. v. 1(>.) [A. J. C.] 

AMMONIUS ('A^fiot), ton of Hkrmkas 
studied with his brother Ileliodorufi at Athena 
inider I'rocluH (who died a. u. 4tU), and wm the 
nuister of Sinipliciui, Aociepiug Tmllianiu, John 
l'hilo|)onu», and Dumniciu*. His OomwknUariei (in 
Greek) on Plato and I'toleniy are loat, M well a* 
many on Ariktotle. Ilii extant work* are Cbf*- 
viciitiines on tiie Itaffotie of J'orphtiry, or the Five 
J'ndicablfs, first published at Venice in 1500, and 
On the Catrt/orifs of Arittotlt, and />« Intrrjire- 
tatime, first published at Venice in 1.103. See too 
ap. Alcxand. Aphrodis. De Fato, p. 180, 8to. 
Lond. 1()58. The aborc-naincd Commentaries on 
Aristotle are also published in the Scholia in 
Aristot. ed. Brandis. In MS. are his Commentaries 
on Aristotle's Topics and Metaphysics, and his 
JMclhtklus coiatruendi AiUrolabium. (Fabric. B^, 
Oracc. vol. v. p. 707.) [A. J. C] 

AMMONIUS, of Lahprak, a village of 
Attica, a Peripatetic philosopher, who lived in 
the first ccnturj' of the Christian aera. He was 
the instructor of Plutarch, who praises his great 
learning {Symp. iii. 1), and introduces him dis- 
coursing on religion and sacred rites, (ix. 15.) 
Corsini endeavours to shew («« vUa FlatarchL, p. 6), 
that Ammonius of Lamprae is really the same per- 
son with Ammonius the Eg)-ptian mentioned by 
Eunapius, and concludes that it was from this 
source Plutarch obtained the minute knowledge of 
Egj-ptian worship which he has shewn in his trea- 
tise on Isis and Osiris. 

Ammonius of Lamprae is mentioned by Ammo- 
nius, the author of the work De Differentiis Ver- 
bonim, imder the word fiafids, as having written a 
treatise Tlfpl Bicnuv, or as the fuller title is given 
by Athenaeus, Ilepl Btojiuv koI QvaitHv. (xi, p. 
476, f.) Whether the same Ammonius was the 
author of another work, TltpX tuv 'A6T]vij(Tiv 
'EraipiSaiv, mentioned by Atbenaes (xiii. p. 567, 
a), is uncertain. [B. J.] 

AMMO'NIUS QAfifuivios) LITHO'TOMUS, 
an eminent surgeon of Alexandria, mentioned by 
Celsus (De Med. vii. Praef. p. 137), whose exact 
date is not known, but who probably lived in the 
reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, b. c. "283 — 247, 
as his name occurs in Celsus together with those 
of several other surgeons who lived at that time. 
He is chiefly celebrated for having been the first 
person who thought of breaking a stone within the 



AMMONIU& 

bladder wh«i tM Ih|« 6r eztncdMi eatin ; m 
which «eeeurt he Reeived the ciyi— w ef 
Ki6ur6not. An account of hk aode ef tftimAim, 
as deHcri>M-d by Cel.us (IM Mmt. vfi. M, ^ l«l), 
i« given in the Jtt ' ' ;>. 290. 8eae mtikti 
preparations »in-' < iaa eCtke MM* MMM 

occur al*o in A< I'aatw AegfoctB, Wt 

whether they all belong to the Mae peraon b as- 
certain. [W. A.0.1 

AMMO'NIUS, the Motnc, flowWied a.d. S73. 
He WM one of the Fomr OrmI Bntitn (so eaUed 
froa their hei)tht), diacipiet of Panbe, the monk 
of Mt. Nitria ( I'llae J'atrum, ii. 23 ; PalUd. Hid. 
Laui. c 12, ed. K«)Bweyd. p. 543.) He knew the 
Bible by hewt, and miM&j atudied Didymus, Ori- 
gen, and the ether lederfaitiaJ mthora. In a. o. 
330-34 1 he accompanied St. AthnnMtni %» Hie. 
In A. n. 371-3. Peter II. weteeded the ktta(;wd 
when A« fled to Roiae from kk Afin p ewft e w i 
Aromonina retired fraai Cninye inte Pnieedaa. 
He witneaaed the cnwltiai of taa B w eene tpimti 
the monka of Moost Sioni a. d. 377, and received 
intelligenoe of the aaStfiafi of others near the Red 
Sea. On Ua latani to E(7pt, he took ap hk 
abode at Maapkk, aad daeenM tiMM diatiaaaaa 
in a book whidi be wrote fa EfTptJaa. Tbia 
being found at Naocratia by a prieat, naoMd John, 
waa by him transhited into Oraek, and in that 
form ia extant, in Ckritti Martfmm KUeH tri- 
mmphi (p. 88, ed. Coabefii, 8vo., Par. 1660). 
Amrooniu* ia aaid to bar* art off an ear to aroid 
pn)motinn to the epiacopata. (Socr. It. 23 ; PalhuL 
IIiiit.Laut.t.\2.) [A. J. C] 

AMMO'NIUS ('AM/iaViof) the PaairATBTic, 
who wrote only a few poems and decLimationa. 
He was a different person from Ammonius, the 
teacher of Plotinus. (Ixingin. ap. Forpkyr. at 
Flutin. vH. c. 20 ; Philoatr. iL 27 ; Ruhnken, Uxu. 
de Lonffino.) 

AMMO'NIUS {'kmuivun), a Greek Porr, 
who lived in the reign of the emperor Theodoaioa II. 
He wrote an epic poem on the inaurrection of the 
Goths nnder Gainas (a. d. 400), which be called 
Taifia, and ia said to have read in a. d. 438 to the. 
emperor, who received it with great approbation. 
(Socrat HiiL Eede*. ri. 6; Nicephor. xiL 6.) 
Who this Ammoniua waa, and whether the line* 
quoted in the Etymologicum Magnum («.r.Ml*«rrot) 
^m one Ammonius, and the two epigrama in the 
Anthologia Graeca (iii. 3, p. 841, ed. Jacobs), 
which bear the same name, belong to him, is un- 
certain. [L. S.] 

AMMO'NIUS or HAMMONIUS, an am- 
bassador of Ptolemaeus Auletes, who waa sent 
to Rome B. c. 5G to seek assistance against the 
Alexandrians, who had opposed the king. (Cic 
ad Fam. i. 1.) He is perhaps the same person aa 
the Ammonius who is spoken of as one of the 
agents of Cleopatra in B. c 44. [Ad Att. xv. 15.) 

AMMO'NIUS, called SACCAS {'Amuifios 
'SokkS.s, i.e. '2cucKo<p6pos), or sack-carrier, because 
his official employment was carrj-ing the com, landed 
at Alexandria, as a public porter (saccaritu, tee 
Gothofred ad Cod. Theodos. 14, tit. 22), was bom 
of Christian parents. Porphyry asserts (lib. 3, 
adv. Christian, ap. Euseb. //. JE7. vi 19), Eusebiui 
(/. c.) and St. Jerome ( Vir. BL $ 55) deny, that 
he apostatized fix)m the faith. At any rate he 
combined the study of philosophy wnth Christianity, 
and is regarded by those who maintain his apostasy 
as the founder of the later Platonic School 



AMOR. 

Among his disciples are mentioned Longinus, Ile- 
rennius, Plotinus (Amm. Mareell. xxii.), both 
Origens, and St. Heraclas. He died a. d. '243, at 
the age of more than 80 years. A life of Aristo- 
tle, prefixed to the Commentary of his namesake 
on the Categories, has been ascribed to him, but it 
is probably the work of John Philoponus. The 
Pagan disciples of Ammonius held a kind of phi- 
losophical theology. Faith was derived by in- 
ward perception ; God was threefold in essence, 
inteUU/ence, (viz. in knowledge of himself) and 
poiver (viz. in activity), the two latter notions 
being inferior to the first ; the care of the world 
was entrusted to gods of an inferior race, below 
those again were daemons, good and bad ; an 
ascetic life and theurgy led to the knowledge of 
the Infinite, who was worshipped by the vulgar, 
only in their national deities. The Alexandrian 
physics and psychology were in accordance with 
these principles. If we are to consider him a 
Christian, he was, besides his philosophy (which 
would, of course, then be represented by Origen, 
and not by the pagan Alexandrian school as above 
described) noted for his writings (Euseb. //. £. vi, 
1!)), especially on the Scriptures, (Euseb. Epist. 
ad Casjnan. a Oallandi's BiU. I'atr. vol. ii.) He 
composed a IHate^saroii, or Iluniioiiy of the Gospel*, 
which exists in the I.atin version of Victor, bishop 
of Capua (in the 6th cent., who wrongly ascribed 
it to Tatian) and of Luscinius. (See Monumeuta 
I'atr. Orthixliktoifniplia, i. pt. 2, per Oryuaeum, pp. 
661-747, fol., liasil., 1569; E Graeco versa per 
Ottomar. Lumttium. Aug. Vind. 4to., 15'23 ; and 
in Gennan, Augsb., 8vo., 13'24 ; the version of 
Victor, Moguiit., 8vo., 1524; Colon., 8vo., 1532; 
in Reg-lnip. et Consist. Monast. B. M. V. de 
Salem, 8vo., 1774 ; liiUiotk. I'atr. a Gallaud., vol 
ii. p. 531, Venet., 1766; where vid. Prolegom.) 
Besides the Hiinnony, Ammonius wrote De Com- 
sensu Moym et Jesu (Euseb. H. E. vL 19), which 
is praised by St. Jerome ( Vir. lUustr. § 55), but 
is lost. [A. J. C] 

AMNISI'ADES (*AAii/«cr«£«€» or 'Ktitfiaiifi), 
the nymphs of the river Amnisus in Crete, who 
are mentioned in connexion with the worship of 
Artemis there. (Callim. Ilyinn. in Dian. 15, 162; 
Apollon. Uhod. iii. 8«1.) [L. S.] 

AMOME'TUS ('A^ciMTToj), a Greek writer of 
uncertain date, who wrote a work on the people 
called Attaei (Plin. H. N. vi. 17. «. 20), and 
another entitled 'Avo'irA.ouj e « M«V<f>««*i. (Antigon. 
Caryst, Hist. Mir. c. 164 ; comp. Aelian, V. //. 
xvii. 6.) We ought probably to read 'Afuinitroi 
instead of 'ATpJurjTos in Schol. ad ApUl. iii. 179, 
and Eudoc. Viol. p. 248. 

AMOMPHA'RETUS {^Ktxoyjpip*Toi), com- 
mander of the Pitanatan lochus in the Spartan 
aniiy, who refused to march previously to the 
biittle of Plataea (b. c. 479) to a part of the plain 
near the city, as Pautaniits ordered, because he 
thought that such a movement was equivalent to a 
flight. He at length changed his mind when he 
had been left by the other part of the army, and 
set out to join Pausanias. He fell in the battle 
which followed, after distinguishing himself by his 
braverj', and was buried among the Irenes. 
(Herod, ix. 53 — 57, 71, 85; Plut. AristUl. 17.y 
As to the moaning of the last word see LHct, <if 
Ant. s. V. El'pTji', and Thirl wall, Hist, of Greece, iL 
p. 350. 

AMOR, the god of love and harmony. He had 



AMPELIUS. 



147 



no place in the religion of the Romans, who know 
and speak of him only from what they had heard 
from the Greeks, and translate the Greek name 
Eros into Amor. [Eros.] [L. S.] 

AMORAEUS ('A/io/kuot), king of the Uerbicae, 
in a war against whom, according to Ctesias 
{Persic, c. 6, ed. Lion), Cyrus, the first king of 
Persia, fell. 

AMORGES {'Anipyiff). 1. A king of the 
Sacae, according to Ctesias, whom Cyrus, king of 
Persia, conquered in battle, but afterwards re- 
leased, when he himself was vanquished and taken 
prisoner by Spamithra, the wife of Amorges. 
Ctesias represents Amorgea as subsequently one of 
the firmest allies of Cynu. {Persic, cc. 3, 4, 7, 8, 
ed. Lion.) 

2. A Persian commander, killed in Caria, in 
the revolt of the province, B. c. 498. (Herod, v. 
121.) 

3. The bastard son of Pissuthas, who reralted 
in Caria about B. c. 413. The Peloponnetiaiia 
assisted Tisaaphemes in putting down this revolt, 
and took lasus, a c. 412, which was held by 
Amorges. The latter fell into their hands on the 
capture of the place, and was surrendered by them 
to Tissaphemes. (Tbuc viii. 5, 19, 28, 54.) 

A.MPE'LIUS. We pMeess a iboit tnu:t bear- 
ing the title Ximm Ampelii Liber Mewiorialit. It 
was first made known by Salmasius, in 1638, from 
a MS. in the library of Juretus, and subsequent 
editors following his example have geneimily ap- 
pended it to editions ef Flonis. We cmichMB 
from iatemal evidenee (ec. 29, 47). tbat it moat 
have been oonpeeed after the nign of Trajan, and 
befera the final divkioa of tite Roman empire. 
Himerina, Amwianaa liaweHwini, and Symmaekaa 
make frequent ■eatioB ei an AmaeiiBa, who en- 
joyed tka kigii dignhiaa of — gieter nUiiiiiai, 
prooeaMl and priAttua aibi odov Vaknfiniaii 
and hk imwuirnUi ■owMenw^ and the name oeenn 
in ewmerinn with thiitoea laws of the Tbeodosian 
code. Sidoana ApoUinaris also (is. 301) eoao- 
memorates the leaniing of an Ampeliiia, bat wa 
nowhere find any allusion which woald enable «• to 
establish a connexion between the perfc : 
spoken of by theee writera and the coi: 
Liber Meniorialis. On the eontiary c..„^. ..,.» 
adduced reasons (in RkeiHittken Mtttemm for 1842, 
p. 145), which render it probable that the author 
of the Liber Memorialis lived at an earlier time 
than the above-mentioned persons. It is stated 

in c 18 of this book, " Sulla primus 

invasit imperium, tolutqm depomit.'" Now as 
Diocletian and Maximianus resigned the govern- 
ment in A. D. 305, and this event is spoken of by 
all the historians who treat of that period, the 
Liber Memorialis would seem to have been com- 
posed at least before that year. 

This work, which is dedicated to a certain Ma- 
crinus or Marinus, equally unknown with the 
author himself^ is a sort of common-place-book, 
containing within a short compass a condensed and 
meagre summary, collected from various sources, of 
the most striking objects and phaeuomena of the 
material universe and the most remarkable events 
in the history of the world, the whole classified 
systematically under proper heads, and divided 
into fifty chapters. It is of little value in any 
point of view. Nearly all the facts recorded are 
to be found elsewhere in a more detailed and satis- 
factory form, and truth is so blended with fabe- 

1.2 



un 



AMPHIARAUS. 



hood, and the blundern committi'd »o numeront, 
that it cannot Ix- iim-d willi wtfrty for rcftTciicc. 
Tim ntyli', where it ia not a mere cutalo^o of 
nanicM, in »iini)le luid tiniilfocted, hut both in the 
conHtniction of th<! M-nttmccK and in the uiu of 
pnrtii'uliir worUn, we can det<'Ct many tnicct of 
corrupted iatinity. The commiintarieii and criti- 
ciHms of Siihiiiuiiuii, Muretun, Freinthpiin, Ilein- 
BJUK, Pcrizoniuii and other ncholart will be found 
in the edition of Duki-r at the end of hit Florui. 
(iiUK. Hat. 1722 — 1744, and reprinU-d at Leip*. 
11132.) Anipeliu* wa» firitt published in a leparate 
form, with very u»cfui prolcj^omena, by T/.»cnucke 
(lieipH. I7i»:i), aiid BubwMiuently by I'ockwitz 
(Liiiu-nb. 1823), and F. A. Beck. (Leipi. 
1»2(;.) [W. R.J 

AMPIIl'ANAX {'Afupiii'a^), a king of Lycia. 
When I'rottu* was expelled from Argoa by hi» 
twin-brother Acrisius, Amphi.inox received him at 
hia court, gave him hii daughter Anteia (•ome call 
her Sthcneboca) in nuirriogc, and afterwards led 
him back to Argolis, where hi* thare in the go- 
veriinuMit and Tirynt were restored to him. Some 
tmditiotiH called this Lycinn king lobates. (Apol- 
lod. ii. 2. § 1 ; Horn. //. vi. 157, &c.) [L. S.J 

AMPHIA'NUS, a Greek tragic poet at Alex- 
andria. (SchoL ad 0*rm<m. Aral. 33*2, p. 78, ed. 
Uuhl.) 

AMPHIARArDF.S, a potronymic from Am- 
phiamus, by which Ovid (Futt. ii. 43) call* his 
son Alcmaeon. [L. S.] 

AMPIUAKA'US {'Afufiidpaos), a son of Oicles 
and llypermnestra, the daughter of Thestius. 
(Horn. Od. XV. 244 ; Apollod. i. 8. § 2 ; Hygin. 
Fab. 73 ; Pans. ii. 21. § 2.) On his father's side 
he was descended from the famous seer Melampus. 
(Paus. vi. 17. § 4.) Some traditions represented 
him as a son of Apollo by llypermnestra, which, 
however, is merely a poetical expression to de- 
scribe him as a soer and prophet. (Ilygin. Fab. 
70.) Amphiaraus is renowned in ancient story as 
n brave hero ; he is mentioned among the hunters 
of the Calydonian boar, which he is said to have 
deprived of one eye, and also as one of the Argo- 
nauts. (Apollod. i. 8. § 2, 9. § 16.) For a time 
he reigned at Argos in common with Adrastus ; 
but, in a feud which broke out between them, 
Adrastus took to flight. Afterwards, however, he 
became reconciled with Amphiaraus, and gave him 
his sister Eriphyle in marriiige [Adrastus], by 
whom Amphiaraus became the father of Alcmaeon, 
Amphilochus, Eurydice, and Demonassa. On 
marrying Eriphyle, Amphiaraus had sworn, that 
he would abide by the decision of Eriphyle on any 
point in which he should differ in opinion from 
Adrastus. When, therefore, the latter called upon 
him to join the expedition of the Seven against 
Thebes, Amphiaraus, although he foresaw its un- 
fortunate issue and at first refused to take any 
part in it, was nevertheless persuaded by his wife 
to join his friends, for Eriphyle had been enticed 
to induce her husband by the necklace of Harmonia 
which Poiyneices had given her. Amphiaraus on 
leaving Argos enjoined his sons to avenge his 
death on their heartless mother. (Apollod. iiL 6. 
§ 2; Hygin. Fab. 73; Diod. iv. 65; Horn. Od. 
XV. 247, &c.) On their way to Thebes the heroes 
instituted the Nemean games, and Amphiaraus 
■won the victory in the chariot-race and in throwing 
the discus. (Apollod. iii. 6. § 4.) During the 
war against Thebes, Amphiaraus fought bravely 



AMPIIICRATFA 

(Find. Ol. ri. 26, &c.), but still be could not aop- 
prpks hi* anger at the wholr undrrtakin(r, and 
when I'ydrus, whom he regarded as the origtnatur 
of the expedition, was t«fTrre!r wounded by Mrk- 
nippus, and Athena was hastrning to rrndft him 
iinuiurtal, Amphiaraus cut off the head of McLa- 
nippu*, who had in the mean time been slain, and 
gave Tydru* hi* braiiw to drink, and Athena, struck 
with horror at the sight, withdrew. (ApoUod. iiL 
6. i 8.) When AdiJrutiu and AanpiuMaM wen 
the only beroea wko MtfTived, tke ktler WM par- 
sued by Periclynenaa, and fled tewarde tke mm 
Ismcnius. Here the earth opened balBva be wae 
overtaken by his enemy, and nrtDowed np An»- 
phiaraaa togctber with his chariot, but Zeoa aade 
him iamoftaL (Pind. AVm. ix. 57, (M. tL 21. 
tec; Plat. ParaU. 6; Cic ii« Dhm. L 40.) 
Ilenoefoctb AnpUanuu waa worshipped m a bem, 
first at Onpoa and afterwards in all Greeea, 
(Paus. i. 34. I 2 ; Lit. xlr. 27.) He had a tanch 
tuary at Argos (Paua. ii. 23. { 2), a sUtue at 
Athens (L 8. f 3), and a beroum at Sparta. 
(Miiller, Ordtom. pp. 146, 486.) Tbe departaiw 
of Amphiaraua froaa bie beaM wbea be weal t» 
Thebes, was rrpreeited «■ tha eheat «f Cjpariaib 
(Paus. r. 17. § 4.) BwynHm 'tama aataat wadta 
of art, of which Amphiaraos is tbe subject, tee 
Griineisen, Die aU grttckiaeke Dromxe dt$ Tug'ttkm 
KabinMi m Tiibingem^ Stuttg. and Tubing. 1836. 

The prophetic power, which Amphiaraos waa 
beliered to pois ei s, was accounted ior bv bie de- 
scent from Melampus or Apollo, thoach uen waa 
also a local tradition at Phliua, aeeording to wbicb 
he had acquired them in a night which he spent in 
the prophetic house (oZxoi tuurruios) of Phliu*. 
(Paus. iL 13. § 6; comp. L 34. § 3.) He was, 
like all seers, a fisTourite of Zeus and Apollo. 
(Hom. Od. XT. 245.) Respecting the oracle of 
Amphiaraus see Diet, of Ant. s.v. Orattdum. It 
should be remarked here, that Virgil (^ca. riL671) 
mentions three Greek heroes as contemporariea of 
Aeneas, viz. Tiburtus, Catillus, and Coraa, the first 
of whom was believed to be the founder of Tibnr, 
and is described by Pliny (//. N. xvL 87) as a son 
of Amphiaraus. [L. S.] 

AMPHICLEIA ('AfupiicKtia), the daughter of 
Ariston, and the wife of the son of lamblichus, re- 
ceived instruction in philosophy from Plotinus. 
(Porphyr. vU. Plolin. c 9.) 

AMPHI'CRATES {'Afx4>ucpdrTis), king of S»- 
mos in ancient times, in whose reign the Samiana 
invaded Aegina. (Herod. iiL 59.) 

AMPHI'CRATES ('A^utpdnjt), a Greek 
sophist and rhetorician of Athens. He was a 
contemporary of Tigranes (b. c. 70), and being 
exiled (we know not for what reason) from Athens, 
he went to Seleuceia on the Tigris. The inhabitants 
of this place requested him to teach rhetoric in 
their city, but he haughtily refused, saying, that 
the vessel was too small to contain a dolphin. He 
then went to Cleopatra, the daughter of Mithri- 
dates, who was married to Tigranes, and who 
seems to have become attached to him. Amphi- 
crates soon drew suspicions upon himself, and was 
forbidden to have any intercourse with the Greeks, 
whereupon he starved himself to death. (Plut. 
LucuU. 22.) Longinus {de SuUim. p. 54, ed. Toup) 
mentions him along with Hegesias and Matris, 
and censures him for his affectation of sublimity. 
Whether he is the same person as the Amphicrates 
who wrote a work on celebrated men (''fpi ivlofwv 



AMPHIDAMAS. 
audpwv, Athen. xiii. p. 576; Diog. La^rt. ii. 101), 
is uncertain. [L. S.] 

AMPHI'CRATES, a Greek sculptor, probably 
of Athens, since he was the maker of a statue 
which the Athenians erected in honour of a cour- 
tezan, who having learnt from Harmodius and 
Aristogeiton their conspiracy against Hippias and 
Hipparchus, was tortured to death by the tyrants, 
witliout disclosing the secret. Her name was 
Leana (a lioness) : and the Athenians, unwilling 
openly to honour a courtezan, had the statue made 
in the form of a lioness; and, to point out the act 
which it was meant to commemorate, the animars 
tongue was omitted. We know nothing of the 
sculptor's age, unless we may infer from the narra- 
tive that the statue was made soon after the expul- 
sion of the Peisistratidae. (b. c 510.) In the 
passage of Pliny, which is our sole authority 
(xxxiv. 19. § 12), there is a manifest corruption of 
the text, and the reading Amphicratis is only a 
conjecture, though a most probable one, by Sillig. 
{fiutaloyus Artijicum, >. v.) [P. S.] 

AMPHICTYON {'AfxipiKTvtiy), a son of Deu- 
calion and Pyrrha (ApoUod. i. 7. § 2), or according 
to others an autochthon, who after having married 
Cranae, the daughter of Cranaus, king of Attica, 
expelled his father-in-law from his kingdom and 
usurped his throne. He ruled for twelve years, 
and was then in turn expelled by Erichthonius. 
(Apollod. iii. 14. § 5, &c.; Paus. L 2. § 5.) Ac- 
cording to Eustathius (atl Horn. p. 277), he was 
married to ChthonopiUra, by whom he had a son, 
Physcus, the father of Locrus. According to 
Stephaiuis Byzantius (». v. ♦uo'koi), however, 
Aetolus was a son and Physcus a grandson of 
Amphictyon. lie was believed to have b«ieu the 
first who introduced the custom of mixing wine 
with water, and to have dedicated two altar* to 
Dionysus Orthos and the nymphs. (Eustath. €ui 
Horn. p. 1815.) Dionysius of Halicaniassus (iv. 
25), who calls him a son of Hellen, Pausauias (x. 
8. § 1), and others, regard Amphictyon as the 
founder of the amphictyony of Thermopylae, and 
in consequence of this belief a sanctuary of Am- 
phictyon was built in the village of Anthela on 
the Asopus, which was the most ancient place of 
meeting of this amphictyony. (Herod, vii. 200.) 
But this belief is without any foundation, and 
arose from the ancients assigning the establishment 
of their institutions to some mythical hero. (Did. 
of Ant. s. V. Amphycticm*.) [L. S.] 

AMPHICTY'ONIS i^KtupucrvovU), a sunuune 
of Demeter, derived from Anthela, where the wat 
worshipped under this name, because it was the 
place of meeting for the amphictyons of Thermo- 
pylae, and because sacritices were olTored to her at 
the opening of every meeting. (Herod, vii. 200 ; 
Strab. ix. p. 429.) [L. S.] 

AMPH1'DAM.\S (•A/ii<pi5oMaj). 1. A son of 
Lycurgus and Cleophile, and father of Antimache, 
who married Eurystheus. (Apollod. iiL 9. § 2.) 
According to Pausanias (viiL 4. § 6) and ApoUo- 
nius Rhodius (i. 163) he was a son of Aleus, and 
consequently a brother of Lycurgus, Cepheus, and 
Auge, and took part in the expedition of the 
Argonauts. (Hygin. Fab. 14.) 

2. A king of Chalcis in Euboea, after whose 
death his sons celebrated funeral games, in which 
Hesiod won the prize in a poetical contest. It 
consisted of a golden tripod, which he dedicated 
to the Muses of Helicon. (Hes. Op. et D. 654, &c.) 



AMPHILOCHUS. 



149 



3. The father of Clysonymus, whom Patroclus 
killed when yet a child, (Horn. //. xxiii. 87 ; 
Apollod. iiL 13. § 8.) Other mythical personages 
of this name occur in Apollod. ii. 5. § 11 ; Hygin. 
Fab. 14 ; Horn. //. x. 266, &c. [L. S.] 

AMPHl'DAMAS or AMPHI'DAMUS ('A/*- 
^tSa/xai, ' kfupL^oifUif), general of the Eleans in 
a c 218, was taken prisoner by Philip, king of 
Macedonia, and carried to OljTnpia, but was set at 
liberty on his undertaking to bring over his coun- 
trymen to Philip's side. But not succeeding iu 
his attempt, he went back to Philip, and is spoken 
of as defending Aratus against the chai:gea of 
Apelles. (Polyb. iv. 75, 84, 86.) 

AMPHI'DICUS ("A^Jiitoj), a Thehan who. 
in the war of the Seyen against hi* native city, 
slew Parthenopaea*. (Apollod. iiL 6. § 8.) Ac- 
cording to Euripides (/'Wii. 1156), however, it 
was Periclymenu* who killed Parthenopaeus. 
Pausanias (ix. 18. § 4) call* him Asphu^iicus, 
whence some critics wish to introduce the same 
name in ApoUodoru*. [Ij. S.] 

AMPHI'ETES or AMPHIE'TERUS ('A/*- 
^enjj), a surname of Dionysus. (Orph. J/ymn. 
52. 1, 51. 10.) It i* believed that at Athens, 
where the Dionysiac festival* were held annually, 
the name signified yearly, while at Thebe*, where 
they were celebrated every third yesir, it was in- 
terpretated to be synonynjous with rpirr^s. [L.S.] 

AMPHIG YEEIS ('AiKptyvn*is), lame or limp- 
ing on both feet, a Mifname of Uephaeatua, given 
him becauae Zeu threw hia from Olynpas npoa 
the earth for haying wished to mpptwt Hera. 
(Horn. //. L 599; comp>. Apollod. L 3. S &■) 
[HKPHAKSTU&] (L.S.J 

AMPHl'LOCHUS {'AfuplXoxos), a aon of 
Amphiaraus and Eriphyk, and brother of Ak- 
inaeon. (ApoUod. iiL 7. 1 2; Hen. Od. xv. 248.) 
When hu fiUher went againat Thebe*, Amphi- 
lochu* waa, aeeocding to PMuaaiaa (y. 17. S 4), 
yet an infimt, althon^ ten jmn afterwards h« ia 
mentioned a* one of the Epigoni, and arr w ding to 
some tradition* assisted hi* brother in the murder 
of hi* mother. [Alcmakun.] He i* also men- 
tiooed among the *ttitor* of Helen, and aa having 
taken part in the Trojan war. Ob the ntom 
from thi* expedition he together with Mopmia, 
who wa* like himself a aeer, fiiaaifed the town of 
Malloe in Cilicia. Hence he proceeded to hia 
native ^aoe, Argoa. Bat aa he wa* not satisfied 
with the atate ut affiurs there, he returned to 
Mallo*. When Mopaaa rafnaed to allow him any 
share in the goyenuMSt of their common colony, 
the two seer* fo«ight a nngie eombat in which both 
were killed. This combat was described by some 
as having arisen out of a dbpute about their pro- 
phetic powers. Their tombs, which were placed 
in such a manner that the one could not be leen 
from the other, existed as late as the time of 
Strabo, near mount Margasa, not far from Py ra- 
mus. (Strab. xiv. p. 675 ; Lycophron, 439, with 
the SchoL) According to other traditions (Strab. 
xiv. p. 642), Amphilochus and Calchas, on their 
return from Troy, went on foot to the celebrated 
grove of the Clarian Apollo near Colophon. In 
some accounts he was said to have been killed by 
Apollo. (Hes. ap. Utrab. xiv. p. 676.) According 
to Thucydides (ii. 68) Amphilochus returned from 
Troy to Argos, but being dissatisfied there, he 
emigrated and founded Argos Amphilochium on 
the Ambracian gulf. Other accounts, however, 



150 AMI'HILOCHIUS. 

niieribA tho foundation of this town to Alcmacon 
(Slrub. vii. p. 'S'l(i), or to Am|)liii()cliii» the win of 
Ali'inncon. (A]K)il()(l. iii. 7. 8 7.) IkfiiiK a »on of 
th(! iiccr Amphiuriiuit, AmphiicK'hui wu* lilccwite 
bclifvod to Ik! endowi"! with prophetic jxiweri ; 
and at Malloi in Cilicia there wan an oracio of 
Aiiiphiiochun, which in the time of I'uiiiuiniait (i. 
34. 8 '2) wait regarded as tho most truthful of all. 
{Diet. 1)/ Ant. p. f)73.) JIo wiw wor»liii)[>c(l to- 
f(«thrr with iiiit father at Uropus ; at Athens he 
had an alt^ir, and at Sparta a bcroam. (I'aut. L 
34. § -2, iii. 1.5. §0.) 

There are two other mythical personages of this 
name, one a grandson of our Amphilochus ( ApoUod. 
iii. 7. § 7), and the other a son of Dryoi. (Parthcn. 
AVo^ -27.) [L. S.] 

AMI'III'LOCIIUS, of Athens, a writer on 
agriculture mentioned by Varro (//. H. i. 1) and 
Columella (i. 1 ). Pliny also speaks of a work of 
his " Do Mcdica ct Cytiso." (//. iV. xtuL 16. 
B. 4.1) 

AMPIIILO'CIIIUS CAfupiXSxMs), metropo- 
Ittsm of CvzK ('8 in the middle of the ninth oen- 
turj', to whom Photius, the ptriarch of Constanti- 
nople, wrote screral letters, and whose answers 
are still extant in manuscript. (Fabric JJiU. Graec. 
viii. p. :Jlf2.) 

AMPIIILO'CIIIUS, ST., bishop of Iconium, 
the friend of St. Basil and StUregory of Nasianzua, 
was bom at Caesareia, and began life aa a pleader, 
(liasnage, AnmtL Politic. Ecel. iii. p. 145, A.; and 
Gallundii liiUiuth. Pair. vol. vi. Prolegom. ; Ejntt. 
S. Greg. Nax. 9 [1.59]. Paris. 1840.) He lived 
in retirement with his father at Ozizalis in Cappa- 
docia, till he was summoned to preside over the 
see of Iconium in Lycaonia, or Pisidia 2***, a. d. 
373-4. Sl Basil's Congratulatory Kpistio on the 
occasion is extant. {Ep. 393, al. 161, vol. iii. p. 
251, cd. Ikned.) He soon after paid St. Basil a 
visit, and persuaded him to undertake his work 
"On the Holy (Jhost" (vol. iiL p. 1), which he 
finished a. d. 375-6. St. Busirs Canonical Epistle* 
are addressed to St Amphilochius (/. c. pp. 268, 
290, 3-24, written a. d. 374, 37.5). The hitter had 
received St. Basil's promised book on the Divinity 
of the Holy Ghost, when in a. d. 377 he sent a 
synodical letter (extant, ap. Mansi's Concilia, vol. 
iii. p. 505) to certain bishops, probably of Lycia, 
infected with, or in danger of, Macedonianism. 
The Arian persecution of the church ceased on the 
death of Valens (a. d. 378), and in 381, Amphi- 
lochius was present at the Oecumenical Council of 
Constantinople. While there, he signed, as a wit- 
ness, St. Gregory Nazianzen's will {0pp. S. Greg. 
p. 204, A. B.), and he was nominated with Optimus 
of Antioch in Pisidia as the centre of catholic com- 
munion in the diocese of Asia. In a. d. 383, he 
obtained from Theodosius a prohibition of Arian 
assemblies, practically exhibiting the slight other- 
wise put ou the Son of God by a contemptuous 
treatment of the young Arcadius. (Fleury's Ekcl. 
Hist, xviii. c. 27.) This same year he called a 
council at Side in Pamphylia, and condemned the 
Massalian heretics, who made the whole of religion 
consist in prayer. (Theodt. Haeret. Fah. iv. 11.) 
In a. d. 394 he was at the Council of Constanti- 
nople [see Ammon of Hadrianople], which con- 
finned Bagadius in the see of Bostra. This is 
the last we hear of him. He died before the per- 
secution of St. Chrysostora, probably A. d. 395, 
and he is commemorated on Nov. 23rd. His re- 



AMPIIIMKDOX. 

maiim (in (\ ' ' ■ " • r, 

with tliiiiM' ' 

Crete-, lol. 1' 

to bini, Miinn at Ic-u*t .i 

gives yirc aiu'iiiK hm wdi 

as is the l.if,- kJ Si. li.itil. 1 i,*u .. aUi.., 

him an i;iinliir fxM-ni of .'<.'!.'! virwk fm ii 

to th' ■; 

St.O 

ThciKl ........... 

son of the general '1 ruj 
master, Valens nt l<;i 
hindi adds t' 
(6th cent) 1 



mbofia, 

lr«as ol 

:i 



p. 4!i7, die, and I'rolty. p. 1*2;. ii 
Holy (jbost it l'"t. (St. Jerome, </• > / 

133;Fabri' ' ' . vol. viii. pp. o7.j ZVA.) 

St (Jn!gor\ ^tates, that ** by pmyen, 

adoration oi in<' ■ un i\, and sacrifices, he sulxlued 
the pain of diseases." (('arm. ad Vilat. voL ii. pp. 
1030, V. 244.) The 9th, 2:>— 2»th, «2wl, 17ls^ 
and 184tb Epistlea of 8t. Oregory are addreasc-4 
to hira. [A. J. C] 

AMPHILCCHIUg, biduip of Side in Pam. 
pbylia, who waa pnaant at tb* eoandl of Rphewu, 
in which Ncatorim wa cnndwimod, A. Bw 421, aod 
who W.-U probably tke sathor of ttamm hamuimt 
that go under tho name of AaphDodu— of leo- 
nium. (Phot Cod. 52, p. 13, a., Corf. 230, p. 281, 
a., ed. Itekk. ; I^bbeus, de Script Ecd. voL L p. 63.) 

AMPHl'LYTUS {' KfxipiKvrot), a celebrau.d 
seer in the time of Peisistratus. Herodotus (i. 62) 
calls him an Acamanian, but Plato( Tlitag. p.l24,d) 
and Clemens Alexandriuus {.Strom. L p. 333) qMak 
of him aa an Athenian. He may have been ori* 
ginally an Acamanian, and perhaps received tfaa 
franchise at Athens from Peisistratus. This sup- 
position removes the necessity of Valckenaer's 
emendation. {Ad Herod. I. c.) 

AMPHl'MACHUS ('A^^xm)- 1. A son 
of Cteatus and Theronice, and grandson of Actor 
or of Poseidon. He is mentioned among the suit- 
ors of Helen, and was one of the four chiefs who 
led the Epeians against T